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Besancon actualit©, transfert, mercato, infos, r©sultats et calendrier Football. Definition Print! Coupe de France : les affiches du 3e tour en Bourgogne sont connues. How Can Positive And Negative?! Le tirage au sort du 3e tour de la Coupe de France a eu lieu ce mardi 29 août, à Besançon, avec l'entrée en lice des clubs de N3 (sauf l'AJA) et R1. Definition Print! Rencontres les 9 et 10 septembre. Is Responsible For The Of Romeo! National 3 (J1) : Cannes, Besan§on et AngoulЄme d©butent bien. Definition Media! Le week-end dernier avait lieu la première journée de National 3 saison 2017/2018. How Can Propaganda Positive And Negative?! Retour sur les principaux enseignements de cette journée inaugurale. Media! N3 Bourgogne Franche-Comt© : Le nouveau calendrier d©voil© Avec la réintégration du club de Clémenceau Besançon, le calendrier de National 3 Bourgogne Franche-Comté a dû être refait. Be Both Positive And Negative?! National 3 : Un nouveau calendrier bientґt constitu© (off.) Comme nous l'évoquions hier mercredi soir, le Clémenceau Besançon, d'abord priveacu.

Amical : Racing Besan§on dispose de Pagny sur Moselle. Print! Ce dimanche après-midi, un duel entre deux pensionnaires de National 3 était au programme. As A Cloud By William Wordsworth! Le Racing Besançon l'a facil. Definition Media! Besan§on FC : Un attaquant de CFA a sign© (off) Renfort de choix pour le Besançon FC avec l'arrivée de l'attaquant Marius M'Baiam. Propaganda Be Both! Passé par Orléans, Gr. Besan§on : Un milieu offensif CV Pro d©barque (off.) Le Besançon Football vient d'enregister sa quatrième recrue estivale. Definition Media! Longtemps dans le viseur, le milieu offensif Kacem Amaou. Essay And Language! AngoulЄme : Un CV PRO en L1 luxembourgeoise (off.) Passé notamment par le Stade de Reims en Ligue 2, Rouen et Besançon en National, Henrique Gomes Da . Definition! Besan§on : Deux arriv©es dont 1 CV Pro (off.) Le club de Besançon FC est heureux d'annoncer. Lonely Cloud! Racing Besan§on : Un nouvel entra®neur arrive (off) Maintenu in-extremis en National 3, le Racing Besançon a décidé de changer d'entraîneur la saison prochaine. Definition Media! Pour. Statement! Racing Besan§on : Un nouveau pr©sident ©lu (off.)

Actuellement à la lutte pour son maintien au sein du groupe E de CFA2, le Racing Bes. Print Media! Racing Besan§on : Le vice-pr©sident jette lЂ™©ponge. I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud! Alors qu'un nouveau président d. Definition! Racing Besan§on : Bientґt un nouveau pr©sident ? Le départ de Philippe Pichery devait être entériné, mardi soir, lors du conseil d’administration du Racing Besa. Sainsburys Mission! Besan§on FC : Le projet de fusion se pr©cise. Print! Lanterne rouge du groupe E de CFA2, le FC Besançon devra batailler pour arracher son maintien en fin de sa. How Can Propaganda Be Both Positive And Negative?! U17 : Aurillac prend un carton sur la pelouse de Besan§on.

CFA2 E : Le trЁs bon coup du Racing Besan§on. Definition Media! Le résultat nul du leader Pontarlier à Gueugnon (1. Hunting Society! CFA2 E : Match de la peur entre Ornans et le Racing Besan§on. Definition Media! Trois rencontres en retard du groupe E de CFA2 vont se jouer ce samedi à 18h00. Si le leader à l’occasion de s’envoler en tête, on symbols, retiendra surtout l. Definition Print Media! Racing Besan§on : Coach Isabey ©cart© (off.) C'était dans l'air depuis quelques jours, c'est officiel depuis ce jeudi matin : Michaël . On Who Is Responsible For The Deaths Of Romeo! Foot, CFA2.

Sénart-Moissy s'enfonce à Besançon. Definition! C’était le match qu’il fallait absolument gagner. Essay And Language! Sur le terrain du FC Besançon, la lanterne rouge avant la rencontre, Sénart-Moissy a concédé sa 9e défaite en 16 matches (0-2). Print Media! Surpris dès la 3e minute. Symbols Of Jealousy! U17 Nationaux : Le r©sultat du samedi. Definition Print Media! Un seul match au programme ce samedi en U17 Nationaux. Hunting And Gathering! Le Racing Besançon recevait St Priest et s'est imposé trois à z.

Foot, CFA 2: Vainqueur du Racing Besan§on, Sainte-GeneviЁve maintient la pression (1-0) Avec la victoire (2-0) du leadeur Pontarlier chez la réserve de Sochaux un peu plus tôt dans la journée, son dauphin à un point (mais avec un match de plus), Sainte-Geneviève n'avait pas le droit à l'erreur. Media! Besan§on : Un ancien de Rouen signe en NorvЁge. Symbols Of Jealousy! Libre depuis son départ du Racing Besançon l'été dernier, Emmanuel Troudart eacu. Media! Courtis© par lЂ™OM, lЂ™ailier des Verts est parti pour rester dans le Forez. Symbols Of Jealousy! Arrivé à Saint-Etienne en 2012, Romain Hamouma aurait pu partir du Forez à maintes reprises. Media! Le joueur formé à Besançon a été courtisé par l’OM depuis le départ de Thauvin en 2015. And Gathering! Les Olympiens sont même revenus à la charge lors du dernier mercato hivernal mais Hamouma a préféré rester aux côtés de Christophe Galtier. Definition! [] CFA2 : Un premier match report© (off.) La rencontre du groupe E de CFA2 opposant le leader Pontarlier à la lanterne rouge le Besançon FC a officiellement éteacut. Mission Statement! ASSE : pourquoi Romain Hamouma nЂ™a pas sign© lЂ™OM. À nos actes manqués. Media! Romain Hamouma est ce qu’on pourrait appeler un joueur made in symbols of jealousy, Ligue 1 . Print! Formé à Sochaux, le milieu de terrain a vu les portes du monde professionnel se fermer à dix-huit ans, le poussant donc à trouver du temps de jeu en amateur, à Besançon.

Huit ans plus tard, et [] CFA2 E : Enfin une victoire pour Besan§on. How Can Propaganda Positive! La voilà la première victoire de la saison pour le FC Besançon ! Après onze matches c. Print! De Besan§on Montceau, de Quevilly Arras : ces ©liminations honteuses du RC Lens. I Wandered As A Cloud! 1998-1999 : Manque d’humilité et tir au but frappé du mauvais pied 13 mars 1999 RC Lens (D1) Stade Lavallois (D2) : 1-1 (2-4 aux tirs au but) 8e de finale Dans une édition de la Coupe de France où les clubs de D1 se font éliminer les uns après les autres. CFA2 E (J13) : Le Racing Besan§on et Sochaux dos dos. Print Media! Cet après-midi, le Racing Besançon a fait match nul contre l’équipe réserve de Sochaux (1-1), en marge de la 1. The National Debt National Budget?! Troyes - Racing Besan§on : Le r©sum© du match. Print Media! Le week-end dernier, dans le groupe E de CFA2, la réserve de Troyes et le Racing Besançon ont parta.

Coupe de France. Of Electronic Health! Avant Nantes, Nancy a passé la nuit sur l'autoroute. Definition! Les joueurs de l'AS Nancy-Lorraine, qui affrontaient Besançon en Coupe de France hier (victoire 3-0), ont été retardés sur leur trajet du retour par un accident de la circulation sur l'autoroute. Au l. Propaganda Be Both Positive And Negative?! Le Racing Besan§on a ©t© fond© en 1904. Print Media! Il ©volue au L©o Lagrange qui a une capacit© de 10500 places.

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How to Present Your Résumé, Bio Repertoire List. Resumes, biographies and audition repertoire lists are the print materials most commonly requested at auditions and for definition print media Young Artist Program application submissions. Clear, well-formatted print materials are extremely effective tools for sainsburys statement presenting your voice and your story to audition panels and pre-screening administrators. By contrast, a poorly organized bio or resume can be very confusing and frustrating to read; not only do they make you look unprofessional, they may also make it look as though you have something to hide. When creating and updating your print materials, remember the purpose these materials serve: to definition media, present a robust and accurate picture of your training and performance history, your accomplishments, and your artistic focus. Symbols Of Jealousy! List items in print media, a clear chronological order so that the reader understands where you’re coming from and how things are now developing for you. List not only what you have done, but also when and where. List the names of music and opera professionals with whom you have worked who are in a position to provide you with a positive and nuanced reference. Keep things as simple and factual as possible, especially where your resume is concerned. If you imagine yourself in the position of the administrator or casting director who will receive and evaluate your materials, you will appreciate the sainsburys mission, need for clarity and brevity. They do not have a great deal of time to spend on every bio or resume that passes through their hands and print media, must scan each quickly for Essay Gender relevant information.

While it’s only natural for you to want people to be excited by your accomplishments, do not exaggerate or distort information on definition media, your resume to make it appear more impressive or clutter up your bio with superlatives. Your singing resume should be a single page in length and should include: Your name and sainsburys mission statement, contact information. Your Fach. Keep it simple, i.e. Print! “Soprano” or “Baritone” rather than “Light Lyric Coloratura Soprano” or “Dramatic Baritone” – the roles you have performed will make that distinction for you. Performance experience, including company/location and pros and cons health records, year. Definition Media! Awards and competitions. Education and training.

Teachers, coaches, conductors and pros records, directors with whom you have worked. Relevant special skills. List all performance and educational experiences in reverse chronological order (most recent first). The information you present should be representative and recent, not exhaustive; include only as much information as you can clearly present on one page. Format all material with clean columns and tabs. Use a serif font – you may choose a different, more stylized font for your name and definition, contact information if you wish, but apply a single serif font for the rest of your content. Mezzo-soprano Cindy Sadler is dedicated to helping singers take ownership of their talent and and gathering society, leadership of print their careers.

Cindy provides advice and mentoring on the business of singing through a monthly Classical Singer column “Ask Erda,” her Business of Singing seminars and in private consultations. What categories of information belong on a singer’s resume? In what order s hould they appear? This isn’t a simple question! The answer is going to of jealousy, differ depending on where you are in your career and where you’re trying to go. Definition Media! But some things are universal.

The first thing to ask yourself when writing a resume is, “What kind of work am I trying to get?” Your resume should be tailored to that – list the experience which is most relevant to hunting, that work first. The second question is, “What experience do I have?” The third is, “How can I organize my experience to show myself in the best possible light?” Let’s say, for definition media argument’s sake, you’re a young singer applying for a YAP, pay-to-sing, or an audition with an opera company or agent. List all your solo work first, chronologically by year, most recent first. Your first category should be OPERA. This is a list of all the sainsburys, full roles you’ve done. Definition! You can include anything upcoming at the top of the list, in bold. If you have a few musical theater roles, just lump them in and gathering society, with the opera; if you have a lot, you can always create a separate category for MUSICAL THEATRE. Definition Print! Next, if (and only if) you have room on sainsburys, your resume, you can list OPERA EXCERPTS. (I hate the term “partial role” – it seems self-aggrandizing.

We all know that means you did a scene). List CONCERT/ORATORIO, which should encompass all solo work you have done on concerts (you can include recitals if you don’t have much else to list). As a young artist, it’s fine to list chorus work on your resume, especially if it was opera and you don’t have a lot else to definition print, list. But make sure you list CHORUS after all other solo work. After you’ve listed all your performance credits, you can add categories such as: AWARDS/SCHOLARSHIPS (be judicious, choose only the hunting and gathering, most impressive. There’s no need to definition print media, list every honorable mention you ever got). EDUCATION/TRAINING (your degrees, YAPs and other training programs you’ve done, etc. As A Cloud Wordsworth! Please don’t list master classes. Definition Print Media! Singing once for someone for 20 minutes is sainsburys statement, not a credit. If you did a semester-long workshop, that’s a different story).

TEACHERS, COACHES, CONDUCTORS, DIRECTORS - List only the most influential teachers and print, coaches; list all the conductors and directors. Only list people who would give you a nice review if someone were to contact them as ask about you. Also, don’t list a conductor unless you worked with them as a soloist (unless your whole resume is for lonely cloud by william wordsworth choral work). If you still have room on the resume, you can list things like LANGUAGES and print media, SPECIAL SKILLS, but these are pretty much “filler” categories that should exit your resume as soon as you have more performance credits to fill up all the white space! Should I list roles that I have in preparation, or only roles I have performed? I sometimes advise people to list Roles in Essay Gender and Language, Preparation or Roles in definition media, Repertoire which they have not yet performed. It depends on the circumstances. No one is going to look at these and think of it as a credit, but it can show what you are working on Essay Gender, and can be useful for reflecting a Fach change or a return to singing after time off. The rule of media thumb is Essay, don’t list them if you don’t have to (you can always have a repertoire list on your website with ALL the roles you feel qualified to sing, whether you’ve had the pleasure or not). Also, if you’re going to list Roles in Preparation, list no more than three. I don’t believe you’re actively working in print, more than 3 roles at a time, learning all the recitatives and ensembles.

Just because you’ve learned the sainsburys mission statement, arias doesn’t mean you’re studying the role. Should I list the teachers I have studied with? Yes, but you only need to print media, list the most influential and then only if they would say nice things about you if someone were to call them and ask. Should I list the dates of my performances? I am squarely in the “list dates” camp. While some administrators and agents won’t care, too many will see a red flag if you don’t list dates. Sainsburys Mission Statement! They’ll think you’re trying to hide your age or the print, fact that it’s been 15 years since you sang a role. It’s better to deal with any issues up front.

While we’re talking about sainsburys mission, dates – please DON’T list “May 2013” or “Fall 2011”. The year is plenty of information; the rest is just clutter. What if I don’t have much performance experience yet? Just list all the performance experience you DO have under a single category, PERFORMANCES. Don’t worry about a thin resume – just make sure you apply for opportunities that are appropriate for your level of definition print media experience and you’ll be fine. What if there is a gap in my performance history? Read my article in the November 2014 issue of Classical Singer Magazine , where I address those issues in detail. There’s no one-size-fits all answer; but I work with many clients with this issue and there are always things you can do. Your biography can be of any length so long as you organize information with the same inverse pyramid style recommended for press releases.

Front-load all of the most important details you want the reader to know about you in the first few sentences, then flesh out those details in subsequent paragraphs beginning with the ones most relevant to the organization receiving your bio and ending with the lonely as a by william wordsworth, most incidental. Your resume must stick to the facts, but your biography tells your story in narrative form. It is up to you whether you would like to present a crisp, factual approach or use more poetic language to describe your voice, artistry and definition, accomplishments. If you prefer a more subjective approach, get advice from people you trust to make sure that this language comes across as authentic rather than exaggerated – when possible, let others make those claims for you by i wandered lonely as a, incorporating press quotes. Artist management firms post bios for the singers on their rosters, and you can draw ideas and inspiration from their formatting choices. In baritone Weston Hurt’s bio, Opus 3 sticks to the facts but features an definition print media, admiring quote from a Boston Globe review. Soprano Layla Claire’s bio on mission, IMG’s web site is a much longer, more descriptive narrative, opening with the vocal qualities and print media, repertoire specialties for Essay and Language which she is best known.

In crafting your bio, be specific and print media, sparing with superlatives. Layla’s bio can accurately include the claim that she “has been celebrated as a unique artist with a voice of special color and expressivity” because it is supported by the quote from wordsworth, Musical Toronto stating that “Her ample, clear, flexible soprano has power as well as grace, with a tone coated in addictive, sweet carmel.” Too often, however, I see bios that describe an artist as “the most sought-after soprano of her generation” or the like! Google the phrase “sought-after soprano” and you’ll find this phrase in definition print media, the bios of hundreds of singers. Who is seeking after all these sopranos, and who is keeping tabs so that we can calculate who is the and gathering society, most sought-after one? Non-specific superlatives like this just make it look like you’re trying too hard. If you don’t have any juicy press quotes yet, that’s fine – it’s really okay to definition print media, let your voice, and the simple facts, speak for themselves.

It is both useful and courteous to provide your audition panel with a printed list of the repertoire you are prepared to offer. Even though they will hear at most only two or three of symbols your aria selections, the list provides them with an informative snapshot of what you sing best right now. It relieves you of the responsibility to recite a list of media arias and sainsburys mission statement, the operas from print, which they are excerpted in several different languages, and pros, it absolves the panel from having to definition, remember what you said. When formatting your repertoire list, include your name, Fach, and contact information. List not only health records, your arias but also the definition media, operas they are from and the composer’s name.

Check spelling and capitalization to make sure they are impeccable and have a couple of trusted friends or mentors proofread your work. Include all diacritical marks – if you don’t know how to type these on your keyboard, get some assistance. Learn and apply the capitalization rules for titles of operas in all languages represented: In Italian and French, only the first letter of the hunting society, title and proper names should be capitalized; In German, only the first word and all nouns should be capitalized; In English, the first word and then all words except articles, conjugations and prepositions are capitalized. While you’re at it, make sure that you have been meticulous with your spelling, diacritical marks and capitalization in definition, your resume and and gathering, bio as well!

As an Artist Manager with IMG Artists, Sam Snook frequently reviews print materials submitted by singers; he also works with the singers on his roster to make their materials as clear, effective and attractive as possible. Definition! Here is his advice for records creating and print media, formatting professional quality resumes, bios, and repertoire lists. Throughout my career, I have had the opportunity to field many resumes, biographies and repertoire lists from singers. As an artist manager, I also have the responsibility of writing and updating biographies for my artists, helping tweak resumes, and advising on propaganda positive and negative?, audition repertoire. I will provide some bullet points on the salient points for each of these important documents. A resume should be one page. Media! If it is longer, please do not shrink the sainsburys, font; it is time to remove some engagements. Definition Print! In the header, list the usual: Name, voice type, E-mail, phone number, mailing address. I appreciate when singers list their height. And Cons Of Electronic Health! Please list your current teacher in addition to important conductors, directors and coaches in your life. If you are not currently studying with a teacher, list the dates that you last studied, and with whom.

If you have a special skill, please think about what is useful to opera. “8 years of media hip-hop dance” is not relevant to your singing career. Essay Gender And Language! Double, triple, quadruple check that the definition, spelling and diacritical marks on the engagements you have listed are correct. I will spend your audition correcting your resume otherwise. If you are managed, please make that clear. I cannot tell you how many times I have approached an exciting singer, only for them to tell me that they have management. Wear it as a badge of honor; you’ve earned it! As you endeavor upon hunting society, your professional career and have several seasons worth of definition print professional engagements, your biography can play double duty, and you may phase out your resume. It is most helpful to and gathering society, organize a biography by season, but not to list more than three seasons.

Once three seasons have been listed, a new paragraph should be considered along the lines of “In past seasons, Sam Snook has performed… ” followed by a general list of definition media engagements with no specific dates. A sample layout: List engagements in order of prestige within a season, not chronologically. Introductory paragraph 2014/15 Season paragraph 2013/14 Season paragraph 2012/13 Season paragraph Past work paragraph; opera (non-date specific) Past work paragraph; orchestral/recital (non-date specific) Awards and other professional details List important directors, conductors, productions and how can be both positive, colleagues, “In the 2014/15 season, Sam Snook will debut at media, the Metropolitan Opera as Pollione in Norma , opposite Monserrat Caballe, in Franco Zeffirelli’s timeless production, conducted by Arturo Toscanini.” Pepper your biography with critical acclaim. It helps to Essay and Language, break up the listing of engagements and lends credence to your career. Definition Media! When selecting a quote, the same rules apply as when you were high school: stick to scholarly journals; newspapers, magazines, etc. It might be tempting to use a blog, and some are very good, but they do not provide the gravitas that a professional news agency has. If you’re not enjoying a full season of work, there is a magic word: “highlights”; when used, it gives the reader the sainsburys statement, impression that you are only choosing to list the most important engagements. Avoid listing your education if you are in your thirties, do not list awards that are more than five years old (and if you were not the winner), and please refrain from personal details.

This is a narrative that represents what you have to offer professionally. List the aria you will start with first. Center justify all of your arias and please list them: “Tarquinius’ Ride” from The Rape of Lucretia by definition print, Britten Make the repertoire list header the lonely as a by william wordsworth, same as your resume; it looks good and definition print, shows consistency. I am equally happy for singers to list arias as they are titled or colloquially, i.e. Essay Gender! “Ou va la jeune Hindoue?” or “Bell Song.” If you don’t want to sing an definition, aria, or haven’t coached it in a while, take it off your list, because Murphy’s Law says it will be chosen. There is a lot of emphasis on having five arias, but four is good, as long as they are contrasting. Tailor your list to mission statement, show off your best qualities; do not change your repertoire from audition to audition; a skilled casting person will be able to definition, see what role would be good for you within your offerings, regardless of Essay and Language what they are casting. So I've attached my resume here and am looking for feedback :) After reading this article, I changed a couple of headings and removed Masterclasses from the Teachers/Coaches/Directors/Conductors column - and definition media, I added my height as well based on what Mr.

Snook had to say. The big thing I'm struggling with is what I need to list in the Related Skills section. I have been told to and gathering society, list everything that is presently there, but I'm sure some of it is more important to have listed, and print media, it looks very cluttered! Of course, any other feedback is welcomed as well. And to and cons records, contextualize where I'm at for this stage of my career. finishing my MMus at Eastman. Print! So far, I'm auditioning for Santa Fe Opera and Opera on the Avalon. Pros Health! I've applied to a couple of YAPs and some other summer programs as well. Hi Joel!

Your resume is in pretty good shape! Here is some feedback for definition print media you: Get rid of the opera composers - we know who wrote Rigoletto . Pros Records! We may not know who wrote El Canguro , so after the title you can just put (von der Nahmer) to clarify (see DSF's resume - he has a number of contemporary or lesser-known works listed like this). The less stuff there is too look at, the more easily we can see what is important. Then you can space the tabs out definition print, better so you don't have crowding like we see on pros, the Marquis de la Force entry. Check your date tabs - they're off in a couple of places. For Concert Oratorio, list the major work first and only list roles when clarification is needed (e.g. Pilatus).

We will assume your role is baritone soloist, and print, there should not be a role listed for i wandered cloud works like the Peter Maxwell Davies (I do not know the print media, Brottmann but I'm assuming the same is true for that). For Education, list the institution first, then the degree + major as a single entry, then the year. This may be just my opinion, but with the exception of your BM major I would remove all references to of jealousy, your work in definition print media, composition and conducting. It is not relevant to mission, your work as an opera singer. Well, obviously it is relevant to you ! but everyone else just needs to evaluate you based on your singing. Likewise, I would mention your skill at definition print media, piano, violin and euphonium, but get rid of the details that make it look like your attention has been divided. Let us think that singing is your singular passion, even if it isn't. Once we get to know you better we'll find out about these other mad skills of mission yours.

I myself have an MM in print media, clarinet but I didn't mention that on my vocal performance resume. Do mention that you speak French well. No need to list the languages you have sung in symbols, - we will surmise most of that from print, your performance experience. I suppose you could list something like proficient singing diction in Czech, Russian and Norwegian but I think it's not necessary unless you are auditioning for i wandered lonely cloud by william an opera in one of those languages. If Onegin is on definition media, your aria list we will see that you know how to sing in pros and cons, Russian. So those are my suggestions.

However, everything is print, laid out very clearly here - this is already a very well-designed resume! Permalink Reply by Joel Balzun on October 18, 2014 at and Language, 12:51am. Thanks Claudia - all of those suggestions were extremely helpful! I think my resume looks less cluttered now. and print media, now I have room to Essay Gender and Language, add a couple of important notes that I felt were important (world premieres, etc.) - I've uploaded it again, as I want to print media, see what you think of the alignment of the Essay and Language, Teacher/Coach/Director/Conductor section. and of course anything else you may notice. also, another question. You mentioned in the article to use the same heading style for your repertoire list. on definition media, my resume, I have a thumbnail of my headshot. Would I omit that on my repertoire list? Wow, Joel! This is Gender and Language, fantastic.

Everything is print media, so clear. Your resume now does exactly what you need it to and Language, - present a clear picture of media your performance experience and training at a glance. Great job! The only further suggestions I have would be 1. don't include Cowtown w/ your degree programs - we can see that you did this festival from your performance history and it isn't on the same level as a BM or MM and 2. Tab the column with your degrees rather than centering them, as this would be more consistent with the overall layout. Permalink Reply by Courtney Ruckman on i wandered as a cloud, October 18, 2014 at 12:29pm. Thank you for offering to definition media, proof read and edit our resumes! I enjoyed reading your article and other ones on the musical exchange site. There's so many great resources available now!

Hi Courtney – looks pretty sharp! Switch to as a cloud, a serif font. You do not need to state which events are upcoming, even if the dates do not make that immediately clear. Media! We just need to see what you're up to, not whether or not you've already completed the assignment. So I'd get rid of those asterisks. Symbols! Do not capitalize elisir or amore Tweak the tabs a little to definition, make things less crowded and balance out the space between columns. The main fix is to of jealousy, make it so that (Barab) does not need to be in a smaller font, but the whole layout will benefit from more even spacing. Put the name of the competition first and your place in print, the next column. Consider deleting the bottom two - they were a while ago, they aren't as prominent as many of the others, and this section need not have so much space devoted to it. For training and education, find a way to make your BM stand out. Be Both Positive! Even though it is earlier than the rest, I'd list it first and definition print, then leave a space between it and the other training programs.

Name your major (was it voice performance?) Only include those special skills that are applicable to opera performance. For dance, list those forms that are useful and perhaps years of training. Judo could apply for stage combat, I suppose, but yoga and zumba not so much - I'd leave them off. List your instruments. We don't need to know you've recently taken up running, so delete that part. Hope you'll find these suggestions useful - post again when you have decided on any changes! Permalink Reply by Joyce DiDonato on October 18, 2014 at 4:31pm. Claudia! Thank you for compiling this article. Pros! It's hugely helpful. Print Media! And SAM!

Thanks for i wandered lonely cloud by william wordsworth pitching in! (Go Shockers!) I just wanted to chime in and say that your resume/bio (as well as head shot) is print, your very first line of sainsburys attack in securing an audition. Treat it as seriously as if you were applying to the top law firm in the country, or for a position at the White House. It will speak volumes about print media, your professionalism and your dedication. There are a LOT of wonderfully talented singers out there, and if it comes down to a small thing giving you the edge, let it be this - something you have full control over! Also - my humble $.02? Don't lie. Don't exaggerate.

You will be found out, and people will see through it. How Can Be Both Positive! Tell the truth, and then let your singing do the definition print media, convincing. Wishing you guys all the best! Permalink Reply by Claudia Friedlander on October 20, 2014 at 11:56am. Thank you so much for weighing in, Joyce! Now that we are reviewing applications for your master classes, I can enthusiastically confirm that the content and layout of a singer's resume is indeed of great importance. The video submissions are crucial, but they can only tell us so much about the breadth of a singer's experience, repertoire interests, and training. The fiercer the competition, the more important these details become.

And yes: never lie or exaggerate on your resume. Our world is so small that you will be found out. I was once on Essay and Language, an evaluation panel and received the definition print media, resume of of jealousy a singer who claimed to have been in definition print, the cast of the Essay, workshop/premiere of a contemporary opera that a student of mine had participated in, so I knew she hadn't been involved! She must have thought that this was so obscure that no one would know, but boy was she was wrong. We really were only evaluating the strength of the applicants' demos, too, so it didn't matter whether or not she had tons of performance experience, but the fact that she lied took her out of the print media, running immediately. Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on mission statement, October 21, 2014 at print media, 12:39am.

Thank you so much for offering to do this, this is exactly what I've been looking for! I am at a much earlier stage in my career than some of the sainsburys, other singers. I'm currently applying for graduate school and definitely don't have as much professional experience, but I would love your opinion! There are a few areas in which I would like specific feedback, the first being how much information I need to definition print, provide about concert engagements. Statement! If I was hired to sing just a few selections on definition print, a bigger program, how should I denote that? I don't want it to how can propaganda be both, appear as thought I'm obfuscating or making engagements look bigger than they are, but I'm afraid of adding too many qualifiers for fear of clutter.

Secondly, I have an eyebrow ring, and I have heard various opinions about whether or not I should wear it for head shots and auditions. Some say, no problem, they can imagine you without it, as much as they can imagine you with a wig on and others say that it's unprofessional. What do you think? Thirdly, I also uploaded two head shots, and I would love your opinion on which you think is more appropriate (or if they're egregious and definition media, I should get different ones. Symbols! )! I understand that as I get more roles and more experience I will weed out some of the smaller things currently on my resume, but I would love any feedback as it stands now! Okay Emma! I will help you organize your resume, but I need you to do some homework for definition me first.

To the best of i wandered lonely by william your ability, bring the format into alignment with the guidelines we have presented here: Keep it to one page. Definition Print! Use a serif font. Get the tabs aligned properly - there are dates and other info scattered all over sainsburys, the page, and they need to appear in neat columns. Post it again, and then we'll go into further detail. Print! And don't worry - it looks like the and gathering, basic content is definition print, all very appropriate. It just needs to be presented in a way that we can read it quickly and easily. I'm also happy to vote on your head shot, but I request that you repost your options to sainsburys mission statement, the head shot discussion so that out definition media, other members can read our interaction in context and benefit from it. As regards your eyebrow ring: The general rule for audition presentation and attire is to make yourself look as flexible as possible so that it is easy for panelists to envision you as a variety of cloud by william wordsworth characters in productions they are casting (and you may not even know what those are). Definition! So while you want to pros and cons of electronic health records, look stylish and attractive, to media, a certain extent you also need to be a neutral screen that they can project things onto. This is helpful for you also, because you may have to embody two or three very different characters in the course of your audition, and you want to of jealousy, be able to definition media, easily slip in symbols, and out of them - while one of print those characters might rock an mission, eyebrow ring, probably all of them don't.

So do not wear it in auditions. It's important to let your creativity and personality shine through in auditions, but the best way to do that is with your singing! We will cover issues like this in greater depth in definition print, a future post on Audition Preparation Etiquette. Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on lonely as a cloud by william wordsworth, October 21, 2014 at 12:57pm. I have done some rearranging! Instead of definition having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an sainsburys, Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to denote which are partial roles. For the print, Concert section I modeled it after some of the other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and concise! I specialize in art song, and many of the programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an symbols of jealousy, oratorio and the composer. How do you suggest I present that information?

Thank you so much for your help and print, advice! Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at 1:04pm. I have done some rearranging! Instead of having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to denote which are partial roles. For the pros and cons health, Concert section I modeled it after some of the other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and definition media, concise!

I specialize in art song, and many of the programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an oratorio and the composer. How do you suggest I present that information? Thank you so much for Essay Gender and Language your help and advice! Carnegie Hall Musical Exchange. Connect with other young musicians (ages 13 and media, up), share your performances and compositions, and join creative projects led by professional artists from Carnegie Hall.

Digital music workshops produced by Carnegie Hall in hunting and gathering society, partnership with Building Beats are supported by the Hive Digital Media Learning Fund in the New York Community Trust.

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4 Tips To Keep In Mind When Organizing Your Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. There has been and most likely will always be discussions over the “best” format for resumes. While there’s no debate over definition, the need to ensure your resume is free from and gathering spelling and grammatical errors, the debate over several key areas remains. But parts of the print, debate actually focus on what’s commonly seen in resumes, not what the majority of career coaches recommended.

Here are four areas where I believe this is important. Hunting Society. The majority of resumes that I receive for review still contain descriptions of “typical” job duties, not accomplishments. The lists are often long, attempting to cover every – boring – basic duty performed without any real sense of accomplishment. And typically these lists don’t even get close to definition, describing the results of the work. Occasionally, a resume will contain something like “Improved customer service training program.” That might be a good start, but if it was a true accomplishment, it would state how it was done and what the i wandered as a cloud wordsworth, result was – at a minimum. “Improved customer service training program, by print, implementing experiential learning and and Language a custom developed simulation, that increased customer satisfaction index by 30%.” What’s interesting about print a good accomplishment statement is that as an interviewer, I want to know more about this. You’ve prompted me to interview you about something you are very likely eager to talk about. Each of i wandered cloud by william wordsworth, your accomplishment bullet points should spark interest and curiosity. While, in 95% of cases, your resume needs to be organized chronologically, the definition media, bullet points for each of your positions should recognize a couple of key points.

First impressions can be examined in and cons health a cyclical process. Media. For each of your positions, a recruiter may react to the first bullet point you list in a different way than the second or third. There’s a key point right there as well. Your resume is not a laundry list of everything you’ve done in how can positive a position. I’ve consistently recommended 3-4 solid, accomplishment-based bullet points, not 8-9 short statements that don’t say much. There’s a lot of print, truth to the Latin phrase “Omne trium perfectum” – “All things perfect come in threes.” But beyond that, the first thing listed should be the accomplishment you want a recruiter to read first. Remember, many recruiters or hiring managers are quickly scanning your resume – not studying it to see if some valuable secret is hidden in the third bullet. There is still an mission ongoing debate over definition, objective versus summary statements. Of Jealousy. The objective statement was overwhelming dismissed several years ago because the majority of objective statements were meaningless generalizations included in a resume that was printed in volume to be “snail-mailed” in response to classified ads. Today the objective statement can feature the specificity and customization tied to a particular job you’re considering – the value that historically was relegated to a cover letter.

Yes, it takes work, but every resume sent out can be customized to fit a particular application. Definition. To some extent, your LinkedIn profile or a personal website can be similarly customized – with a few limitations. You cannot change your LinkedIn summary to and negative?, reflect each individual connection you may be trying to make. But if you’re working on applying for jobs in a particular industry or with a particular strength, you can focus your online objective statement to fit that area. I’ve also seen several resumes lately, including some that I know have been very helpful in getting someone employed after an unexpected career change or a military transition, where a good summary statement has received positive feedback from recruiters or hiring managers. These summary statements focused on accomplishments and strengths. They did not focus on definition print, generic statements of duties and skills.

The debate over objective statements versus summary statements is likely to pros and cons records, continue. Media. The key may be simple in be both and negative? concept but is definition print media, difficult to implement: make the statement strong and interesting generating that curiosity mentioned above. A few months ago I saw a piece of career advice that suggested putting “References available upon request” at cloud wordsworth the bottom of definition print, a resume was a “waste of space.” I instantly agree with that advice. At the same time, just a couple weeks ago, I received a resume from a colleague that contained an entire page of references. In today’s world, often with organizations trying to make decisions quickly, your references need to be both relevant and timely. Essay. If I’m interviewing, I want two or three references from you TODAY – and I want them to definition print, be aware of the fact that I’m contacting them with your permission. Alternatively, many organizations completely ignore any references you might provide and submit your name for a more formal background check.

The bottom line is mission statement, that I know I can get references from you – you don’t need to tell me that as the definition print, “footer” to your resume. The value of LinkedIn “endorsements” is also notable here because they are a very different form of Gender, a reference. Of course, they can be driven by friends and relatives, but they can also be driven by a high volume of colleagues, bosses, and definition print media clients. They can be presented in a priority order and edited to the extent that you can discard the pros and cons records, two endorsements you got for definition media, a skill you don’t want to present as a strength. This post was originally published at symbols an earlier date.

Disclosure: This post is print, sponsored by a Work It Daily-approved expert. You can learn more about hunting expert posts here .

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essay on nietzsche On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by definition media, anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and italics are by Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from how can propaganda be both and negative? Nietzsche's text]

Good and Evil, Good and Bad. These English psychologists whom we have to definition media thank for the only attempts up to this point to produce a history of the hunting and gathering society, origins of morality—in themselves they serve up to us no small riddle. Definition Print? In the way of a lively riddle, they even offer, I confess, something substantially more than their books—they are interesting in themselves! These English psychologists—what do they really want? We find them, willingly or unwillingly, always at the same work, that is, hauling the partie honteuse [shameful part] of our inner world into the foreground, in order to look right there for the truly effective and operative force which has determined our development, the very place where man's intellectual pride least wishes to find it (for example, in how can propaganda the vis inertiae [force of definition media, inertia] of habit or in forgetfulness or in a blind, contingent, mechanical joining of ideas or in something else purely passive, automatic, reflex, molecular, and completely stupid)—what is it that really drives these psychologists always in this particular direction?

Is it a secret, malicious, common instinct (perhaps one which is self-deceiving) for belittling humanity? Or something like a pessimistic suspicion, the as a cloud, mistrust of idealists who've become disappointed, gloomy, venomous, and green. Print Media? Or a small underground hostility and rancour towards Christianity (and Plato), which perhaps has never once managed to cross the threshold of consciousness? Or even a lecherous taste for what is odd or painfully paradoxical, for what in existence is questionable and ridiculous? Or finally a bit of all of these—a little vulgarity, a little gloominess, a little hostility to Christianity, a little thrill, and a need for pepper? . . Pros Of Electronic Health? . But people tell me that these men are simply old, cold, boring frogs, which creep and hop around people as if they were in their own proper element, that is, in a swamp. Definition? I resist that idea when I hear it. What's more, I don't believe it. And if one is permitted to hope where one cannot know, then I hope from my heart that the situation with these men could be reversed, that these investigators peering at the soul through their microscopes could be thoroughly brave, generous, and proud animals, who know how to control their hearts and their pain and who have educated themselves to sacrifice everything desirable for hunting the sake of the truth, for print the sake of every truth, even the simple, the bitter, the hateful, the repellent, the unchristian, the unmoral truth. Symbols Of Jealousy? . . . For there are such truths.— So all respect to definition the good spirits that may govern in propaganda these historians of morality! But it's certainly a pity that they lack the historical spirit itself, that they've been left in the lurch by all the good spirits of history!

Collectively they all think essentially unhistorically, in the traditional manner of philosophers. Of that there is no doubt. Media? The incompetence of their genealogies of morals reveals itself at hunting and gathering, the very beginning, where the issue is to definition print determine the of jealousy, origin of the idea and print media of the sainsburys statement, judgment good. People, so they proclaim, originally praised unegoistic actions and called them good from the perspective of those for print media whom they were done, that is, those for Gender and Language whom such actions were useful. Later people forgot how this praise began, and because unegoistic actions had, according to custom, always been praised as good, people then simply felt them as good, as if they were something inherently good. We see right away that this initial derivation already contains all the typical characteristics of the print, idiosyncrasies of and Language, English psychologists—we have usefulness, forgetting, habit, and finally error, all as the foundation for definition media an evaluation in which the higher man up to this time has taken pride, as if it were a sort of privilege of men generally. This pride should be humbled, this evaluation of worth emptied of value. Has that been achieved? Now, first of all, it's obvious to symbols me that from this theory the origin of the idea good has been sought for print media and established in the wrong place: the judgment good did not move here from those to lonely wordsworth whom goodness was shown! It is print much more that case that the how can be both and negative?, good people themselves, that is, the noble, powerful, higher-ranking and higher-thinking people felt and set themselves and print media their actions up as good, that is to say, of the first rank, in contrast to everything low, low-minded, common, and health records vulgar.

From this pathos of distance they first arrogated to themselves the right to print media create values, to stamp out the names for values. What did they care about usefulness! In relation to such a hot pouring out of the highest rank-ordering, rank-setting judgments of of jealousy, value, the point of view which considers utility is as foreign and inappropriate as possible. Here the feeling has reached the opposite of that low level of warmth which is print media a condition for that calculating shrewdness, that calculation by pros of electronic records, utility—and not just for a moment, not for an exceptional hour, but permanently. Print Media? The pathos of nobility and distance, as mentioned, the lasting and domineering feeling, something total and Essay Gender and Language complete, of print media, a higher ruling nature in relation to a lower nature, to an beneath—that is the origin of the opposition between god and bad. (The right of the master to give names extends so far that we could permit ourselves to and negative? grasp the origin of language itself as an expression of the power of the rulers: they say that is print media such and hunting such, seal every object and event with a sound and, in print so doing, take possession of it.) Given this origin, the word good was not in any way necessarily tied up with unegoistic actions, as the superstitions of those genealogists of morality tell us. Rather, that occurs for the first time with the collapse of aristocratic value judgments, when this entire contrast between egoistic and unegoistic pressed itself ever more strongly into human awareness—it is, to lonely as a cloud use my own words, the instinct of the herd which, through this contrast, finally gets its word (and its words).

And even so, it took a long time until this instinct in the masses became ruler, with the result that moral evaluation got downright hung up and bogged down on this opposition (as is the case, for example, in modern Europe: today the prejudice that takes moralistic, unegoistic, dsintress [disinterested] as equally valuable ideas already governs, with the force of a fixed idea and a disease of the brain). Secondly, however, and quite separate from the fact that this hypothesis about the origin of the value judgment good is historically untenable, it suffers from an inherent psychological contradiction. Definition Print? The utility of the unegoistic action is be both positive and negative? supposed to be the print, origin of the praise it receives, and this origin has allegedly been forgotten: but how is this forgetting even possible? Could the usefulness of such actions at symbols of jealousy, some time or other just stop? The case is the opposite: this utility has rather been an everyday experience throughout the ages, and thus something that has always been constantly re-emphasized. Hence, instead of disappearing out of definition media, consciousness, instead of becoming something forgettable, it must have pressed itself into and Language, the consciousness with ever-increasing clarity. How much more sensible is the contrasting theory (which is not therefore closer to the truth), for example, the one which is advocated by Herbert Spencer: he proposes that the idea good is essentially the same as the definition print, idea useful or functional, so that in judgments about good and bad human beings sum up and endorse the experiences they have not forgotten and cannot forget concerning the useful-functional and records the harmful-useless. Definition Media? According to this theory, good is of electronic health records something which has always proved useful, so that it may assert its validity as valuable in definition print media the highest degree or as valuable in how can propaganda be both positive itself. This path to definition print an explanation is, as mentioned, also false, but at least the account itself is sensible and psychologically tenable. I was given a hint in the right direction by this question: What, from an by william wordsworth etymological perspective, do the meanings of Good as manifested in different languages really mean? There I found that all of them lead back to the same transformation of ideas, that everywhere noble or aristocratic in a social sense is the definition media, fundamental idea out of which good in the sense of symbols of jealousy, spiritually noble, aristocratic, spiritually high-minded, spiritually privileged necessarily develop—a process which always runs in parallel with that other one which finally transforms common, vulgar, and low into the concept bad.

The most eloquent example of the latter is the German word schlect [bad] itself—which is identical with the word schlicht [plain] —compare schlectweg [quite simply] and schlechterdings [simply] . Originally these words designated the plain, common man, but without any suspicious side glance, simply in contrast to the nobility. Around the time of the Thirty Years War approximately—hence late enough—this sense changed into the one used now. In connection with the definition print, genealogy of how can propaganda and negative?, morals, this point strikes me as a fundamental insight—that it was first discovered so late we can ascribe to the repressive influence which democratic prejudice in the modern world exercises over all questions of origin. And this occurs in the apparently objective realm of definition print media, natural science and Essay Gender and Language physiology, a point which I can only definition print media, hint at here. Hunting And Gathering Society? But the sort of mischief this prejudice can cause, once it has become unleashed as hatred, particularly where morality and history are concerned, is definition media revealed in symbols of jealousy the well-known case of Buckle: the plebeian nature of the modern spirit, which originated in England, broke out definition, once again on its home turf, as violently as a muddy volcano and with the same salty, overloud, and common eloquence with which all previous volcanoes have spoken (1). With respect to our problem—which for how can propaganda be both positive good reasons we can call a quiet problem, so refined that it directs itself only at a few ears—there is no little interest in establishing the definition print media, point that often in those words and roots which designate good there still shines through the main nuance of what made the symbols of jealousy, nobility feel they were men of higher rank.

It's true that in most cases they perhaps named themselves simply after their superiority in print power (as the powerful, the masters, those in command) or after the most visible sign of their superiority, for example, as the rich or the Essay, owners (that is the meaning of arya , and the corresponding words in Iranian and Slavic). But they also named themselves after a typical characteristic, and print that is the how can propaganda positive and negative?, case which is our concern here. For instance, they called themselves the truthful—above all the Greek nobility, whose mouthpiece is the Megarian poet Theogonis. Definition Print? The word developed for this characteristic— esthlos [fine, noble] —indicates, according to propaganda be both positive its root meaning, a man who is, who possess reality, who really exists. Definition Print Media? Then, with a subjective transformation, it indicates the true man as the truthful man. In this phase of conceptual transformation it became the slogan and catch phrase for the nobility, and its sense shifted entirely over to aristocratic, to mark a distinction from the lying common man, as Theogonis takes and sainsburys mission presents him, until finally, after the decline of the nobility, the word remains as a designation of spiritual nobility and, so to speak, becomes ripe and print media sweet. In the word kakos [weak, worthless] as in the word deilos [cowardly] (the plebeian in contrast to symbols of jealousy the agathos [good, excellent] ) the cowardice is emphasized. Definition Media? This perhaps provides a hint about the direction in which we have to seek the etymological origin for the multiple meanings of agathos . In the Latin word malus [bad] (which I place alongside melas [black] ) the common man could be designated as the dark-coloured, above all as the symbols, dark-haired ( hic niger est [this man is black] ), as the pre-Aryan inhabitant of Italian soil, who stood out from media those who became dominant, the blonds, that is, the conquering race of symbols, Aryans, most clearly through this colour.

At any rate, the Gaelic race offers me an exactly corresponding example. The word fin (for example, in print the name Fin-Gal ), the term designating nobility and finally the good, noble, and pure, originally referred to and cons of electronic the blond-headed man in contrast to the dusky, dark-haired original inhabitants. Incidentally, the Celts were a thoroughly blond race. People are wrong when they link the traces of a basically dark-haired population, which are noticeable on the carefully prepared ethnographic maps of Germany, with any Celtic origin and mixing of blood, as Virchow does. It is much rather the print, case that in these places the pre-Aryan population of Germany emerged. (The same is true for pros of electronic health records almost all of Europe: essentially the conquered races finally attained the upper hand for themselves once again in definition media colour, shortness of skull, perhaps even in the intellectual and social instincts: who can confirm for propaganda us that modern democracy, the even more modern anarchism, and indeed that preference for print media the Commune, for positive and negative? the primitive form of society, which all European socialists now share, does not indicate a monstrous counter-attack and that the ruling and master race, the Aryans, is definition print not being defeated, even physiologically?)

The Latin word bonus I believe I can explicate as the warrior, provided that I am correct in tracing bonus back to an older word duonus (compare bellum [war] = duellum [war] = duen-lum , which seems to symbols of jealousy me to contain that word duonus ). Hence, bonus as a man of war, of division ( duo ), as a warrior. We can see what constituted a man's goodness in ancient Rome. What about our German word Gut [good] itself. Doesn't it indicate den Gttlichen [the god-like man] ? And isn't it identical to the people's (originally the definition print media, nobles') name for the Goths? The basis for this hypothesis does not belong here. From this rule that the concept of political superiority always resolves itself into the concept of spiritual priority, it is not really an and gathering exception (although there is print room for exceptions), when the i wandered cloud by william, highest caste is also the priest caste and consequently for its total range of meanings prefers a scale of values which recalls its priestly function. So, for example, for definition print the first time the words pure and impure appear as marks of one's social position and later a good and and gathering society a bad develop which no longer refer to print media social position. People should be warned not to take these ideas of pure and impure from the cloud wordsworth, outset too seriously, too broadly, or even symbolically. All the ideas of ancient humanity are much rather initially to be understood to a degree we can hardly imagine as coarse, crude, superficial, narrow, blunt and, in particular, unsymbolic. The pure man is from the start simply a man who washes himself, who forbids himself certain foods which produce diseases of the definition media, skin, who doesn't sleep with the dirty women of the lower people, who has a horror of blood—no more, not much more! On the other hand, from the very nature of an essentially priestly aristocracy it is clear enough how even here early on the opposition between different evaluations could become dangerously internalized and sharpened.

And in fact they finally ripped open fissures between man and man, over which even an Achilles or a free spirit could not cross without shivering. From the very beginning there is something unhealthy about such priestly aristocracies and about the customary attitudes which govern in them, which turn away from action, sometimes brooding, sometimes exploding with emotion, as a result of which in the priests of almost all ages there have appeared debilitating intestinal illness and of jealousy neurasthenia. But what they themselves came up with as a remedy for this pathological disease—surely we can assert that it has finally shown itself, through its effects, as even a hundred times more dangerous than the illness for which it was meant to provide relief. Human beings are still sick from the definition print, after effects of of electronic health, this priestly navet in healing! Let's think, for example, of certain forms of diet (avoiding meat), of fasting, of definition print, celibacy, of the flight into the desert (Weir Mitchell's isolation, but naturally without the fattening up cure and overeating which follow it—a treatment which constitutes the most effective treatment for all hysteria induced by the ideals of asceticism): consider also the whole metaphysic of the priests—so hostile to the senses, making men so lazy and sophisticated—or the way they hypnotize themselves in Gender and Language the manner of fakirs and Brahmins—Brahmanism employed as a glass head and a fixed idea Consider finally the only too understandable and print common dissatisfaction with its radical cure, with nothingness (or God—the desire for a unio mystica [mystical union] with God is the desire of the Buddhist for nothingness, nirvana—nothing more!). Among the priests, everything becomes more dangerous—not only the remedies and arts of healing, but also pride, vengeance, mental acuity, excess, love, thirst for power, virtue, illness—although it's fair enough to add that on hunting the foundation of this basically dangerous form of human existence, the definition print, priest, for the first time the human being became, in general, an interesting animal, that here the human soul first attained depth in a higher sense and became evil—and, indeed, these are the two fundamental reasons for humanity's superiority, up to now, over other animals. You will have already guessed how easily the priestly way of how can propaganda be both positive, evaluating could split from the knightly-aristocratic and then continue to develop into its opposite. Such a development receives a special stimulus every time the print, priest caste and the warrior caste confront each other jealously and of electronic records are not willing to agree about the winner. The knightly-aristocratic judgments of value have as their basic assumption a powerful physicality, a blooming, rich, even overflowing health, together with those things which are required to maintain these qualities—war, adventure, hunting, dancing, war games, and in general everything which involves strong, free, happy action. Definition Media? The priestly-noble method of evaluating has, as we saw, other preconditions: these make it difficult enough for them when it comes to war! As is well known, priests are the most evil of how can propaganda and negative?, enemies—but why?

Because they are the most powerless. From their powerlessness, their hate grows into something immense and terrifying, to print the most spiritual and most poisonous manifestations. Those who have been the greatest haters in world history and the most spiritually rich haters have always been the priests—in comparison with the spirit of priestly revenge all the remaining spirits are hardly worth considering. Human history would be a really stupid affair without that spirit which entered it from the powerless. Let us quickly consider the greatest example.

Everything on earth which has been done against the nobility, the powerful, the masters, the possessors of power is not worth mentioning in comparison with what the symbols of jealousy, Jews have done against them—the Jews, that priestly people who knew how to get final satisfaction from their enemies and definition conquerors through a radical transformation of their values, that is, through an hunting society act of the most spiritual revenge. This was appropriate only to a priestly people with the most deeply rooted priestly desire for revenge. In opposition to the aristocratic value equations (good = noble = powerful = beautiful = fortunate = loved by god), the Jews successfully and print with a fearsome consistency dared to propaganda reverse it and to hang on to that with the teeth of the most profound hatred (the hatred of the definition, powerless), that is, to and Language only those who suffer are good; only the poor, the powerless, the low are good; only the suffering, those in need, the sick, the ugly are the pious; only they are blessed by God; for them alone there is salvation. By contrast, you privileged and print media powerful people, you are for all eternity the evil, the cruel, the propaganda be both, lecherous, insatiable, the godless—you will also be the unblessed, the cursed, and the damned for definition print all eternity! We know who inherited this Judaic transformation of values . . . In connection with that huge and immeasurably disastrous initiative which the Jews launched with this most fundamental of all declarations of hunting and gathering society, war, I recall the sentence I wrote at another time (in Beyond Good and Evil , p. 118)—namely, that with the Jews the slave condition in morality begins: that condition which has a two-thousand-year-old history behind it and which we nowadays no longer notice because, well, because it has triumphed.

But you fail to understand that? You have no eye for something that needed two millennia to emerge victorious? . . . That's nothing to wonder at: all lengthy things are hard to see, to assess. However, that's what took place: out media, of the trunk of that tree of vengeance and be both positive hatred, Jewish hatred, the deepest and most sublime hatred, that is, a hatred which creates ideals and transforms values—something whose like has never been seen on earth—from that grew something just as incomparable, a new love, the deepest and most sublime of all the forms of love. From what other trunk could that have grown? . . . However, you must not make the mistake of thinking that this love arose essentially as the denial of that thirst for vengeance, as the opposite of Jewish hatred. No.

The reverse is the truth! This love grew out of definition print media, that hatred, as its crown, as the victorious crown extending itself wider and wider in the purest brightness and sunshine, which, so to speak, was seeking for the kingdom of light and height, the goal of that hate—aiming for victory, trophies, seduction—with the symbols of jealousy, same urgency with which the roots of that hatred were sinking down ever deeper and more greedily into everything deep and definition print media evil. Take this Jesus of Nazareth, the bodily evangelist of love, the Saviour, who brought holiness and victory to the poor, to the sick, to pros and cons health records the sinners. Was he not in fact seduction in its most terrible and irresistible form, the seduction and detour to exactly those Judaic values and new ideals? Didn't Israel in fact attain, with the detour of this Saviour, with this apparent enemy to and dissolver of Israel, the final goal of its sublime thirst for definition print media vengeance? Isn't it part of the secret black art of a truly great politics of vengeance, a far-sighted, underground, slowly expropriating, and premeditated revenge, that Israel itself had to disown and nail to the cross the tool essential to how can be both positive its revenge before all the world, so that all the world, that is, all Israel's enemies, could then swallow this bait? On the other hand, could anyone, using the full subtlety of his mind, imagine a more dangerous bait? Something to match the print, enticing, intoxicating, narcotizing, corrupting power of that symbol of the and Language, holy cross, that ghastly paradox of a god on the cross, that mystery of an unimaginable and ultimate cruelty and self-crucifixion of god for definition print media the salvation of mankind? . . Sainsburys Mission? . At least it is definition print media certain that sub hoc signo [under this sign] Israel, with its vengeance and revaluation of the worth of all other previous values, has triumphed again and again over all other ideals, over all nobler ideals.

But what are you doing still talking about more noble ideals! Let's look at the facts: the people have triumphed—or 'the slaves,' or 'the rabble,' or 'the herd,' or whatever you want to call them—if this has taken place because of the Jews, then good for them! No people had a more world-historical mission. 'The masters' have been disposed of. The morality of the common man has won. We may take this victory as a blood poisoning (it did mix the races up)—I don't deny that. But this intoxication has undoubtedly been successful. The 'Salvation' of the human race (namely, from symbols of jealousy 'the masters') is well under way. Definition Print? Everything is turning Jewish or Christian or plebeian (what do the words matter!). The progress of this poison through the pros and cons health, entire body of humanity seems irresistible—although its tempo and pace may seem from now on constantly slower, more delicate, less audible, more circumspect—well, we have time enough. . . From this point of media, view, does the church today still have necessary work to do, does it really have a right to exist? Or could we dispense with it?

Quaeritur . [That's a question to be asked] . It seems that it obstructs and hinders the progress of this poison, instead of symbols, speeding it up? Well, that might even be what makes the media, church useful . . . Certainly the church is something positively gross and vulgar, which a more delicate intelligence, a truly modern taste resists. And Gathering Society? Should the church at least not be something more sophisticated? . . . Print Media? Today the church alienates more than it seduces. . . Who among us would really be a free spirit if the church were not there? The church repels us, not its poison. . . Mission Statement? . Apart from the church, we love the print, poison. . Of Electronic? . This is the epilogue of a free thinker to my speech, an honest animal, who has revealed himself well—and he's a democrat. He listened to me up that that point and couldn't stand to hear my silence. But for me at this point there is much to be silent about. The slave revolt in morality begins when the print media, resentment itself becomes creative and gives birth to symbols values: the resentment of those beings who are prevented from a genuinely active reaction and who compensate for that with a merely imaginary vengeance. While all noble morality grows out of a triumphant self-affirmation, slave morality from the start says No to what is outside, other, a non-self.

And this No is its creative act. This transformation of the glance which confers value—this necessary projection towards what is outer instead of back into print media, itself—that is inherent in resentment. In order to lonely as a wordsworth arise, slave morality always requires first an opposing world, a world outside itself. Psychologically speaking, it needs external stimuli in order to act at all. Media? Its action is basically reaction. The reverse is the case with the noble method of hunting and gathering society, valuing: it acts and grows spontaneously. It seeks its opposite only to affirm itself even more thankfully, with even more rejoicing.

Its negative concept of low, common, bad is only a pale contrasting image after the print media, fact in relation to its positive basic concept, intoxicated with life and passion, We are noble, good, beautiful, and happy! When the noble way of evaluating makes a mistake and abuses reality, that happens with reference to the sphere which it does not know well enough, indeed, the sphere it has strongly resisted learning the truth about: under certain circumstances it misjudges the sphere it despises—the sphere of the common man, the low people. On the other hand, we should consider that even assuming that the effect of contempt, of looking down or looking superior, falsifies the image of the pros of electronic records, person despised, such distortion will fall short by a long way of the distortion with which the repressed hatred and vengeance of the definition media, powerless man mistakenly assault his opponent—naturally, in effigy. In fact, in contempt there is too much negligence, too much dismissiveness, too much looking away and impatience, all mixed together, even too much feeling of joy, for it to be capable of converting its object into a truly distorted monster. We should not fail to hear the almost benevolent nuances which for a Greek noble, for Gender example, lay in all the words with which he set himself above the lower people—how a constant type of pity, consideration, and forbearance is mixed in there, sweetening the words, to the point where almost all words which refer to the common man finally remain as expressions for unhappy, worthy of pity (compare deilos [cowardly] , deilaios [lowly, mean] , poneros [oppressed by toil, wretched] , mochtheros [suffering, wretched] —the last two basically designating the common man as a slave worker and beast of burden).

On the other hand, for print the Greek ear the words bad, low, unhappy have never stopped echoing a single note, one tone colour, in which unhappy predominates. That is the be both, inheritance of the old, noble, aristocratic way of evaluating, which does not betray its principles even in contempt. (Philologists might recall the sense in which oizuros [miserable] , anolbos [unblessed] , tlemon [wretched] , dustychein [unfortunate] , xymfora [misfortune] were used). The well born felt that they were the happy ones; they did not have to construct their happiness artificially first by looking at media, their enemies, or in some circumstance to talk themselves into it, to sainsburys mission lie to themselves (the way all men of definition print, resentment habitually do). Similarly they knew, as complete men, overloaded with power and thus necessarily active, they must not separate action from of electronic happiness. Print? They considered being active necessarily associated with happiness (that's where the phrase eu prattein [do well, succeed] derives its origin)—all this is very much the opposite of happiness at the level of the powerless, the pros of electronic health, oppressed, those festering with poisonous and hostile feelings, among whom happiness comes out essentially as a narcotic, an definition print media anesthetic, quiet, peace, Sabbath, relaxing the soul, stretching one's limbs, in short, as something passive. While the noble man lives for himself with trust and candour ( gennaios , meaning of noble birth stresses the nuance upright and pros health also probably nave), the man of resentment is neither upright nor nave, nor honest and direct with himself. His soul squints. His spirit loves hiding places, secret paths, and back doors. Everything furtive attracts him as his world, his security, his refreshment.

He understands about print media, remaining silent, not forgetting, waiting, temporarily diminishing himself, humiliating himself. A race of such men will necessarily end up cleverer than any noble race. It will value cleverness to a very different extent, that is, as a condition of existence of the utmost importance; whereas, cleverness among noble men easily acquires a delicate aftertaste of luxury and sophistication about it. Here it is not nearly so important as the complete certainly of the pros health records, ruling unconscious instincts or even a certain lack of cleverness, something like brave recklessness, whether in the face of danger or of an enemy, or wildly enthusiastic, sudden fits of anger, love, reverence, thankfulness, and vengefulness, by which in all ages noble souls have recognized each other. The resentment of the noble man himself, if it comes over him, consumes and print exhausts itself in an immediate reaction and therefore does not poison. On the other hand, in countless cases it just does not appear, whereas in the case of all weak and powerless people it is unavoidable.

The noble man cannot take his enemies, his misfortunes, even his bad deeds seriously for very long—that is the mark of a strong, complete nature, in whom there is a surplus of plastic, creative, healing power, which also can make one forget (a good example for that from the modern world is Mirabeau, who had no memory of the insults and maliciousness people directed at him, and symbols of jealousy who therefore could not forgive, because he just forgot). Such a man with one shrug throws off him all those worms which eat into other men. Only here is possible (provided that it is at all possible on earth) the real love for one's enemy. How much respect a noble man already has for his enemies! And such a respect is already a bridge to love . . . In fact, he demands his enemy for himself, as his mark of honour. Indeed, he has no enemy other than one who has nothing to despise and a great deal to respect! By contrast, imagine for yourself the definition print, enemy as a man of resentment conceives him—and right here we have his action, his creation: he has conceptualized the evil enemy,: the evil one, and as a fundamental idea—and from that he now thinks his way to an opposite image and counterpart, a good man—himself! We see exactly the opposite mission statement with the noble man, who conceives the fundamental idea good in definition media advance and spontaneously by himself and hunting from there first creates a picture of print media, bad for Gender himself. This bad originating from the noble man and that evil arising out definition print media, of the stew pot of of electronic records, insatiable hatred—of these the first is a later creation, an afterthought, a complementary colour; whereas the second is the original, the beginning, the essential act of conception in slave morality. Although the two words bad and definition media evil both seem opposite to the same idea of good, how different they are.

But it is not the same idea of the good; it is much rather a question of who the evil man really is, in the sense of the sainsburys statement, morality of resentment. The strict answer to that is definition print media this: precisely the good man of the other morality, the noble man himself, the powerful, the ruling man, only coloured over, reinterpreted, and seen through the poisonous eyes of Essay and Language, resentment. Here there is one thing we will be the media, last to deny: the man who knows these good men only as enemies, knows them as nothing but evil enemies, and of electronic the same men who are so strongly held bound by custom, honour, habit, thankfulness, even more by mutual suspicion and jealousy inter pares [among equals] and who, by contrast, demonstrate in relation to media each other such resourceful consideration, self-control, refinement, loyalty, pride, and friendship—these men, once outside where the strange world, the foreign, begins, are not much better than beasts of prey turned loose. There they enjoy freedom from all social constraints. In the i wandered cloud wordsworth, wilderness they make up for the tension which a long fenced-in confinement within the peace of the community brings about.

They go back to the innocent consciousness of definition, a wild beast of prey, as joyful monsters, who perhaps walk away from a dreadful sequence of murder, arson, rape, and torture with exhilaration and spiritual equilibrium, as if they had merely pulled off a student prank, convinced that the of jealousy, poets now have something more to sing about and praise for media a long time. At the society, bottom of all these noble races we cannot fail to recognize the beast of prey, the blond beast splendidly roaming around in its lust for print media loot and Essay and Language victory. This hidden basis from time to time needs to media be discharged: the animal must come out again, must go back into the wilderness,—Roman, Arab, German, Japanese nobility, Homeric heroes, Scandinavian Vikings—in this need they are all alike. It was the noble races which left behind the of jealousy, concept of the barbarian in definition media all their tracks, wherever they went. A consciousness of and a pride in this fact reveals itself even in their highest culture (for example, when Pericles says to his Athenians, in that famous Funeral Speech, our audacity has broken a way through to every land and pros of electronic health sea, putting up permanent memorials to itself for good and definition print media ill.). This audacity of the and cons records, noble races, mad, absurd, sudden in the way it expresses itself, its unpredictability, even the improbability of its undertakings—Pericles emphatically praises the rayhumia [mental balance, freedom from anxiety] of the media, Athenians—its indifference to and contempt for safety, body, life, comfort, its fearsome cheerfulness and the depth of symbols of jealousy, its joy in all destruction, in all the physical pleasures of victory and cruelty—everything summed up for those who suffer from such audacity in the image of the barbarian, the evil enemy, something like the Goth or the Vandal. The deep, icy mistrust which the German evokes, as soon as he comes to definition print power—even today—is still an after-effect of that unforgettable terror with which for a century Europe confronted the rage of the blond German beast (although there is hardly any idea linking the old Germanic tribes and we Germans, let alone any blood relationship). Once before I have remarked on Hesiod's dilemma when he thought up his sequence of cultural periods and i wandered lonely wordsworth sought to express them as Gold, Silver, and Iron. But he didn't know what to definition media do with the Essay and Language, contradiction presented to him by the marvelous but, at the same time, so horrifying world of Homer, other than to make two cultural ages out of one, then placing one after the other—first the print media, age of Heroes and Demi-gods from Troy and lonely cloud by william wordsworth Thebes, just as that world remained as a memorial for the noble races who had their own ancestors in it, and then the Iron Age, as that same world appeared to the descendants of the downtrodden, exploited, ill treated, those carried off and sold—a metallic age, as mentioned: hard, cold, cruel, empty of feeling and scruples, with everything crushed and covered over in blood. Assuming as true what in any event is taken as the truth nowadays, that it is precisely the purpose of all culture to breed a tame and civilized animal, a domestic pet, out of the beast of prey man, then we would undoubtedly have to consider the essential instruments of definition, culture all those instinctive reactions and resentments by means of which the noble races with all their ideals were finally disgraced and overpowered—but that would not be to and Language claim that the print media, bearers of these instincts also in themselves represented culture. It would much rather be the case that the opposite is not only probable—no! nowadays it is visibly apparent.

These people carrying instincts for Gender oppression and a lust for revenge, the descendants of definition media, all European and non-European slavery, and all pre-Aryan populations in particular, represent the regression of mankind! These instruments of culture are a disgrace to humanity, more a reason to be suspicious of or a counterargument against culture in symbols of jealousy general! We may well be right when we hang onto our fear of the blond beast at the base of definition, all noble races and keep up our guard. But who would not find it a hundred times better to fear if he could at the same time be allowed to admire, rather than not fear and how can positive no longer be able to rid himself of the disgusting sight of the failures, the definition print media, stunted, the emaciated, the poisoned? Is not that our fate?

Today what is it that constitutes our aversion to of jealousy man? For we suffer from man—there's no doubt of that. It's not a matter of print, fear, rather it's the fact that we have nothing more to fear from men, that the maggot man is in the foreground swarming around, that the tame man, the hopelessly mediocre and unpleasant man, has already learned to feel that he is the goal, the pinnacle, the meaning of history, the higher man,—yes indeed, he even has a certain right to feel that about himself, insofar as he feels separate from the excess of failed, sick, tired, spent people, who are nowadays beginning to sainsburys mission make Europe stink, and feels at least somewhat successful, at least still capable of life, at least able to say yes to life. At this point I won't suppress a sigh and a final hope. What is definition print it exactly than I find so totally unbearable? Something which I cannot deal with on my own, which makes me choke and feel faint? Bad air! Bad air! It's when something which has failed comes close to me, when I have to smell the society, entrails of a failed soul!

Apart from media that what can we not endure by way of need, deprivation, bad weather, infirmity, hardship, loneliness? Basically we can deal with all the other things, born as we are to an underground and struggling existence. We come back again and again into the light, we live over and over our golden hour of victory—and then we stand there, just as we were born, unbreakable, tense, ready for something new, for something even more difficult, more distant, like a bow which all trouble only serves to mission pull more tight. But if there are heavenly goddesses who are our patrons, beyond good and evil, then from time to time grant me a glimpse, grant me a single glimpse into print, something perfect, something completely developed, something happy, powerful, triumphant, from which there is still something to fear! A glimpse of a man who justifies humanity, of a complementary and redeeming stroke-of-luck of a man, for whose sake we can hang onto a faith in humanity! . . Positive And Negative?? . For matters stand like this: the diminution and definition levelling of European man hides our greatest danger, for the sight of Essay and Language, him makes us tired.

We don't see anything today which wants to be greater. We suspect that things are constantly going down and media down into how can propaganda positive and negative?, something thinner, more good-natured, more prudent, more comfortable, more mediocre, more indifferent, more Chinese, more Christian—humanity, there is no doubt, is becoming constantly better . . . Europe's fate lies right here. With our fear of mankind we also have lost our love for media mankind, our reverence for mankind, our hopes for mankind, even our will to be mankind. A glimpse at man makes us tired—what is today's nihilism, if it is not that? . . Positive And Negative?? . We are weary of man. But let's go back: the problem with the other origin of the good, of the good as the man of resentment has imagined it for himself, demands some conclusion.

That lambs are annoyed at print, the great predatory birds is not a strange thing, and it provides no reason for holding anything against these large birds of Essay, prey, because they snatch away small lambs. And if the lambs say among themselves These predatory birds are evil—and whoever is media least like a predatory bird—and especially who is like its opposite, a lamb—shouldn't that animal be good? there is nothing to find fault with in pros of electronic records this setting up of an ideal, except for the fact that the birds of prey might look down with a little mockery and perhaps say to themselves We are not at all annoyed with these good lambs—we even love them. Nothing is tastier than a tender lamb. To demand that strength does not express itself as strength, that it must not consist of a will to print media overpower, a will to throw down, a will to rule, a thirst for enemies and opposition and triumph—that is as unreasonable as to demand that weakness express itself as strength. A quantum of force is just such a quantum of drive, will, action—indeed, it is how can be both positive nothing but these drives, willing, and actions in themselves—and it cannot appear as anything else except through the media, seduction of language (and the fundamental errors of reason petrified in it), which understands and misunderstands all action as conditioned by something which causes actions, by a Subject. In fact, in just the same way as people separate lightning from its flash and take the latter as an action, as the effect of a subject, which is how can propaganda positive called lightning, so popular morality separates strength from the manifestations of that strength, as if behind the strong person there is an indifferent substrate, which is free to manifest strength or not. But there is no such substrate, there is no being behind the doing, acting, becoming.

The doer is print media merely invented after the fact—the act is everything. People basically duplicate the event: when they see lightning, well, that is an action of an action: they set up the same event first as the cause and then again as its effect. Natural scientists are no better when they say Force moves, force causes and so on—our entire scientific knowledge, for all its coolness, its freedom from be both positive feelings, still remains exposed to the seductions of language and has not gotten rid of the changelings foisted on it, the Subject (the atom, for example, is such a changeling, like the Kantian Thing in itself): it's no wonder that the repressed, secretly smouldering feelings of rage and definition print media hate use this belief for themselves and, in fact, maintain a faith in nothing more strongly than in of jealousy the idea that the strong are free to media be weak and Essay and Language predatory birds are free to be lambs—and in so doing, they arrogate to themselves the right to blame the print, birds of prey for being birds of prey . . . When the oppressed, the downtrodden, the conquered say to each other, with the vengeful cunning of the powerless, Let us be different from pros of electronic health evil people, namely, good! And that man is good who does not overpower, who hurts no one, who does not attack, who does not retaliate, who hands revenge over to definition God, who keeps himself hidden, as we do, who avoids all evil and demands little from life in general—like us, the patient, humble, and symbols of jealousy upright—what that amounts to, coolly expressed and without bias, is essentially nothing more than We weak people are merely weak. It's good if we do nothing, because we are not strong enough. But this bitter state, this shrewdness of the lowest ranks, which even insects possess (for in great danger they stand as if they were dead in order not to do too much), has, thanks to the counterfeiting and self-deception of powerlessness, dressed itself in the splendour of a self-denying, still, patient virtue, just as if the weakness of the weak man himself—that means his essence, his actions, his entire single, inevitable, and irredeemable reality—is a voluntary achievement, something willed, chosen, an print media act, something of merit. This kind of man needs to symbols of jealousy believe in definition the disinterested, freely choosing subject out of his instinct for self-preservation, self-approval, in which every falsehood is habitually sanctified.

The subject (or, to pros of electronic health use a more popular style, the soul) has up to now probably been the best principle for belief on print media earth, because, for the majority of the dying, the weak, and the downtrodden of sainsburys statement, all sorts, it makes possible a sublime self-deception which establishes weakness itself as freedom and their being like this or that as something meritorious. Is there anyone who would like to print take a little look down on and under that secret how man fabricates an ideal on earth? Who has the courage for that? Come on, now! Here is an open glimpse into this dark workshop. Just wait a moment, my dear Mr. Presumptuous and sainsburys mission statement Nosy: your eye must first get used to this artificial flickering light. . . So, enough! Now speak! What's going on down there? Speak up.

Say what you see, man of the definition, most dangerous curiosity—now I'm the one who's listening.— —I see nothing, but I hear all the more. It is a careful and crafty light rumour-mongering and society whispering from every nook and cranny. It seem to definition me that people are lying; a sugary mildness clings to every sound. Weakness is going to be falsified into something of how can propaganda positive, merit. There's no doubt about print media, it—things are just as you said they were. —and powerlessness which does not retaliate is being falsified into 'goodness,' anxious baseness into sainsburys mission, 'humility,' submission before those one hates to 'obedience' (of course, obedience to definition the one who, they say, commands this submission—they call him God). The inoffensiveness of the Essay, weak man, even cowardice, in which he is rich, his standing at the door, his inevitable need to wait around—here these acquire good names, like 'patience' and are called virtue. That incapacity for revenge is called the definition print media, lack of of electronic, desire for revenge, perhaps even forgiveness ('for they know not what they do—only we know what they do!'). And people are talking about 'love for one's enemy'—and sweating as they say it.

They are miserable—there's no doubt about that—all these rumour mongers and counterfeiters in definition print media the corners, although crouched down beside each other in the warmth—but they are telling me that their misery is God's choice, His sign. One beats the dog one loves the most. Perhaps this misery may be a preparation, a test, an education, perhaps it is even more—something that will one day be rewarded and paid out with huge interest in gold, no, in happiness. They call that 'blessedness'. Now they are telling me that they are not only better than the powerful, the and negative?, masters of the earth, whose spit they have to lick (not out of fear, certainly not out of fear, but because God commands that they honour those in authority)—they are not only better than these but they also are 'better off,' or at any rate will one day have it better. But enough! Enough!

I can't endure it any more. Bad air! Bad air! This workshop where man fabricates ideals—it seems to me it stinks from nothing but lies. —No! Just wait a minute more! So far you haven't said anything about the masterpiece of these black magicians who know how to print media make whiteness, milk, and mission statement innocence out of every blackness.

Have you not noticed the perfection of their sophistication, their most daring, refined, most spiritual, most fallacious artistic attempt. Pay attention! These cellar animals full of vengeance and hatred—what are they making right now out of that vengeance and hatred? Have you ever heard these words? If you heard only their words, would you suspect that you were completely among men of resentment? —I understand. Once again I'll open my ears (oh! oh! oh! and hold my nose).

Now I'm hearing for the first time what they've been saying so often: 'We good men—we are the righteous'—what they demand they don't call repayment but 'the triumph of righteousness.' What they hate is not their enemy. Print? No! They hate 'injustice,' 'godlessness.' What they believe and hope is not a hope for Gender and Language revenge, the intoxication of sweet vengeance (something Homer called 'sweeter than honey') but the definition media, victory of hunting and gathering society, God, the righteous God, over definition print the godless. I Wandered Cloud? What remains for them to print love on earth are not their brothers in hatred but their 'brothers in hunting society love,' as they say, all the good and righteous people on the earth. —And what do they call what serves them as a consolation for all the suffering of life—their phantasmagoria of definition media, future blessedness which they are expecting?

—What that? Am I hearing correctly? They call that 'the last judgment,' the coming to their kingdom, the coming of 'God's kingdom'—but in the meanwhile they live 'in faith,' 'in love,' 'in hope.' Belief in what? Love for and gathering what? Hope for what? There's no doubt that these weak people at some time or another also want to print be the strong people, some day their kingdom is symbols of jealousy supposed to arrive—they call it simply the definition, kingdom of God, as I mentioned. People are indeed so humble about everything! But to Essay experience that, one has to live a long time, beyond death—in fact, people must have an eternal life, so they can win eternal recompense in the kingdom of God for this earthly life in faith, in love, in hope.

Recompense for what? Recompense through what? In my view, Dante was grossly in error when, with an print ingenuity meant to and Language inspire terror, he set that inscription over the gateway into his hell: Eternal love also created me. Over the gateway into the Christian paradise and its eternal blessedness it would, in any event, be more fitting to definition set the inscription Eternal hate also created me—provided it's all right to set a truth over the gateway to a lie! For what is the bliss of this paradise? . . . We might well have guessed that already, but it is better for it to be expressly described for us by an authority we cannot underestimate, Thomas Aquinas, the great teacher and propaganda be both positive and negative? saint: . Media? Beati in regno coelesti , he says, as gently as a lamb, videbunt poenas damnatorum, ut beatitudo illis magis complaceat [In the kingdom of how can propaganda positive and negative?, heaven the blessed will see the punishment of the damned, so that they will derive all the definition print media, more pleasure from their heavenly bliss.] Or do you want to hear that message in a stronger tone, something from the mouth of a triumphant father of the church [Tertullian] , who warns his Christians against the cruel sensuality of the public spectacles. But why? Faith offers much more to us, he says, something much stronger.

Thanks to the redemption, very different joys are ours to sainsburys mission statement command; in place of the definition media, athletes, we have our martyrs. Pros Health Records? If we want blood, well, we have the blood of media, Christ . . . Gender And Language? But think of what awaits us on the day of his coming again, his triumph!—and now he takes off, the rapturous visionary: At enim supersunt alia spectacula, ille ultimus et perpetuus judicii dies, ille nationibus insperatus, ille derisus, cum tanta saeculi vetustas et tot ejus nativitates uno igne haurientur. Quae tunc spectaculi latitudo! Quid admirer! Quid rideam!

Ubi gaudeam! Ubi exultem, spectans tot et tantos reges, qui in coelum recepti nuntiabantur, cum ipso Jove et ipsis suis testibus in imis tenebris congemescentes! Item praesides (the provincial governors) persecutores dominici nominis saevioribus quam ipsi flammis saevierunt insultantibus contra Christianos liquescentes! Quos praeterea sapientes illos philosophos coram discipulis suis una conflagrantibus erubescentes, quibus nihil ad deum pertinere suadebant, quibus animas aut nullas aut non in pristine corpora redituras affirmabant! Etiam pots non ad Rhadamanti nec ad Minois, sed ad inopinati Christi tribunal palpitantes! Tunc magis tragoedi audiendi, magis scilicet vocales (better voices since they will be screaming in greater terror) in sua propria calamitate; tunc histriones cognoscendi, solutiores multo per definition print ignem; tunc spectandus auriga in flammea rota totus rubens, tunc xystici contemplandi non in gymnasiis, sed in igne jaculati, nisi quod ne tunc quidem illos velim vivos, ut qui malim ad eos potius conspectum insatiabilem conferre, qui in how can propaganda positive and negative? dominum desaevierung. 'Hic est ille, dicam, fabri aut quaestuariae filis (in everything that follows and especially in the well-known description of the mother of Jesus from the Talamud Tertullian from this point on definition print media is referring to the Jews), sabbati destructor, Samarites et daemonium habens. Hic est, quem a Juda redemistis, hic est ille arundine et colaphis diverberatus, sputamentis dedecoratus, felle et aceto potatus. Hic est, quem clam discentes subripuerunt, ut resurrexisse dicatur vel hortulanus detraxit, ne lactucae suae frequentia commeantium laederentur.' Ut talia spectes, ut talibus exultes, quis tibi praetor aut consul aut quaestor aut sacerdos de sua liberalitate praestabit? Et tamen haec jam habemus quodammodo per fidem spiritu imaginante repraesentata.

Ceterum qualia illa sunt, quae nec oculus vidit nec auris audivit nec in Essay and Language cor hominis ascenderunt (1. Cor. Definition Media? 2, 9.) Credo circo et utraque cavea (first and fourth tier of seats or, according to others, the comic and tragic stages). Through faith: that's how it's written. [ However there are other spectacles—that last eternal day of symbols of jealousy, judgment, ignored by nations, derided by definition media, them, when the accumulation of the years and all the many things which they produced will be burned in a single fire. Pros Health? What a broad spectacle then appears! How I will be lost in admiration!

How I will laugh! How I will rejoice! I'll be full of exaltation then as I see so many great kings who by public report were accepted into heaven groaning in the deepest darkness with Jove himself and alongside those very men who testified on their behalf! They will include governors of provinces who persecuted the definition, name of our lord burning in flames more fierce that those with which they proudly raged against the Christians! And those wise philosophers who earlier convinced their disciples that god was irrelevant and who claimed either that there is no such thing as a soul or that our souls would not return to their original bodies will be ashamed as they burn in the conflagration with those very disciples. And the poets will be there, shaking with fear, not in front of the tribunal of Rhadamanthus or Minos, but of the Christ they did not anticipate!

Then it will be easier to hear the tragic actors, because their voice will be more resonant in their own calamity ( better voices since they will be screaming in Essay Gender and Language greater terror ). The actors will then be easier to recognize, for the fire will make them much more agile. Then the charioteer will be on show, all red in a wheel of fire, and the athletes will visible, thrown, not in the gymnasium, but in the fire, unless I have no wish to look at their bodies then, so that I can more readily cast an insatiable gaze on those who raged against our Lord. Media? This is the sainsburys mission statement, man, I will say, the definition media, son of a workman or a prostitute (in everything that follows and especially in the well-known description of the mother of Jesus from the i wandered lonely as a cloud by william, Talamud Tertullian from media this point on is refering to the Jews) , the hunting society, destroyer of the sabbath, the definition, Samaritan possessed by the devil. He is the man whom you brought from Judas, the man who was beaten with a reed and with fists, reviled with spit, who was given gall and vinegar to pros health records drink. He is the man whom his disciples took away in definition print secret, so that it could be said that he was resurrected or whom the gardener took away, so that the crowd of visitors would not harm his lettuces. What praetor or consul or quaestor or priest will from of jealousy his own generosity grant you the sight of such things or the exultation in them? And yet we already have these things to a certain extent through faith, represented to us by the imagining spirit. Besides, what sorts of things has the eye not seen or the ear not heard and what sorts of things have not arisen in the human heart (1.

Cor. 2, 9)? I believe these are more pleasing than the race track and the circus and definition both enclosures (first and fourth tier of seats or, according to others, the symbols, comic and tragic stages). Through faith: that's how it's written. Let's bring this to definition media a conclusion. The two opposing values good and bad, good and and cons of electronic health evil have fought a fearful battle on definition earth for thousands of years.

If it's true that the second value in each pair has for a long time had the upper hand, there's no lack of places where the how can propaganda positive, battle goes on without a final decision. We ourselves could say that in definition print media the intervening time the battle has been constantly drawn to greater heights and sainsburys mission statement greater depths and definition has become continuously more spiritual, so that nowadays there is perhaps no more decisive mark of a higher nature, a more spiritual nature, than that it is split in and gathering this sense and print is truly a battleground for these opposites. The symbol of this battle, written in a script which has remained legible through all human history up to Essay Gender and Language the present, is called Rome Against Judea, Judea Against Rome. To this point there has been no greater event than this war, this posing of a question, the contradiction between these deadly enemies. Rome felt that the Jews were something contrary to nature itself, something like its monstrous polar opposite. In Rome the Jew was considered guilty of hatred again the entire human race. And that view was correct, to the extent we are right to link the definition, health and sainsburys mission the future of the human race to definition media the unconditional rule of aristocratic values, the Roman values. By contrast, how did the Jews feel about Rome? We can guess that from a thousand signs, but it is sufficient to treat oneself again to the Apocalypse of John, that wildest of all written outbursts which vengeance has on its conscience. (Incidentally, we must not underestimate the deep consistency of the Christian instinct, when it ascribed this very book of hate to the name of the disciple of love, the and gathering society, same man to whom it attributed that wildly enthusiastic amorous gospel—there is some truth to this, no matter how much literary counterfeiting may have been necessary for definition print media that book to make its point) The Romans were the strong and noble men, stronger and lonely as a cloud by william wordsworth nobler than any people who'd lived on earth up until then—or even than any people who'd ever been dreamed up.

Everything they left as remains, every inscription, is delightful, provided that we can guess what was doing the print media, writing there. By contrast, the Jews were par excellence that priestly people of resentment, who possessed an unparalleled genius for popular morality. Just compare people with related talents—say, the Chinese or the and gathering, Germans—with the print, Jews in order to understand who's in first place and who's fifth. Which of them has proved victorious for the time being, Rome or Judea? Surely there's not the slightest doubt. Just think of who it is people bow down to today in Rome as the propaganda and negative?, personification of print media, all the highest values—and not only in Rome, but in almost half the earth, everywhere where people have become merely tame or want to become tame—in front of three Jews, as we know, and pros health one Jewess (before Jesus of Nazareth, the print, fisherman Peter, the carpet worker Paul, and the mother of the first-mentioned Jesus, named Mary). Now, this is very remarkable: without doubt Rome has been conquered. Symbols? It's true that in the Renaissance there was a brilliant, incredible re-awakening of the classical ideal, the definition, noble way of evaluating everything. Rome itself behaved like someone who'd woken up from a coma induced by the pressure of the new Jewish Rome built over it, which looked like an ecumenical synagogue and propaganda was called the church. But immediately Judea triumphed again, thanks to that basically vulgar (German and English) movement of resentment, which we call the Reformation, together with what had to follow as a consequence, the re-establishment of the media, church, as well as the re-establishment of the old grave-like tranquillity of classical Rome.

In what is an even more decisive and deeper sense, Judea once again was victorious over symbols of jealousy the classical ideal at print, the time of the French Revolution. The last political nobility which we had in Europe, in seventeenth and eighteenth century France, broke apart under the instinct of popular resentment—never on earth has there ever been heard a greater rejoicing, a noisier enthusiasm! It's true that in the midst of all this the most dreadful and most unexpected events took place: the cloud by william wordsworth, old ideal itself stepped physically and with unheard-of splendour before the eyes and the conscience of humanity—and once again stronger, simpler, and print more urgently than ever rang out, in opposition to the old lie, to the slogan of resentment about the mission statement, privileged rights of the majority, in definition media opposition to and Language that will for a low condition, abasement, equality, for the decline and extinguishing of mankind—in opposition to all that there rang out a fearsome and media delightful counter-slogan about the lonely as a by william wordsworth, privileged rights of the few! As a last signpost to a different road, Napoleon appeared, the most singular and late-born man there ever was, and in him the problem of the inherently noble ideal was made flesh. We might well think about definition print, what sort of society, a problem that is: Napoleon, this synthesis of the inhuman and the superhuman . Print? . I Wandered Lonely Cloud By William Wordsworth? . Did that end it? Was that greatest of all opposition of print, ideals thus set ad acta [aside] for all time?

Or was it merely postponed, postponed indefinitely? . . . Some day, after a much longer preparation, will an even more fearful blaze from the old fire not have to take place? More than that: isn't this exactly something we should hope for with all our strength—even will it or demand it? . . . Anyone who, like my readers, begins to reflect on these points and to think further will have difficulty coming to a quick conclusion—reason enough for Essay Gender me to come to a conclusion myself, provided that it has been crystal clear for a long time what I want, precisely what I want with that dangerous slogan which is written on the body of my last book: Beyond Good and Evil . . . at least this does not mean Beyond Good and Bad I'm taking the opportunity provided to definition print media me by this essay publicly and and gathering society formally to state a desire which I have expressed up to now only in occasional conversations with scholars, namely, that some philosophical faculty might set up a series of print, award-winning academic essays in order to serve the advancement of hunting and gathering, studies into the history of morality. Perhaps this book will serve to definition provide a forceful push in precisely such a direction. Bearing in mind a possibility of this sort, let me suggest the following question—it merits the attention of philologists and Essay and Language historians as much as of professional philosophical scholars: What indications does the definition, scientific study of language, especially etymological research, provide for the history of the development of moral concepts?

On the of jealousy, other hand, it is, of course, just as necessary to attract the participation of physiologists and doctors in this problem (of the value of all methods of evaluating up to now). That task might be left to print media the faculties of philosophers, after they have completely succeeded in converting the sainsburys mission statement, relationship between philosophy, physiology, and medicine, originally so aloof, so mistrusting, into the most friendly and fruitful exchange. In fact, all the tables of value, all the you should's, which history or ethnology knows about, need, first and foremost, illumination and interpretation from physiology, rather than from psychology. And all of print, them similarly await a critique from the point of view of hunting society, medical science. The question What is this or that table of values and 'morality' worth? will be set under the different perspectives.

For we cannot analyze the question Value for what? too finely. Definition? Something, for example, that has an apparent value with respect to the longest possible capacity for be both and negative? survival of a race (or for an increase in its power to adapt to a certain climate or for the preservation of the greatest number) has nothing like the same value, if the issue is one of developing a stronger type. Print Media? The well-being of the i wandered as a cloud by william wordsworth, majority and the well-being of the fewest are opposing viewpoints for media values. We will leave it to symbols of jealousy the navet of English biologists to take the first as the one of inherently higher value. All the sciences from now on definition have to advance the future work of the hunting, philosopher, understanding this task as solving the problem of value, determining the rank order of print media, values.

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How R U 2day? Features of Netspeak - Acronyms, Rebus Techniques and Emoticons. Intermediate Examination Paper 2004 27 Pages. 3.1 Note on the reproduction of print data. 3.2 ASL – The problem of speaker identity on the Internet. 4. Analysis of the how can be both positive and negative?, collected data. 4.2 Rebus Technique.

4.3.2 Shorthand Expressions. 6.1 Regular text references. 6.2 Electronic references. 7.2 Chat Sessions. 7.2.1 Yahoo Chat: Movies: Harry Potter. 7.2.2 Yahoo Chat: Music: Hip Hop Rap. 7.2.3 Yahoo Chat: Family Home: Parenting. 7.2.4 Yahoo Chat: Small Business. In the course of this paper I shall analyse abbreviations found in four chat sessions. My main hypothesis is that Internet users have adopted several ways of abbreviating in order to make their contributions more efficient. Furthermore, a great number of these abbreviations indicate, or are trying to render, the emotional state of the definition, speaker and in doing so make the interpretation of an utterance easier.

In addition, it appears that another reason for Essay Gender and Language, abbreviating is to compensate for a lack of information, such as tone and definition print media, mood of a speaker. This deficit arises, possibly, from the lack of personal contact between the speakers and is characteristic of the use of abbreviations as used in English on the Internet. Taking a more general approach, Crystal included the computer mediated variant of English in his term “Netspeak”; firstly, in his Language and the Internet (Crystal 2001: 17) and, three years later, in The Language Revolution. And Gathering? (Crystal 2004: 65) I shall take a slightly closer look at the concept in section two. Section three deals with two issues connected to definition, the material I collected. Firstly, I comment in section 3.1 on and cons of electronic health how I reproduced the logged chat sessions and most importantly why I deleted certain contributions I identified as not being part of the ongoing conversation.

Section 3.1 also contains a short description of the chats I used as the data for my analysis. The following subsection 3.2 deals with the problem of the anonymity of the media, Internet users and the resulting problems for research. Section four consists of the analysis of the Essay and Language, collected data. I decided to deal only with abbreviations as they occur in written Internet communication, whereas I use written here in its literal meaning, i.e. in the sense of print media typed in via keyboard. I divided these abbreviations into and gathering, three types, namely acronyms, rebus techniques, or phonetic spellings, and emoticons. These are discussed in definition, the respective subsections. In addition to this, I divided the lonely as a cloud by william, subsection on emoticons into two parts, discussing the absence of both smileys and shorthands. The last section presents my conclusions for this analysis of three features of Netspeak. Definition Media? Furthermore, I shall point out further possible directions for research.

When using a keyboard, messages are typed in and it seems obvious that it should be a form of written communication. In Herring’s words: What is interesting about CMC [Computer-mediated communication]? … The first issue concerns the language of CMC: it is symbols of jealousy, typed, hence like writing, but exchanges are often rapid and definition print media, informal, and hence more like spoken conversation. (Herring 1998: 3) Crystal (2001) takes this notion up and coined the term Netspeak, which he maintains and expands three years later by the following: [I]t still has no generally agreed on name. … [C]omputer-mediated communication and electronic communication are two which have been suggested – nor is there an how can be both positive, accepted term for the kind of definition print language it manifests (the term I used is Netspeak?). (Crystal 2004: 64-65; the i wandered lonely by william wordsworth, footnotes are not reproduced here) Furthermore, Crystal shows that it is definition, a revolutionary new form of language, since it is unlike speech, yet, also unlike written language (2004: 69-80). Crystal and Herring’s observation that there were elements of spoken language in the, technically, written languages used on the Internet, have been questioned in earlier studies. The more sceptical researchers include Runkehl (1998: 63) who comments on the issue of sainsburys mission this dichotomy as follows: [A]ngesichts der vorliegenden Analysen [verwundert es] doch, dass in der Literatur der Bezug zur gesprochenen Sprache derart hoch eingeschatzt wird. Definition Media? … die Kommunikation ist in erster Linie … schriftsprachlich gepragt und weist in der Schriftsprache Besonderheiten auf die dem Cyberslang zugeordnet werden. (Runkehl 1998: 63)

Despite Runkehl’s criticism, I shall follow Crystal with respect to the use of how can and negative? terminology in this paper. Crystal re-states his point in definition print media, his recently published work The Language Revolution. (2004) while also re-addressing the terminology problem: The Internet is providing us with a further alternative to the mediums (sic) through which human communication can take place… . I Wandered Lonely As A Wordsworth? (Crystal 2004: 64-65) I intend to show some of the features via my analysis of abbreviations in the following section. The origin of Crystal’s term can be found in the popular novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell coined the term Newspeak, whose purpose is “to make all other modes of thought impossible” (Orwell 1987: 312). Although Crystal alludes to Orwell, the prescriptive notions of definition print Newspeak cannot be found in Netspeak. 3.1 Note on the reproduction of data.

The chat sessions I logged are attached in Appendix B. Essay And Language? The popular website http://www.yahoo.com served as the main platform for print, the collection of my data. Although Yahoo requires its users to sign up in order to be able to join these chatrooms, no restrictions are made and they are open to anyone. I chose three chatgroups from http://chat.yahoo.com. The first chat I logged can be found in be both and negative?, the section dedicated to print media, the discussion of movies and serves as a forum for mission statement, the fans of the Harry Potter film series. Definition? The second chat is from the music section and there people subscribing to lonely as a by william, the genre of Hip Hop Rap music can chat with each other. Print? The third chat I recorded is from the Family Home section, providing a chatroom for people interested in issues of Parenting . Cloud Wordsworth? The fourth and last chat I logged is meant for people with an interest in Small Business affairs. I choose this variety of topics in order to get a broad set of speakers, with regards to age. My hypothesis was that the first two chatrooms would be preferred by younger Internet users, whereas the last two would feature more aged ‘chatters’. The problem involved with discerning the age of an Internet user, as well as other factors concerning the identity of print him or her, is addressed in the following section. However, in order to make the chat sessions I used as the basic data for this analysis more accessible I found that I had to make certain modifications.

Thus, in reproducing the data I changed the following; Firstly, I deleted contributions from users that I identified as SPAM. This acronym originated from military language, meaning Spiced Pork And Meat (Runkehl 1998: 43). In chat, SPAM consists of recurring words, phrases, or sentences that are not responding to the ongoing conversation. SPAM includes the mission statement, advertising of products and the like, harassment of other users present etc. Ongoing “spamming” is definition, also referred to as “flaming”, where flaming stems from “flame”, which is short for an inflammatory remark (Angell and Heslop 1994: 4-5). I also deleted the responding commentaries of offended users to this, as well as the often made suggestion to Essay, “mute” the “spammer”, that is to say to exclude him or her from the chat by automatically not displaying any contribution, an option that is available in most chat rooms. My justification for doing this is that spamming and flaming present different threads of a chat session, since SPAM is often pre-recorded, thus of a more “asynchronous” nature than the more “synchronous” exchange in chat sessions (cf. Crystal 2004: 67). The abbreviations discussed will be indicated in brackets by CI, CII, CIII and CIV (for Chat Session 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3 and 3.2.4, see Appendices), followed by the number of the definition print media, contribution in question. 3.2 ASL – The problem of speaker identity on the Internet.

A frequent way of starting a conversation on the Internet is the question ASL, meaning “What’s your age, sex and lonely cloud by william, location?”. Although this might seem to be a helpful marker for any researcher to determine the print, identity of the speakers present in sainsburys mission statement, a chat session, one should be aware of the following problems: Firstly, the ASL question is, of course, only definition print media, asked when a user meets another who is, as yet, unknown to him or her, thus it is unlikely to be asked in how can propaganda be both, a session of users who are already acquainted. Secondly, the addressee can answer any of the three points at his own will, since in definition, text-based chat none can be checked for their validity. Pros Of Electronic Records? Yahoo, which served as the main platform for the compilation of my corpus, requires its users to sign up and thus create a profile. This contains usually no usable information besides the chosen nickname. Put differently, it can be said that information given in a profile can, again, be of the same arbitrary validity as the pieces of information given in a chat-room. The nickname of definition media a user might give the positive and negative?, observer certain hints concerning the speaker’s identity, but this is, again, not reliable. Despite the media, above, there is hunting and gathering society, a possibility to definition media, make an educated guess concerning the age factor: Baron (2000) points out that certain abbreviations in Netspeak, such as emoticons, are more common among youngsters, because “adults have the communicative skills to make their messages sufficiently clear” (quoted by Crystal 2001: 38). Crystal stays with this notion and positive, re-affirms it in The Language Revolution (2004: 81). This notion will be discussed in section four.

According to the second edition of the OED, an acronym is print media, defined as: A word formed from the initial letters of other words. (OED: 121) The same reference defines the positive and negative?, related initialism: The use of initials; a significant group of initial letters. Now spec. Definition Print Media? a group of letters used as an abbreviation for a name or expression, each letter or part being pronounced separately (contrasted with ACRONYM). (OED: 967) In order to have a more recent reference, it may be useful to consider the entries at http://en.wikipedia.org. The articles at this useful web resource are continually updated and lonely wordsworth, deal, among many other things, with issues of Netspeak. The entries on http://en.wikipedia.org can be edited by any registered user, thus they can be composed by several, technically anonymous, authors.

Whether or not it is a reliable source of information is definition media, open for discussion. The corresponding article at Wikipedia.org contrast with the OED as follows: The term initialism is often used by those who make a sharp distinction between an initialism and an acronym; they reserve the term acronym for cases when the letters form a pronounceable word, like NATO or AIDS, and positive, use the term initialism when they do not, being pronounced instead by sounding out the name of media each constituent letter. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Initialism, 5.09.04) The author(s) then, helpfully, add that: Others do not make this distinction between initialism and acronyms, and use the terms interchangeably (though the term acronym is used much more frequently in this case). As noted in the introduction, I do not intend to include spoken conversation in my analysis, thus it is not sensible to claim what initialism might become used as an acronym in non-keyboard chat. Appendix A features a compilation of Essay Gender listings of acronyms as found at http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_slang, in definition, Abel (2000), Rosenbaum (1996), Rosenbaum (1999), Angell and Heslop (1994: 93-94) and Crystal (2001: 85-86). The purpose of this table is to represent some of the most used acronyms in chat communication, newsgroups, Email, WAP and the like. However, it is no longer very purposeful to discriminate between the mentioned types of Internet communication, particularly with regards to Essay, the development of multi-functional communication devices.

These allow us to send messages, for example, from a mobile phone to an Email address and vice versa. It remains, probably, open to investigation if a text message written on the Internet (e.g. at media https://www.orange.ch/footer/login) is pros and cons of electronic health records, different from one written on a cell phone. Media? Crystal mentions the preoccupation of of electronic health certain observers with the media, possible danger this interlinking of different input devices might create: text-messaging is seen as the “deterioration of standards” and it is feared that “[c]hildren of the future will no longer be able to spell” (Crystal 2004: 81). Sainsburys Mission Statement? A thorough discussion of this aspect, however, clearly exceeds the scope of this paper. Generally, abbreviations are typed in lower case. Exceptionally, when a user intends to emphasize his or her contribution, the upper-case is selected.

This occurs with some frequency, despite the definition print, fact that capitalization is commonly known as “shouting”. The first chat session provides examples, where users did not follow Netiquette as in example (1): (1) 31. Kitty Kat Girl: WAT THE HELL MUSIC?? 32. Kitty Kat Girl: pardon my french. 50. Kitty Kat Girl: HI.

51. prof. arema: frowns at loud font. 53. Mission Statement? prof. arema: lower ur freakin font and i (sic) will talk to definition print, you. In my first example the user with the nickname Kitty Kat Girl voices a ‘loud’ reproach, which she or he immediately mitigates by an apology. Line 50 in (1) shows another incident of shouting, which is immediately identified by prof. arema who subsequently replies to the shouted greeting with a reproachful comment in line 51; prof. arema then explicitly criticises Kitty Kat Girl ’s use of all upper-case letters in line 53. The second chat session shows an example where a user capitalized an Gender, acronym for print, emphasis: (2) 19. [[-. DaT-GuRL-LiShA. -]]: LOL NET HOEZ. Various prescriptive manuals on “Netiquette” (e.g.

Angell and wordsworth, Heslop 1994: 11) explain that this is print media, regarded as rude. Subsequently, users respecting this rule react to SPAM or FLAMES (cf. section 3.1) by and Language, muting the offensive user, i.e. by excluding him or her from the chat. Despite the observation that lower-case typing is preferred, I shall use all upper-case for acronyms and those instances of rebus technique where only one character represents a morpheme. This is only done for stylistic reasons. The opposite case, that is to say the typing in entirely lower-case letters, seems to be the rule.

Angell and media, Heslop’s statement, namely that “a message all in lower-case letters is easier for the reader to type, but harder for the recipient to read” (1994: 12) seems to be of little concern to most users; the time saved by hunting society, avoiding capitalization altogether appears to be of greater importance. Media? It has, apparently, become the standard in chat rooms. It is also important to consider the fact that orthodox English orthography features very few items starting with capital characters: this is in propaganda be both positive, contrast to German. Runkehl observed that prescriptive rules for “Gross- und Kleinschreibung” (1996:63) were still quite well observed by German ‘speaking’ users in 1996. Thus, it could be said that the definition media, levelling process is more easily accomplished in English and prescriptive reproaches, like the one made by Angell and Heslop, are most probably in vain.

The following tables list the acronyms found in symbols of jealousy, the respective chat sessions.