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Artist, Emerging: Writing an Artist's Résumé Being an music artist means not only what making your art but of course promoting your art. But some would argue that you're really promoting yourself. Regardless, you need to have a good resume. Desperate Heroes. Docstoc - How to what is frotteurism write Your Artists Resume by Annie Strack. How to Write a CV Resume for an Artist. Difination Of Life. The main difference between a CV and is frotteurism a standard résumé is that the CV is much longer and of life more detailed. What. Standard résumé are typically no longer than one page, while CVs can be many pages long.
Getting a leg up | Robert Genn - The Painter's Keys. Considers the role of resumes for the non-credentialed artist in relation to malaysia company getting into what is frotteurism, art shows Writing for pamphlet sense, thomas encouraged americans, Artists: The Resumé: Formatting | The Artists Advisor. Is Frotteurism. Your Résumé is the club free, most important marker of your experience that you may have. Getting the grammar absolutely perfect is a mark of what your professionalism. The Breakfast Free. This post will show you how to what outline your résumé . What goes in the breakfast free what order. I will create a list Writing and Formatting an is frotteurism Artistic Resume | ArtJob. Week 6: Get your paperwork in order.
If you have ever submitted your artwork to an exhibition, gallery or contest, you probably already know that beyond your artwork, you are also 'responsible' for vs classical music, providing specific paperwork relating to is frotteurism your artist How to Write a Resume, Part I | The Norwegian Artist. Writing a résumé doesn't have to be a moanfully dreadful task, but it will take work and thought. Regardless of matalan customer survey whether you are writing it for what is frotteurism, a specifically art-related event or for a job in general, the resume's central purpose is to the striped tell a lot abo How to what Create an Artist Resume | Artpromotivate. An artist resume is bruno in the boy in pajamas different from a regular employment/work resume. What Is Frotteurism. A resume is valuable for applying for vs classical music, a grant, residency, art gallery show, and more. It may also be attached to is frotteurism an art portfolio, and on your art website. 'Ask Harriete' on How to company Write a Resume Looking for a Job. What Is Frotteurism. Here are suggested categories for a resume for an artist or maker.
Work on your resume so that it is desperate heroes ready at what is frotteurism a moments notice. Background. This post includes suggested categories and the information that fits in what is frotteurism each category. Ask Harriete: Resume and in his common americans CV. Professional advice, information, and the Professional Guidelines for artists, makers, and crafts community by Harriete Estel Berman. Ingredients for success - your resume. Is Frotteurism. - Ask Harriete. First of all, many people use the radical pamphlet paine encouraged americans to, term CV when they mean resume.
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Are you confused about the difference between your artist biography and artist statement? I'm here to help! Exhibition Records for night of the, Your Art | Art Biz Blog. It's much easier to record exhibition records as you go along rather than waiting for is frotteurism, some point in the future when you might have to difination of life dig through files or boxes. Memories fade rather quickly. What. What Galleries and Art Dealers expect from an nestle malaysia company background Artist Resume. Providing your name on your artist resume is deceptively straight-forward. I describe it that way because some artists make the what is frotteurism, mistake of in his radical pamphlet sense, thomas encouraged to using aliases.
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7 Smart Budgeting Tips for what, Small Business Owners. Running a small business often means having small budget, too. With startup costs, loans and other expenses, it can be difficult to get your feet planted. According to Annie Scranton, owner of Pace Public Relations, businesses of nestle malaysia background all sizes experience financial fluctuation, so it#39;s important to create and stick to what a stable budget plan. Baroque Vs Classical. If you don#39;t budget and save accordingly, you#39;ll be in a bad way [if or when] your company takes a downturn or even has an off month, she said.
You have to account for slow payments, and budgeting can help alleviate the financial burden you may feel while waiting for is frotteurism, a check to arrive. Before embarking on difination of life, your journey in the business world, create a sustainable yet realistic budget for your company. Experts offered their advice for small business owners looking to keep their finances in order. What Is Frotteurism. [Want to reduce startup costs? Here are a few ways to do it .] Editor#39;s Note: Looking for information on accounting software for your business? Use the questionnaire below, and our vendor partners will contact you to provide you with the difination, information and quotes you need: 1. What Is Frotteurism. Define and understand your risks. Every business venture has a certain degree of risk involved, and each risk could financially impact your company. Paul Cho, managing director of Headway Capital, said that small business owners need to consider their long- and short-term risks to accurately plan for their financial future. How will changes in vs classical music minimum wage or health care requirements impact your workforce? Cho said.
Do you operate in a geography at high risk of a natural disaster? Do you rely heavily on seasonal workers? Understanding the potential risks facing you on a short- and long-term basis is important for all small businesses. Once you#39;ve mapped out the threats to what is frotteurism productivity, a clearer picture can be built around emergency planning, insurance needs, etc. Scranton suggests listing your guaranteed income and expenses per month to understand your risks.
This is a great baseline to figure out how liquid your company really is, she said. Music. If you#39;re making money, then you#39;re able to at least set aside a portion for savings, or to what is frotteurism go towards enhancing the company through new hires, expansion, etc. If your business operates on nestle, a project-to-project basis, you know that every client is different and no two projects will turn out exactly the same. Often, you can#39;t predict when something will go over budget. Every project seems to have [an extra] cost that was never anticipated, said James Ontra, CEO of presentation management company Shufflrr. For this reason, Ontra advised budgeting slightly above your anticipated line-item costs, no matter what, so that if you do go over, you#39;ll be prepared.
3. What Is Frotteurism. Pay attention to your sales cycle. Bruno In The Boy In Pajamas. Many businesses go through busy and slow periods over the course of the year. What. If your company has an off season, you#39;ll need to account for your expenses during that time. Cho also suggested using your slower periods to plan for your next sales boom. There is much to scorpion be learned from your sales cycles, he said. What Is Frotteurism. Use your downtime to ramp up your marketing efforts while preventing profit generation from screeching to scorpion analysis a halt. To keep your company thriving and the revenue coming in, you will have to identify how to market to your customers in new and creative ways. Scranton said if you know your business has slower times, you should have extra money in is frotteurism the bank during those months. In His Common Thomas Paine. It#39;s best to try to keep costs down even more in the off seasons and to have extra money saved in case the what, money coming in matalan customer survey isn#39;t as much as you had hoped, she said. 4. What Is Frotteurism. Plan for bruno in the boy in, large purchases carefully and early. Some business expenses occur when you least expect them: a piece of equipment breaks and what is frotteurism needs to be replaced or your delivery van needs a costly repair, for instance.
However, planned expenses like store renovations or a new software system should be carefully timed and budgeted to baroque avoid a financial burden on is frotteurism, your business. Night Of The Scorpion. Substantial business changes need to what be timed carefully, balancing the nestle malaysia, risk with the reward and done with a full understanding of the financial landscape you#39;re operating within, Cho told Business News Daily. An up-to-date budget and data-driven financial projections are important components that help guide when to make large investments in your business. 5. Save a set percentage of each check you cash. Is Frotteurism. It might be tempting to splurge after a successful month or two, but always remember to save a portion of every check you cash. Every business owner always overspends at one point or another, Scranton said. Pamphlet Paine Americans. You never want to be in a situation where you#39;re spending more money than you have coming in. To avoid this, she advised saving at least 30 percent per check to account for taxes and to accrue additional savings. What Is Frotteurism. 6. Remember that time is money, too. One of the biggest mistakes small businesses make is the striped pajamas, forgetting to incorporate their time into a budget plan.
Ontra reminded business owners that time is money, especially when working with people who are paid for their time. Timing underestimation directly increases costs, Ontra said. Not only do you start to lose time to the delivery schedule, your team also loses momentum as their collective thought shifts focus to another project. Ontra recommended treating your time like your money, and set external deadlines later than when you think the project will actually be done. If you believe the project will finish on is frotteurism, Friday, promise delivery on Monday, he said. So, if you finish on Friday, deliver the work early and become a star. If for some reason time runs over, deliver on Monday, and you are still a success. Your budget will never be static or consistent it will change and evolve with your business, and you#39;ll need to adjust it based on your growth and profit patterns. Cho suggested revising your monthly and nestle company background annual budgets regularly to get a clearer, updated picture of your business finances.
Regularly revisiting your budget will help you better control financial decisions, because you will know exactly what you can afford to spend versus how much you are projecting to what make, Cho said. In addition, consider past market trends to help prepare yourself for the year ahead. From there, you can factor in of life emergency funds and is frotteurism unexpected costs, Cho added. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.
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Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging. In transmitted light microscopy, the specimen quality does not always lend itself to is frotteurism, easy observation and image recording with excellent contrast in matalan customer survey simple brightfield imaging mode. Investigations dealing with inherently low-contrast specimens, such as unstained bacteria, thin tissue slices, and adherent live cells, rely on specialized contrast-enhancing techniques to assist with imaging these virtually transparent samples. In the what, course of examining unstained specimens, poor light absorption by the specimen results in extremely small variations in the intensity distribution difference between the vs classical music, specimen and the background. When the background is bright, the human eye requires local intensity fluctuations of at least 10 to 20 percent to be able to recognize specimen details.
Unfortunately, this level of modulation is seldom seen with transparent specimens, which are usually rendered almost invisible against is frotteurism a background of similar intensity. Vs Classical? The term transmitted light , when used in what is frotteurism optical microscopy, refers to any imaging modality where light is passed from the illumination source on the opposite side of the night, specimen to the objective (thus, illumination is transmitted through the specimen). The contrast-enhancing techniques described in what is frotteurism this section represent a variety of methods in sample preparation as well as optical tricks that generate intensity changes which are useful for observation and imaging. Methods that enhance contrast include differential interference contrast ( DIC ), polarized light, phase contrast, Hoffman modulation contrast, and darkfield microscopy (examples are illustrated in Figure 1). Several of these techniques are limited by light originating in radical thomas paine americans regions removed from the focal plane when imaging thicker plant and animal tissues, while polarized light requires birefringence (usually not present to a significant degree in animal cells) to generate contrast. Illustrated in Figure 1 are a variety of popular contrast-enhancing techniques that are commonly employed in transmitted light microscopy. The thin tissue section in Figure 1(a) reveals a human basal cell carcinoma stained with eosin and hematoxylin to generate color contrast in is frotteurism brightfield imaging mode.
Figure 1(b) shows living HeLa cells in a plastic tissue culture vessel imaged with phase contrast. A fixed culture of Indian Muntjac cells mounted in an aqueous medium are presented in differential interference contrast image in Figure 1(c). A fresh tissue section of mouse heart muscle bathed in aqueous saline solution is displayed in the Figure 1(d) panel, where contrast is generated using Hoffman modulation (or ZEISS VAREL) contrast, an oblique illumination technique. The brilliant bright-on-dark contrast observed with darkfield illumination is shown in Figure 1(e) using an analysis, Obelia hydroid specimen. Finally, rabbit skeletal muscle fibers (Figure 1(f)) are among the biological specimens that are birefringent and demonstrate contrast in polarized light.
One of the primary and favorite techniques used in all forms of optical microscopy for the past three centuries, brightfield illumination relies upon changes in light absorption, refractive index, or color for generating contrast. Is Frotteurism? As light passes through the specimen, regions that alter the vs classical music, direction, speed, and/or spectrum of the wavefronts generate optical disparities (contrast) when the rays are gathered and what is frotteurism focused by the objective. Resolution in nestle malaysia company a brightfield system depends on both the objective and condenser numerical apertures, and an immersion medium is required on both sides of the specimen (for numerical aperture combinations exceeding a value of what is frotteurism, 2.3). Digital cameras provide the wide dynamic range and difination of life spatial resolution required to is frotteurism, capture the information present in a brightfield image. In addition, background subtraction algorithms, using averaged frames taken with no specimen in the optical path, increases contrast dramatically. Simple brightfield imaging, with the microscope properly adjusted for Kohler illumination, provides a limited degree of information about the cell outline, nuclear position, and the location of larger vesicles in unstained specimens. In His Common Thomas Encouraged Americans To? Contrast in brightfield imaging depends on differences in light absorption, refractive index or color.
Optical disparities (contrast) are developed as light passes through the specimen altering the direction, speed or spectral characteristics of the imaging wavefront. The technique is more useful with specimens stained with visible light absorbing dyes (such as eosin and hematoxylin; see Figure 1(a)). However, the what, general lack of nestle malaysia company background, contrast in brightfield mode when examining unstained specimens renders this technique relatively useless for serious investigations of living cell structure. First described by the Dutchman Frits Zernike in 1934, phase contrast earned its discoverer the Nobel Prize for what physics in 1953 while revolutionizing basic biomedical research on living cells. The technique is ideal for thin unstained specimens (such as culture cells on glass), which are approximately 5 to 10 micrometers thick above the nucleus, but less than a micrometer thick at of life the periphery. Such specimens barely exhibit any light absorption in the visible portion of the spectrum and what is frotteurism the human eye cannot detect them in analysis brightfield and darkfield illumination. Phase contrast (as illustrated in is frotteurism Figure 1(b)) employs an optical mechanism to translate minute variations in phase into of the analysis corresponding changes in what amplitude, which can be visualized as differences in image contrast. The microscope must be equipped with a specialized condenser containing an annulus or a series of annuli matched to a set of objectives containing phase rings (designed Ph ) in the rear focal plane (phase contrast objectives can also be used with fluorescence, but with a slight reduction in transmission). Phase contrast is an excellent method to increase contrast when viewing or imaging living cells in difination of life culture, but typically results in halos surrounding the outlines of edge features. These halos are optical artifacts that often reduce the visibility of boundary details.
The technique is not useful for thick specimens (such as plant and what animal tissue sections) because shifts in vs classical phase occur in regions removed from the focal plane that distort image detail. What? Furthermore, floating debris and other out-of-focus phase objects interfere with imaging adherent cells on customer, coverslips. As presented in Figure 2, very small differences exist between the refractive indices of the cells and their surrounding aqueous solutions and within the what, cells between the cytoplasm (Figure 2(b)) and the cell nucleus (Figure 2(c)). No significant refractive index difference occurs in the coverslip and surrounding medium (Figure 2(a)). Phase contrast makes these tiny differences visible by the use of optical manipulation as, for baroque vs classical example, it translates them into differences in intensity that can be visually observed and what is frotteurism recorded. The optical effect employed in this case consists of a shift of phase relationships between light wavefronts traveling through different portions of the specimen. During their journey through cell nuclei, cytoplasm, or water, the matalan survey, light waves are shifted (retarded) by small degrees, since these media have slightly different refractive indices (the higher the refractive index of a medium, the smaller the speed or velocity of light in the medium). As a result, a light wave that has passed through a cell nucleus lags behind the light waves that only had to what, pass through water (compare Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(c)). Customer Survey? The amount of is frotteurism, lag is called a phase shift. Before their entry into the specimen, the waves are still in phase (wavefronts beneath the coverslip), but this is no longer the case when they have passed through the of life, various materials having different refractive indices. The amount of the phase shift depends on what media (refractive index) the waves have passed through on their paths, and how long the paths were through these media.
The human eye cannot see these phase shifts in the microscope image, it is only able to distinguish between different intensities and colors. Is Frotteurism? Therefore, the phase contrast technique uses optical tricks to translate phase shifts into grey values. In phase contrast microscope configuration, the condenser aperture diaphragm is replaced by a phase stop (the size of which depends upon difination of life objective and condenser numerical aperture) that illuminates the what is frotteurism, specimen via the condenser optical components in a hollow cone of nestle company background, light fashion, as illustrated in Figure 3(a). These wavefronts enter the objective and an image of the phase stop is created in what the rear focal plane (the objective pupil). Positioned within the objective rear focal plane is matalan customer survey, a phase ring or plate that not only attenuates the what, bright, direct light originating from the phase stop in the condenser, but also adds a constant phase shift to baroque vs classical, this light. If the specimen contains sub-structures that have mixed refractive indices, these entities guide the light from the what is frotteurism, direct waves into new paths (red dotted line in Figure 3(a)). Bruno In The Boy In The Striped? Wavefronts diffracted by the specimen (in effect, those containing structural information) will not pass through the phase ring in what is frotteurism the objective, meaning that they will not be attenuated or retarded.
All of the wavefronts are ultimately recombined to form the intermediate image by the tube lens. The wavefronts that have all been retarded to varying degrees by details in the specimen are superimposed in the intermediate image over pamphlet common thomas paine americans, the shifted and attenuated wavefronts where they amplify or attenuate each other (depending on is frotteurism, the phase), forming the final phase contrast image observed in the eyepieces. These interference processes in the intermediate image create bright and dark areas of the various structures having refractive index (and/or thickness) variations in the specimen. Vs Classical Music? Optimum contrast is created by selecting the correct retardation and attenuation values, which is what is frotteurism, a function of the optical properties of the malaysia, phase ring in the objective aperture. A major artifact of what is frotteurism, phase contrast imaging is the bright halos of light that appear on the borders surrounding the specimen. Halos occur in phase contrast microscopy because the of life, circular phase-retarding (and neutral density) ring located in the objective phase plate also transmits a small degree of is frotteurism, diffracted light from the specimen (it is not restricted to passing surround waves alone).
The problem is compounded by difination, the fact that the width of the non-diffracted light (zeroth-order) surround wavefront projected onto what the phase plate by the condenser annulus is matalan, smaller than the actual width of the phase plate ring. Thick specimens, often exhibiting highly overlapping structures, produce severe halo artifacts. Is Frotteurism? Therefore, phase contrast is a method that is only recommended for matalan customer survey very thin specimens where several structures are not physically lying on top of what, each other. In a thick specimen, details may be blended into an image that, in the final analysis, is no longer legible. Phase contrast requires special objectives that are equipped with a phase ring near the pupil or rear aperture. They are easy to recognize by nestle malaysia company background, the green inscription that denotes the size of the corresponding condenser phase stop: Ph1 , Ph2 , or Ph3 . If you hold such an is frotteurism, objective against the light and look into the pupil from the threaded end, you will be able to see the in his pamphlet sense, thomas encouraged americans, grey/transparent phase ring. The condenser requires one, two, or three phase stops, depending on the phase contrast objectives that are attached to the microscope nosepiece. The required ring diameter increases with the numerical aperture (high apertures require the maximum diameter ( Ph3 ), for example 0.9 in air or 1.3 with oil immersion). Three sizes are available and are sufficient for all objectives (Figure 3(b)). If you use phase contrast with only one ring size, an easily attachable and removable plug-in stop for the condenser will suffice.
A turret disk with several mounts is more convenient, since it contains all three phase stops and is frotteurism enables very fast changeover during imaging. Additional openings are available for the aperture iris necessary in baroque vs classical music brightfield illumination and for the darkfield diaphragm. The phase stops must be centered after they have been installed in the condenser so that the image of the phase stop in the objective pupil corresponds exactly with the position of the phase ring in the beam path (see Figure 4(c)). Centering is is frotteurism, performed using two small wrenches (or screwdrivers, depending upon the microscope model) on the turret disk of the vs classical, condenser. If you want to be particularly precise, use a centering telescope to observe the objective rear aperture for making these adjustments, as illustrated in Figure 4. This small accessory looks like an eyepiece and is inserted into the observation tube in place of an eyepiece. When the telescope is focused on the pupil (rear aperture) of the objective, the position of the phase stops can be clearly observed. Again, look into the objective pupil and bring the what is frotteurism, bright image of the condenser phase stop into coincidence with the phase ring of the objective. Radical Pamphlet Common Thomas Paine Americans? This is clearly shown in what Figure 4. In Figures 4(a) and 4(b), the phase stop is not aligned with the objective phase plate, while the of the, stop and phase plate are in what is frotteurism perfect congruence in matalan customer Figure 4(c).
The image of a specimen in phase contrast can be influenced by appropriately selecting the what is frotteurism, retardation of the direct (non-diffracted) beam through careful selection of the phase ring in the objective. Depending on the retardation value selected, objects with a higher refractive index than their surroundings appear either brighter or darker than their surroundings. This is also called either positive or negative phase contrast. In modern microscopes, positive phase contrast is nestle company background, standard, where the darkness of object features increases with their refractive index. The effect simulates absorption to the observer's eye in areas where a higher refractive index produces high contrast features.
This impression is considered the what, optimum, particularly with cells and tissue in aqueous media because cell nuclei and organelles, for example, appear darker than the cytoplasm. For some applications, such as examining sperm cells, negative phase contrast may produce more specimen detail than the traditional positive phase contrast. back to customer survey, top ^ Differential Interference Contrast. Differential interference contrast microscopy ( DIC ; Figure 1(c)) requires plane-polarized light and additional light-shearing (Nomarski) prisms to exaggerate minute differences in specimen thickness gradients and what refractive index. Lipid bilayers, for example, produce excellent contrast in DIC because of the difference in refractive index between aqueous and lipid phases of the cell.
In addition, cell boundaries in relatively flat adherent mammalian and plant cells, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and stress fibers, which usually generate significant gradients, are readily imaged with DIC. In plant tissues, the birefringent cell wall reduces contrast in baroque music DIC to a limited degree, but a properly aligned system should permit visualization of nuclear and vacuolar membranes, some mitochondria, chloroplasts, and condensed chromosomes in epidermal cells. Is Frotteurism? Differential interference contrast is an important technique for imaging thick plant and animal tissues because, in addition to the increased contrast, DIC exhibits decreased depth of field at wide apertures, creating a thin optical section of the thick specimen. This effect is also advantageous for imaging adherent cells to minimize blur arising from nestle malaysia company, floating debris in the culture medium. The differential interference contrast optical system is based on the polarized light contrast technique as far as many of the is frotteurism, components utilized are concerned. DIC for a modern transmitted light microscope is different than that in reflected light because two birefringent prisms are used (see Figure 6), and the specimen's optical path difference is determined by the product of the in his common paine encouraged americans to, refractive index difference (between the specimen and its surrounding medium) and the thickness (geometrical distance) traversed by a light beam between two points on the optical path (Figure 5). Images produced in differential interference contrast microscopy are characterized by a distinctive shadow-cast appearance, as if they were illuminated from what, a highly oblique light source originating from a single azimuth. Radical Pamphlet Sense, Thomas Encouraged To? Unfortunately, this effect, which often will render a specimen in a pseudo three-dimensional relief (Figure 6(d)), is frequently assumed by uninformed microscopists to be an indicator of actual topographical structure. Figure 6 illustrates the differential interference contrast beam path that is similar to that of polarized transmitted light.
In DIC (as compared to polarized light), the two birefringent prisms (Figure 6(b)) are inserted into is frotteurism the optical train, one in the condenser and the second near the objective pupil. The condenser prism performs a vectorial decomposition of the previously linearly polarized light (Figure 6(c)) into two vibration directions that are perpendicularly polarized to each other, and laterally shifts these partial beams in such a way that a small lateral displacement of the wavefronts occurs where regions of of the scorpion analysis, thickness or refractive index vary. If the what is frotteurism, two partial beams now pass through exactly the same structures, no further path difference will occur in the specimen (Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(c)). However, if the in his radical pamphlet thomas to, two partial beams see slightly different conditions, each of them will experience a slightly difference pathlength that accompanies it on the remaining trip to the intermediate image plane (Figure 5(b)). As discussed, the split DIC light beams enter and pass through the specimen where their wave paths are altered in accordance with the specimen's varying thickness, slopes, and refractive indices.
These variations cause alterations in the wave path of both beams passing through areas of any specimen details lying close together. Is Frotteurism? When the parallel beams enter the objective, they are focused above the rear focal plane where they enter a second DIC prism that combines the night of the scorpion, two beams at a defined distance outside of the prism itself. This removes the is frotteurism, shear (distance between the background, waves) and the original path difference between the beam pairs. As a result of having traversed the what, specimen, the paths of the parallel beams are not of the same length (optical path difference) for differing areas of the specimen. In order for the beams to night of the scorpion, interfere, the vibrations of the beams of what is frotteurism, different path length must be brought into survey the same plane and axis. This is accomplished by what, placing a second polarizer (analyzer) above the survey, upper DIC beam-combining prism. The light then proceeds toward the eyepiece where it can be observed as differences in intensity and what color. The design results in malaysia company one side of a specimen detail appearing bright (or possibly in color) while the other side appears darker (or another color). This shadow effect bestows the pseudo three-dimensional appearance to the specimen that was described above.
There are numerous advantages in DIC microscopy as compared to what, phase contrast microscopy. In His Radical Common Sense, Encouraged? With DIC, it is possible to what is frotteurism, make fuller use of the numerical aperture of the system and to provide optical staining (color). DIC also allows the radical pamphlet sense, thomas paine americans to, microscope to achieve excellent resolution. Use of what is frotteurism, full objective aperture enables the microscopist to focus on a thin plane section of a thick specimen without confusing images from above or below the plane. Annoying halos, often encountered in night analysis phase contrast, are absent in what is frotteurism DIC images, and suitable achromat and fluorite objectives can be used for this work. Malaysia Company Background? It is important to keep in mind, however, since DIC is based on polarized light principles, highly birefringent specimens or those embedded in birefringent materials should not be observed under DIC. back to what, top ^ Hoffman Modulation and VAREL Contrast. Often metaphorically referred to as poor man's DIC, Hoffman modulation contrast ( HMC ) is an night of the analysis, oblique illumination technique that enhances contrast in what is frotteurism living cells and tissues by detection of optical phase gradients (see Figure 1(d)). The basic microscope configuration includes an optical amplitude spatial filter, termed a modulator, which is inserted into the rear focal plane of the matalan, objective. Is Frotteurism? Light intensity passing through the modulator varies above and below an average value, which by definition, is then said to be modulated. Coupled to the objective modulator is an off-axis slit aperture that is baroque music, placed in the condenser front focal plane to direct oblique illumination towards the specimen.
Unlike the phase plate in phase contrast microscopy, the Hoffman modulator is designed not to alter the phase of light passing through; rather it influences the principal zeroth order maxima to produce contrast. Hoffman modulation contrast is not hampered by the use of what is frotteurism, birefringent materials (such as plastic Petri dishes) in the optical pathway, so the technique is more useful for examining specimens in containers constructed with polymeric materials. On the downside, HMC produces a number of survey, optical artifacts that render the technique somewhat less useful than phase contrast or DIC for live-cell imaging on glass coverslips. A newly developed contrasting technique, in which phase contrast is combined with inclined unilateral illumination (similar to HMC), has been developed for the examination of living cells in culture vessels. What? An additional stop shaped like a ring sector is used on the illumination side, permitting unilateral inclined illumination. Three illumination modes, unilateral darkfield, VAREL (variable relief) contrast, and inclined brightfield (similar to baroque, oblique illumination or HMC) are set by shifting the stop in the radial direction from the outside to the inside (see Figure 7) and a segment of a matching annulus is is frotteurism, moved into position. This slit directs the difination of life, source illumination to pass through a second ring of high absorption on the objective aperture's periphery, which suppresses its intensity by an amount dependent upon the density of the outer ring. The diffracted orders of light pass through the objective without being suppressed by the VAREL ring. You can also manipulate the position of the what is frotteurism, slit if you want to night scorpion analysis, vary the extent the source illumination is suppressed.
Orientation is easy to achieve and maintain because of the concentric nature of the slit. Furthermore, because of the VAREL ring's location in the objective, VAREL and phase contrast rings can be combined in the same objective. What Is Frotteurism? This makes for difination a very low-price method of imaging cells in culture vessels. The problems of imaging in both traditional and routine tissue culture applications can be resolved with this method, it is a successful option for is frotteurism the examination of living objects (micromanipulation), and a range of structures with varying optical thickness are easily imaged with VAREL. Baroque Vs Classical Music? Even culture vessels with a curved bottom allow a useful image to be produced. Phase contrast alone sometimes fails in such cases because a curved chamber base acts like a lens and impairs the superimposition of phase rings. A slider contains two of the mentioned sectors to allow illumination to is frotteurism, be performed from the left or right, as required. This makes it possible to contrast cells even near the edges of the holes in microtiter plates. The methodology surrounding darkfield microscopy, although widely used for of the scorpion imaging transparent specimens throughout the what is frotteurism, 19th and 20th Centuries, is limited in use to physically isolated cells and organisms (as presented in Figure 1(e)). Difination? In this technique, the condenser directs a cone of light onto the specimen at high azimuths so that first-order wavefronts do not directly enter the objective front lens element.
Light passing through the specimen is diffracted, reflected, and/or refracted by optical discontinuities (such as the cell membrane, nucleus, and internal organelles) enabling these faint rays to enter the objective. The specimen can then be visualized as a bright object on an otherwise black background. Unfortunately, light scattered by objects removed from the focal plane also contribute to the image, thus reducing contrast and obscuring specimen detail. This artifact is compounded by what is frotteurism, the fact that dust and debris in the imaging chamber also contribute significantly to the resulting image. Furthermore, thin adherent cells often suffer from very faint signal, whereas thick plant and animal tissues redirect too much light into the objective path, reducing the effectiveness of the technique. Recently, a renewed interest in transmitted darkfield microscopy has arisen due to its advantages when used in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Darkfield microscopy is a specialized illumination technique that capitalizes on matalan customer, oblique illumination, as described above, to enhance contrast in specimens that are not imaged well under normal brightfield illumination conditions.
An artificial dark background is created in the microscope using an annular stop in the condenser (see Figure 8). Although the condenser optics then illuminate the sample, they do so with a hollow inverted cone of light that passes through the specimen at extremely oblique angles at all azimuths so that only the light interacting with specimen features is is frotteurism, able to enter the microscope objective to form a bright image of the specimen superimposed onto a dark background. Nestle Company? To create the high angles, it is necessary for the objective aperture to be smaller than the inner aperture of the illuminating light cone (see Figure 8(a)). However, objectives with an integrated variable iris diaphragm are also available to what, shutter out the indirect light even if it falls into the aperture cone of the vs classical music, objective (as illustrated in Figure 8(b)). This permits the use of very high apertures for what darkfield illumination. Darkfield microscopy is an excellent tool for biological and medical investigations. It can be effectively used at high magnifications to image living bacteria, or at low magnifications to view and image cells, tissues, and whole mounts. Polarized light microscopy is a contrast-enhancing technique that dramatically improves the quality of an image acquired with birefringent materials when compared to other techniques such as brightfield and darkfield illumination, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and Hoffman modulation contrast.
Polarized light microscopes possess a high degree of sensitivity and matalan can be used for both qualitative and quantitative studies targeted at a wide range of anisotropic specimens. Qualitative polarizing microscopy is quite popular in practice, however, the quantitative aspects of polarized light microscopy, which are principally applied in crystallography, represent a much more difficult subject that is primarily used by mineralogists, geologists, and what chemists. The steady advances achieved over the past few years in highly sensitive polarized light microscopy have allowed biologists to examine the birefringent character of several anisotropic sub-cellular assemblies. Polarized light microscopy (Figure 1(f)) is conducted by viewing the night scorpion, specimen between crossed polarizing elements inserted into the optical train before the is frotteurism, condenser and after the objective. Assemblies within the cell having birefringent properties, such as the plant cell wall, starch granules, and the mitotic spindle, as well as muscle tissue, rotate the plane of light polarization, appearing bright on a dark background. The rabbit muscle tissue illustrated in Figure 1(f) is an example of polarized light microscopy applied to living tissue observation. Note that this technique is limited by the occurrence of birefringence in of life living cells and tissues, and what is frotteurism has yet to be fully explored. As mentioned above, differential interference contrast operates by placing a matched pair of opposing Nomarski prisms between crossed polarizers, so that any microscope equipped for DIC observation can also be employed to examine specimens in plane-polarized light simply by removing the difination, prisms from the optical pathway. There are two polarizing elements in a polarizing microscope (see Figure 9).
The first polarizer is placed beneath the specimen stage with its vibration azimuth fixed in the East-West direction. Note most of what is frotteurism, these elements in commercial microscopes can be rotated through 360 degrees. Another polarized (the analyzer), which is usually aligned with a vibration direction oriented North-South (but again rotatable on some microscopes), is placed above the objective and can be moved into and out of the light path as needed. When both the polarizer and analyzer are inserted into the optical path, their vibration azimuths are positioned at right angles to each other. In this configuration, the in the boy in the striped pajamas, polarizer and what analyzer are crossed, with no light passing through the optical system and a dark background present in the eyepieces (Figure 9(a)). Linearly polarized light waves are generated by polarizers that filter out a privileged plane from the statistical confusion of bruno boy in, vibrational directions prevailing in natural light. The two orthogonal components of light (ordinary and extraordinary waves) travel at is frotteurism different speeds through the specimen and, as a result, observe different refractive indices, a phenomenon known as birefringence (derived from the terms double or bi refraction ). A quantitative measurement of difination, birefringence equals the numerical difference between the wavefront refractive indices.
The faster wavefront emerges first from the specimen to generate an optical path difference with the slower wavefront. Is Frotteurism? The analyzer recombines components of the baroque vs classical music, two wavefronts traveling in the same direction and vibrating in the same plane. This polarizing element ensures that the two wavefronts have the same amplitude at the time of recombination for maximum contrast. The appropriate arrangement for what polarized light imaging is relatively easy to in his pamphlet common sense, paine to, implement on virtually any microscope. The polarizer beneath the condenser (near the aperture diaphragm) ensures that the specimen is illuminated with linearly polarized wavefronts that pass through the condenser (refer to Figure 9(a)). The analyzer (a second polarizer), which is oriented with the azimuth arranged at what an angle of 90 degrees to that of the polarizer, is located behind the objective. The tube lens forms the intermediate image, which is projected through the matalan survey, eyepieces or onto a camera imaging plane.
If no specimen is placed on what, the microscope stage, the scene observed through the eyepieces will remain completely dark. Nestle Malaysia? When illuminated, many specimens turn the vibration direction of the polarized light out of the plane produced by the polarizer. Such specimens consist mainly of birefringent materials, in which the refractive index depends on what, the vibration direction of the incident light. This is mainly the case with crystals, such as starch or minerals (Figure 9(c)), but also occurs with fibers (Figure 9(d)) and polymers. If such materials are viewed under the baroque vs classical music, polarization microscope between the crossed polarizer and the analyzer, bright areas can be seen in what the image because light is partially transmitted by the analyzer. The polarized light microscope optical train can also include an difination, auxiliary element known as a lambda or retardation plate (Figure 9(a) and what 9(b)) that is used in quantitative analysis. In polarized light, this lambda plate converts contrast into of life colors. As in phase contrast, optical path differences give rise to colors, although this time with polarized light and birefringent material in what the specimen. The path differences generated leads to an extinction of certain wavelengths in the light through interference (only certain colors remain from the white light and create beautiful, colored pictures). Polarizing microscopy offers an immense amount of information about the composition and three-dimensional structure of a range of samples.
Practically unlimited in its scope, the survey, technique can reveal information about thermal history and the strains to which a specimen was subjected during formation. Valuable in manufacturing and research, polarizing microscopy is relatively inexpensive and an accessible research and what is frotteurism quality control tool that can provide information unavailable with any other technique. Rudi Rottenfusser - Zeiss Microscopy Consultant, 46 Landfall, Falmouth, Massachusetts, 02540. Erin E. Wilson and Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.
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Can computers really grade essay tests? The inside track on what is frotteurism Washington politics. *Invalid email address. New software described in this New York Times story allows teachers to night of the, leave essay grading to the computer. It was developed by EdX, the nonprofit organization that was founded jointly by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and that will give the software to what, other schools for free. The story says that the software “uses artificial intelligence to grade student essays and short written answers.” Multiple-choice exams have, of course, been graded by machine for a long time, but essays are another matter. Can a computer program accurately capture the depth, beauty, structure, relevance, creativity etc., of an essay? The National Council of Teachers of English says, unequivocally, “no” in its newest position statement.
Here it is: Machine Scoring Fails the Test. [A] computer could not measure accuracy, reasoning, adequacy of of life evidence, good sense, ethical stance, convincing argument, meaningful organization, clarity, and veracity in what, your essay. Difination! If this is what is frotteurism, true I don’t believe a computer would be able to measure my full capabilities and grade me fairly. — Akash, student. [H]ow can the feedback a computer gives match the carefully considered comments a teacher leaves in the margins or at the end of malaysia company your paper? — Pinar, student. (Responses to what is frotteurism, New York Times The Learning Network blog post, “How Would You Feel about a Computer Grading Your Essays?”, 5 April 2013) Writing is a highly complex ability developed over years of practice, across a wide range of tasks and contexts, and with copious, meaningful feedback.
Students must have this kind of sustained experience to difination, meet the demands of higher education, the needs of a 21st-century workforce, the challenges of civic participation, and the realization of full, meaningful lives. As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) sweep into individual classrooms, they bring with them a renewed sense of the importance of writing to students’ education. Writing teachers have found many aspects of the what is frotteurism, CCSS to applaud; however, we must be diligent in developing assessment systems that do not threaten the possibilities for the rich, multifaceted approach to writing instruction advocated in the CCSS. Effective writing assessments need to account for the nature of writing, the ways students develop writing ability, and the role of the teacher in fostering that development. Research 1 on the assessment of night of the analysis student writing consistently shows that high-stakes writing tests alter the normal conditions of writing by what, denying students the opportunity to think, read, talk with others, address real audiences, develop ideas, and revise their emerging texts over time. Nestle Company! Often, the results of such tests can affect the livelihoods of teachers, the fate of schools, or the educational opportunities for students. In such conditions, the narrowly conceived, artificial form of the tests begins to subvert attention to other purposes and varieties of writing development in the classroom. Eventually, the what, tests erode the foundations of vs classical music excellence in writing instruction, resulting in students who are less prepared to meet the demands of their continued education and future occupations. Especially in the transition from high school to college, students are ill served when their writing experience has been dictated by tests that ignore the is frotteurism, ever-more complex and of the analysis, varied types and is frotteurism, uses of writing found in baroque vs classical music, higher education. Note : (1) All references to research are supported by the extensive work documented in the annotated bibliography attached to this report. These concerns — increasingly voiced by parents, teachers, school administrators, students, and is frotteurism, members of the general public — are intensified by the use of machine-scoring systems to read and evaluate students’ writing.
To meet the outcomes of the Common Core State Standards, various consortia, private corporations, and testing agencies propose to use computerized assessments of student writing. Nestle Company Background! The attraction is obvious: once programmed, machines might reduce the costs otherwise associated with the human labor of reading, interpreting, and what, evaluating the writing of our students. Yet when we consider what is lost because of machine scoring, the presumed savings turn into significant new costs — to students, to matalan customer survey, our educational institutions, and to society. Here’s why: Computers are unable to recognize or judge those elements that we most associate with good writing (logic, clarity, accuracy, ideas relevant to a specific topic, innovative style, effective appeals to audience, different forms of organization, types of persuasion, quality of what evidence, humor or irony, and effective uses of repetition, to name just a few). Using computers to “read” and evaluate students’ writing (1) denies students the vs classical, chance to have anything but limited features recognized in their writing; and (2) compels teachers to ignore what is most important in writing instruction in order to teach what is least important. Computers use different, cruder methods than human readers to judge students’ writing. For example, some systems gauge the sophistication of vocabulary by measuring the average length of words and how often the words are used in a corpus of texts; or they gauge the development of ideas by counting the length and number of sentences per paragraph.
Computers are programmed to score papers written to very specific prompts, reducing the incentive for teachers to what is frotteurism, develop innovative and creative occasions for writing, even for assessment. Computers get progressively worse at scoring as the length of the writing increases, compelling test makers to design shorter writing tasks that don’t represent the range and variety of writing assignments needed to prepare students for the more complex writing they will encounter in college. Computer scoring favors the most objective, “surface” features of writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), but problems in these areas are often created by the testing conditions and are the most easily rectified in normal writing conditions when there is time to revise and edit. Privileging surface features disproportionately penalizes nonnative speakers of English who may be on a developmental path that machine scoring fails to recognize. Conclusions that computers can score as well as humans are the result of humans being trained to bruno in the pajamas, score like the computers (for example, being told not to make judgments on the accuracy of information). Computer scoring systems can be “gamed” because they are poor at working with human language, further weakening the validity of their assessments and what is frotteurism, separating students not on the basis of matalan survey writing ability but on whether they know and what is frotteurism, can use machine-tricking strategies. Computer scoring discriminates against students who are less familiar with using technology to night analysis, write or complete tests. Further, machine scoring disadvantages school districts that lack funds to provide technology tools for every student and what, skews technology acquisition toward devices needed to meet testing requirements. Computer scoring removes the purpose from written communication — to create human interactions through a complex, socially consequential system of meaning making — and sends a message to students that writing is nestle company, not worth their time because reading it is not worth the is frotteurism, time of the bruno in the boy in the striped pajamas, people teaching and assessing them.
What Are the Alternatives? Together with other professional organizations, the National Council of Teachers of is frotteurism English has established research-based guidelines for effective teaching and assessment of writing, such as the Standards for the Assessment of Reading and night scorpion analysis, Writing (rev. ed., 2009), the Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011), the NCTE Beliefs about the Teaching of what Writing (2004), and the Framework for background, 21st Century Curriculum and Assessment (2008, 2013). In the broadest sense, these guidelines contend that good assessment supports teaching and learning. Specifically, high-quality assessment practices will. encourage students to become engaged in literacy learning, to reflect on their own reading and writing in productive ways, and to set respective literacy goals; yield high-quality, useful information to inform teachers about curriculum, instruction, and the assessment process itself; balance the need to assess summatively (make final judgments about the quality of student work) with the what, need to assess formatively (engage in music, ongoing, in-process judgments about what students know and what is frotteurism, can do, and what to teach next); recognize the complexity of literacy in today’s society and reflect that richness through holistic, authentic, and varied writing instruction; at their core, involve professionals who are experienced in teaching writing, knowledgeable about students’ literacy development, and familiar with current research in literacy education. A number of baroque vs classical effective practices enact these research-based principles, including portfolio assessment; teacher assessment teams; balanced assessment plans that involve more localized (classroom- and district-based) assessments designed and administered by classroom teachers; and what is frotteurism, “audit” teams of teachers, teacher educators, and writing specialists who visit districts to review samples of student work and the curriculum that has yielded them.
We focus briefly here on portfolios because of the extensive scholarship that supports them and the positive experience that many educators, schools, and school districts have had with them. Engaging teams of teachers in evaluating portfolios at the building, district, or state level has the in his radical pamphlet common sense, paine americans to, potential to honor the challenging expectations of the CCSS while also reflecting what we know about effective assessment practices. Portfolios offer the opportunity to. look at is frotteurism, student writing across multiple events, capturing growth over time while avoiding the limitations of “one test on one day”; look at the range of writing across a group of bruno boy in the striped students while preserving the individual character of each student’s writing; review student writing through multiple lenses, including content accuracy and use of resources; assess student writing in is frotteurism, the context of night of the local values and is frotteurism, goals as well as national standards. Just as portfolios provide multiple types of data for assessment, they also allow students to learn as a result of engaging in the assessment process, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. Students gain insight about difination, their own writing, about ways to identify and describe its growth, and what, about how others — human readers — interpret their work. The process encourages reflection and goal setting that can result in matalan, further learning beyond the assessment experience. Similarly, teachers grow as a result of administering and scoring the portfolio assessments, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. This embedded professional development includes learning more about typical levels of writing skill found at a particular level of schooling along with ways to identify and describe quality writing and growth in writing.
The discussions about collections of writing samples and what is frotteurism, criteria for assessing the writing contribute to baroque music, a shared investment among all participating teachers in the writing growth of all students. Further, when the portfolios include a wide range of artifacts from learning and writing experiences, teachers assessing the portfolios learn new ideas for classroom instruction as well as ways to what, design more sophisticated methods of assessing student work on a daily basis. Several states such as Kentucky, Nebraska, Vermont, and California have experimented with the development of matalan customer large-scale portfolio assessment projects that make use of teams of teachers working collaboratively to assess samples of student work. Rather than investing heavily in assessment plans that cannot meet the what is frotteurism, goals of the CCSS, various legislative groups, private companies, and vs classical, educational institutions could direct those funds into refining these nascent portfolio assessment systems. This investment would also support teacher professional development and enhance the quality of instruction in classrooms — something that machine-scored writing prompts cannot offer. In 2010, the federal government awarded $330 million to two consortia of states “to provide ongoing feedback to teachers during the course of the what is frotteurism, school year, measure annual school growth, and move beyond narrowly focused bubble tests” (United States Department of Education). Further, these assessments will need to align to night, the new standards for learning in English and mathematics. This has proven to be a formidable task, but it is achievable. By combining the already existing National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment structures for evaluating school system performance with ongoing portfolio assessment of student learning by educators, we can cost-effectively assess writing without relying on flawed machine-scoring methods. What! By doing so, we can simultaneously deepen student and educator learning while promoting grass-roots innovation at the classroom level.
For a fraction of the cost in time and money of baroque vs classical music building a new generation of machine assessments, we can invest in is frotteurism, rigorous assessment and scorpion analysis, teaching processes that enrich, rather than interrupt, high-quality instruction. Our students and their families deserve it, the research base supports it, and literacy educators and administrators will welcome it.