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bad pr case study To cite this article. Wordsworth? Young, C. Poe: Imperial? L., Flowers, A. Wordsworth? (2012). Fight viral with viral: A case study of Domino#8217;s Pizza#8217;s crisis communication strategies. Case Studies in Essay on Edgar Poe: Significance of the Imperial, Strategic Communication, 1 , article 6. William Wordsworth? Available online: http://cssc.uscannenberg.org/cases/v1/v1art6. Access the on Edgar Poe: Significance, PDF version of william this article. A Case Study of Domino#8217;s Pizza#8217;s Crisis Communication Strategies.

Domino’s Pizza was embroiled in a viral crisis situation when two rogue employees posted videos of toyota malaysia adulterated food on YouTube in April 2009. Tim McIntyre, Vice President of wordsworth Communications, was part of the toyota malaysia, internal team that delivered the company’s crisis communication plan through Twitter and william wordsworth poems, YouTube. Qualitative Sample Size? What makes this story so compelling is the william poems, social media aspect of first person both the crisis itself and wordsworth poems, the strategy for managing the element of love, crisis. Using a case study approach, this paper assesses Domino’s decision to wordsworth poems integrate the same medium that sparked the crisis into suburban sonnet, the strategies to manage the william poems, situation, and it questions the efficacy of malaysia background best practices and principles of crisis management in the age of william social media. Keywords : Domino#8217;s Pizza; crisis communication; social media; YouTube; Twitter; case study; public relations. Nestle Malaysia Company Background? The way in which companies communicate with stakeholders during a crisis event is rapidly changing with the wordsworth poems, 24-hour access provided by the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, and on The Importance Cultural, YouTube.

Public relations practitioners and other communication executives are struggling to william poems craft messages and maintain control of the suburban sonnet, flow of wordsworth poems messages within this dynamic landscape. As Schiller (2007) explains, in “times of Dental crisis, while corporate communication executives are preparing manicured statements, customers are [simultaneously] blogging, e-mailing and wordsworth, posting photos out of Dental Management Essay rage and desperation because the very people who should be listening to wordsworth them aren’t” (p. 16). Bell (2010) asserts that stakeholders become “interpretive communities in organizational crisis contexts,” capable of cultivating an organization’s reputation through information they receive in cyberspace (p. 148). Social media allow stakeholders to control when, where, and on Edgar of the Imperial Suite, how “reputational meanings are born and poems, disseminated” as “an organization’s reputation is Dental Management Essay, built on the stories formed by stakeholders and william wordsworth poems, spread within networks” (Aula, 2011, p. 28, 30). Nowhere is this dynamic between organizations and suburban sonnet, their publics more apparent than on video sharing sites, such as YouTube, that encourage citizens and william poems, bloggers to be the co-producers of sample messages.

Burgess and Green (2009) explain that YouTube users engage with this medium “as if it is a space specifically designed for them and that should therefore serve their own particular interests” (p. William Poems? vii). This can have enormous positive or negative impacts for toyota malaysia organizations involved in crisis management, including but not limited to poems the inability of boundary spanners to monitor the company, vastness of this space; malicious users who might create a crisis; and the leveraging capabilities of william wordsworth this platform to element of love enhance a brand during a crisis. Wordsworth? Just as consumers can use this social medium to create a crisis for a company and person, interpret an william poems, organization’s reputation throughout, so too can an organization use this medium to manage a crisis and on Edgar Significance of the Suite, improve its reputation. Patrick Doyle, President of Domino’s Pizza, would come to understand this dynamic as his brand suffered a devastating blow when two employees uploaded a vulgar video demonstrating their grotesque adulteration of wordsworth food. Bob Garfield (2010), a writer for suburban sonnet Ad Age Blogs , recounts in william, an online article how this incident began. On Easter Sunday in element of love, April 2009, two Domino’s employees who were bored “working in a North Carolina store figured it would be just hilarious to post a video of themselves, defiling sandwich ingredients” (para. William Wordsworth? 2). Management Essay? The duo created five videos in william poems, total, one of Dental Management which showed an individual sticking mozzarella cheese up his nose and then blowing the william, cheese on a sandwich, among other unsanitary and stomach-turning activities. An estimated 1 million people viewed these videos before they were pulled two days later. During the first 24 hours, Tim McIntyre, Vice President of first person narrator Corporate Communications, surveyed the william wordsworth poems, situation and Essay Allen Poe: Significance Suite, determined that the videos were not a hoax. He then began to wordsworth poems communicate internally and externally with “relevant audiences at that time [including] our social media people, our head of element of love security, senior management team,” according to william poems Amy Jacques (2009) in on Edgar Allen Poe: Significance of the, an article published in wordsworth, The Public Relations Strategist (para.

4, 7). McIntyre collaborated with the element of love, consumer watchdog organization GoodAsYou.org, which first alerted Domino’s of the employee video, to identify the william wordsworth, rogue employees as Kristy Hammond and on Edgar Allen Significance Imperial, Michael Setzer. Wordsworth Poems? By Tuesday, according to nestle background McIntyre, the company was responding to customers’ queries on william wordsworth Twitter about Essay on Edgar Poe: of the Suite, whether the company knew about the situation, what the company was doing, and why the company had not issued an poems, official statement (Jacques, 2009). By Wednesday, Patrick Doyle, President of Domino’s Pizza, recorded an apology that was then uploaded onto YouTube. During this event, bloggers and journalists alike captured this crisis in articles and case studies, offering step-by-step timelines [1] (Jacques, 2009; Peeples Vaughn, 2010) and criticisms of Domino’s responses (Beaubien, 2009; Esterline, 2009; Gregory, 2009; Vogt, 2009; Weiss, 2009; York, 2009).

What follows in this case study is an analysis of Management Essay Domino’s crisis communication strategies, using a blend of best practices for crisis management from the principles of public relations management crafted by william wordsworth poems Arthur W. Page and from an toyota malaysia, academic perspective as the framework for wordsworth poems analysis. From a communication perspective, according to Jaques (2008), case studies “are generally a narrative of element of love events which are critically examined in relation to william wordsworth poems recognized public relations theories and element of love, models in poems, order to narrator fully appreciate what happened and to consider alternative strategies and outcomes” (p. 194), and are written to william wordsworth provide practical value to managers and Importance Cultural, practitioners alike who are struggling to manage and control the william wordsworth poems, flow of messages in the viral/digital landscape (Coombs, 2008; “How Social Media,” 2009; Oneupweb, 2007). The Arthur W. Suburban Sonnet? Page Society is a professional organization for executives in the public relations and communication industries. Named after one of the william poems, first public relations executives to work for a Fortune 500 corporation (ATT), this organization is charged with the on Edgar Significance Imperial, goal of “embracing the william wordsworth, highest professional standards; advancing the way communications is understood, practiced and taught; and providing a collegial and Essay on Edgar Allen Poe: of the, dynamic learning environment” (“Vision, Mission Goals,” n.d., para. William Poems? 2). Qualitative Research Sample Size? According to the Society’s website, the following principles are designed to william poems guide public relations practitioners’ actions and Essay on Edgar Allen Significance Imperial Suite, behaviors and poems, exemplify Page’s philosophy of public relations management: (1) Tell the truth ; (2) Prove it with action ; (3) Listen to the customer ; (4) Manage for tomorrow ; (5) Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends on it ; (6) Realize a company’s true character is Essay Importance of Positive Cultural, expressed by its people ; and william poems, lastly, (7) Remain calm, patient and good-humored (“The Page Principles,” n.d.). These principles are similar to on Edgar Poe: Significance the 10 best crisis communication practices Seeger (2006) generated, based on the work of communication scholars and william poems, expert practitioners: Process approaches and policy development ; Pre-event planning ; Partnership with the research sample, public ; Listen to the public#8217;s concerns and understand the audience ; Honesty, candor, and openness ; Collaborate and poems, coordinate with credible sources ; Meet the needs of the media and remain accessible ; Communicate with compassion, concern and malaysia, empathy ; Accept uncertainty and ambiguity ; and Messages of self-efficacy . Poems? Veil, Buehner, and Palenchar (2011) extend Seeger’s best practices, incorporating social media tools by making social media engagement a part of risk and crisis management policies and procedures; incorporating social media when scanning the environment; being a part of malaysia company rumor management to william wordsworth poems determine appropriate channels; and on Edgar Significance, using social media to william communicate updates in an interpersonal manner (pp. 119-120). Company? Compiling and william wordsworth poems, synthesizing these practices is company, not an easy task as “crises and poems, disasters are relatively unique in nature, inherently dynamic, and Dental Office, unpredictable” (Bell, 2010, p. 151). These practices, according the Seeger (2006) “do not constitute a plan, but are the principles or processes that underlie an effective crisis communication plan and effective crisis response” (p.

242). William Poems? Given the nature of crises, these practices will unfold and element of love, evolve differently within each situation. Wordsworth? Taking a situational approach to toyota malaysia crisis communication, Coombs (2004) offers the wordsworth poems, Situational Crisis Communication Theory as an Cultural Identity, explanation for how organizations select a crisis response strategy. Essentially, a crisis triggers attributions of william wordsworth responsibility to the organization from suburban sonnet stakeholders, along three dimensions: 1) whether the crisis has happened before or will likely happen again; 2) whether the poems, event was controllable or uncontrollable by toyota malaysia an individual or the organization; and 3) whether the william, crisis occurs within the Allen Significance of the Imperial, organization or external to wordsworth it. In this case, Domino’s as an suburban sonnet, organization was not directly responsible for this crisis, as the event occurred internally at william wordsworth poems the hands of employees, and Office, this type of crisis had never happened before. William? Based on stakeholder attributions, an size, organization will respond communicatively by poems cycling through a four step process: 1) observe events; 2) interpret information for nestle company accuracy and wordsworth poems, relevance; 3) choose a strategy among alternatives; and malaysia company, 4) implement the solution (Hale, Dulek, Hale, 2005). Ideally, the strategy chosen will be aligned with the william, best practices and principles articulated above and will follow the four step process.

Did Domino’s follow the best practices outlined by Seeger and the Page principles? What were the brand’s overall actions, decisions, and strategies for managing the element of love, crisis? In the case of Domino’s, it was not the consumers’ attributions of poems responsibility to suburban sonnet Domino’s that triggered the strategy. Rather, what triggered Patrick Doyle’s decision to william poems deliver a video apology on Essay on The Importance YouTube was the medium itself, which begs the william, questions, How did social media impact or influence the decision making process?, and first narrator, What crisis communication lessons were learned in the process? Strategies and Execution. This first Page principle—Tell the truth—begs a series of questions about wordsworth poems, whose truth needs to be told and toyota malaysia, about what in particular.

In crisis situations, multiple truths or social constructions of the event(s) are vying for attention simultaneously: in william wordsworth, general, customers, the nestle malaysia company, company, its employees, and the media. In the wordsworth, case of element of love Domino’s, particular watchdog organizations like GoodAsYou.org and Consumerist.com were also constructing versions of the event. The truth that Tim McIntyre, VP of Communications, wanted to convey was that this incident was “a rogue act of two individuals who thought they were being funny. That they do not represent this brand. That they do not represent the 100,000 people who work every day at william wordsworth poems Domino’s Pizza all over the world” (Flandez, 2009, para. 6). The truth that Patrick Doyle wanted to articulate was that “We didn’t do this. We’re sorry. And we want to earn your trust back” (Peeples Vaughn, 2010, p. Sample Size? 3). However, in wanting to be honest, open and william, candid (Seeger, 2006) about the research size, situation, Domino’s needed to wordsworth take responsibility. However, taking responsibility had the potential of exposing the organization to lawsuits and other legal vulnerabilities (Claeys Cauberghe, 2012), including freedom of speech and copyright claims.

In order to mitigate the Essay Cultural, consequences of being truthful and minimize the damage to william poems the organization’s reputation, the Essay on The Importance of Positive, company collaborated and william, coordinated with credible sources (the watch dog organizations and local authorities) and partnered with the suburban sonnet, public to observe and interpret the events , so as to not “act too hastily and william, alert more consumers to Management Essay the situation it was attempting to contain” (York, 2009, para. 5), and to not “add fuel to william wordsworth poems the online fire” (Levick, 2009, para. 5). Research Sample? Unfortunately, a consequence of william wordsworth poems following the principles and best practices was that a 24 hour lag occurred. Because Domino’s hesitated, customers began tweeting about whether the company actually knew what was happening and questioning what it was going to do about the videos. Veil, Buehner, and Palenchar (2011) point to Poe: Significance of the Suite the fact that “The power to communicate remains with the wordsworth poems, communicating organization and their behaviors and narrative content, not in the technology” (p.

120). A second challenge in telling the truth in the digital age hinges on additional questions (Roberts, 2010): Where in cyber and virtual spaces does an organization tell the truth and with what social medium or platform? York (2009) brought this to our attention in her online article, asking “why Domino’s has been lambasted for suburban sonnet a lack of social media presence. After all . William Wordsworth? . . the Essay on The of Positive, brand is on william wordsworth poems MySpace, Twitter, YouTube and most visibly on Facebook with nearly 300,000 fans” (para. 18). First Narrator? There is william, a big difference, however, between how emerging social media are used for marketing and toyota malaysia, how they work in william wordsworth poems, a serious crisis situation . Sample Size? . . William Wordsworth? Companies that fail to suburban sonnet integrate their marketing efforts with their online crisis response plans before a crisis hits are letting their antagonists have free reign. (Levick, 2009, para. 2-4) The first message acknowledging the crisis was uploaded onto william wordsworth poems the corporate website on the day after the offending videos had been posted, but the message hardly yielded any hits. Domino’s did not reach its most popular audience through this social medium. Suburban Sonnet? According to william wordsworth poems McIntyre, prior to this event , [the crisis team had a social media plan] already in Essay Poe: Significance, place. We didn’t want to william just jump in without a strategy.

We wanted to nestle do it right. So the irony for wordsworth us was that we have a plan and we were going to implement it only a week later, so we ended up having to person narrator jump in [during] a crisis, which was the opposite poems, of how we wanted to qualitative research size do it. William Poems? (quoted in Jacques, 2009, para. Dental Office Management Essay? 10) However, after listening to wordsworth poems the customers/publics’ tweets , the company was compelled to speed up the implementation of the suburban sonnet, social media plan. Wordsworth? A decision was made to. [change] course and Dental Office Management Essay, [respond] with a viral video . . . [that] featured all the elements of effective crisis communication. William Wordsworth Poems? The company president apologized. He thanked the online community for bringing the issue to element of love his attention. William? He separated the company from wrongdoers and announced their prosecution. And he outlined steps that Domino’s was taking to deal with the on The Importance of Positive Identity, issue to william poems make sure it never happens again (Levick, 2009, para.

6). This strategy and malaysia company background, decision to fight the crisis’ viral nature using YouTube was the wordsworth poems, tipping point that allowed the qualitative research sample, company “to cull user-generated content from social networking sites and use the wordsworth poems, platform for distributing information back to users” in nestle malaysia, order to prove itself with action and to wordsworth communicate with passion, concern and empathy (Veil et al., 2011, p. 114). Company Background? Levick (2009), in william wordsworth, an online article for toyota malaysia Bloomberg Businessweek , stipulated that “Domino’s not only demonstrated concern for wordsworth poems its customers, but also an element of love, understanding of the william, critical importance of reaching out to element of love a target audience on william wordsworth poems its own terms and in its own preferred space” (para. Toyota Malaysia? 7). This strategy and decision also suggests that Domino’s has the ability to manage the william poems, crisis for tomorrow : “This crisis happened online. Suburban Sonnet? It had to be dealt with online. By learning that lesson under fire Domino’s broke new ground and opened a new chapter in the ongoing evolution of crisis communications” (Levick, 2009, para.

7). Wordsworth? Arthur W. Page advocated for first person public relations practitioners to william wordsworth poems tell the first person, truth, a laudable goal to wordsworth aspire to, but nonetheless one that is person narrator, increasingly challenging in william, today’s digital era. Initially, Domino’s relied on its traditional technology (the Internet) to upload a video response on its corporate website to research tell the public the truth about the wordsworth, situation. However, the number of people who viewed this video paled in malaysia, comparison to the number of YouTube viewers who watched the employee prank videos—over one million within 24 hours. This realization accelerated and expedited the implementation of Domino’s social media plan that was still in development. The crucial lesson to william wordsworth poems be learned about crisis communication comes in the form of toyota malaysia extending and aligning the william wordsworth poems, Situational Crisis Communication Theory with best practices for first narrator the integrating of social media (Veil et al, 2011). Coombs (2004) stipulated that a crisis triggers stakeholders’ attributions regarding the organization’s level of responsibility. These attributions, in turn, influence the strategy that an william wordsworth, organization will use to lessen the damaging effects. In this case, however, it was not stakeholder attributions that dictated Domino’s strategy, but rather it was the social medium in which the on Edgar Allen Poe: Significance of the Imperial Suite, crisis occurred that shaped the company’s decision to respond on YouTube as well as its overall strategy. The only way to combat and lessen the impact of a social media generated crises like what Domino’s experienced is to poems integrate social media into crisis communication strategies and to Essay on The Importance Cultural create strategies for william poems monitoring social media dialogue (Tinker, Fouse, Currie, 2009). Element Of Love? Schiller (2007) agrees that “Brands that get it right will be the ones that will use the same online tools as their customers” (p.

16). Further, Peeples and wordsworth poems, Vaughn (2010) concluded that Domino’s “effectively leveraged social media – the same channel used by the pranksters – to transparently communicate the company’s efforts to address the person, situation” (p. William Wordsworth Poems? 1).The end result was that Domino’s emerged from this vulnerability criticized, yet knowledgeable about the reality of crisis communication in qualitative sample, the age of poems social media. The reality of crisis communication today is element of love, complex and contradictory. The speed at wordsworth which consumers generate information about organizations is surpassing the speed by which public relations practitioners can monitor and verify the research sample, validity of william poems such content, in order to respond before, during, and after a crisis incident. Because social media users can instantaneously create visual and textual dialogue with an toyota malaysia, organization, there is poems, a corresponding expectation that organizations should respond just as quickly throughout all phases of Office Management a crisis incident. But taking the time to verify information and wordsworth, craft appropriate and Essay on Edgar Allen of the Imperial, effective responses is necessary to avoid legal issues and william wordsworth poems, other complications. This dynamic has several implications for: How often organizations need to communicate with stakeholders: Regular updates across multiple social media should occur, using such platforms as HootSuite or Bottlenose to narrator ensure consistency. How far and william wordsworth, wide organizations need to element of love span the boundaries of william wordsworth cyberspace and social media for potential crises and for Office potential stakeholder groups that can be impacted and affected: Johnson, Bazaa, and Chen (2011) conducted a study on boundary spanning, concluding that “organizations should focus on recruiting, attracting, and william wordsworth, nurturing those online users with high levels of enduring involvement and social identity,” i.e., highly engaged social media users (p. Narrator? 15). How organizations can manage their online reputations through search engine optimization (SEO).

How new principles and best practices need to be developed to determine what messages or images from wordsworth which stakeholder groups will tip towards a crisis. As organizations grapple with these new directions, employees and consumers will need to learn how to accept uncertainty and ambiguity , and toyota malaysia, remain calm, patient and wordsworth, good humored. What impact does social media have on public relations practices, particularly crisis communications and reputation management? How significant is toyota malaysia, it for organizations today to monitor content on social media sites, including hash tags and wordsworth poems, other signs of internal and external dialogue? How should crisis communications preparedness plans address the toyota malaysia, proliferation of social media outlets? From the perspective of william crisis communicators concerned with social media, what else could Domino’s have done or said to prove with action that its key messages are sincere? What other messages could Domino’s have delivered?

What other types of Office Management traditional media and social media could Domino’s have used to reach its stakeholders? What other challenges do you think that PR practitioners, marketers, or corporate communicators could have in telling the poems, truth in Cultural Identity, the digital age? How important is poems, speed of response rate in a digital world, particularly when an organization is element of love, facing a crisis situation? Are there any other conclusions that you can draw from poems this incident? According to its website, Media Curves “is the person narrator, leader in public perception of topical issues.” This communications research company uses its patent pending technology to evaluate the “believability” of william a particular video, such as the apology posted on YouTube by Domino Pizza’s President Patrick Doyle. To see how Media Curves’ technology captured people’s perceptions of Doyle’s apology video, watch Doyle’s apology video here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFiXWboPD5A. Discuss the specific moments in the video that people found most believable and first narrator, least believable and what public relations practitioners can learn from wordsworth poems studies like this.

Visit the research sample, Media Curves website to watch other assessments of video apologies. Using the framework presented in william, this article, apply the Dental Office Essay, Arthur W. Page Society’s principles (“Vision, Mission Goals,” n.d.), Seeger’s (2006) best practices, and Veil, Buehner, and Palenchar’s (2011) suggestions for integrating social media to william wordsworth United Airlines and its handling of Dave Carroll’s “United Breaks Guitar Video” or to Providence Renaissance and its handling of “Joey Quits” video. Toyota Malaysia? What lessons can be learned about william poems, social media and Essay, crisis communication from analyzing these organizations’ strategies? To see how Domino’s has dealt with this crisis, consider some background information about its Pizza Turnaround campaign. How does this compare with the william wordsworth poems, best practices? How did tweets like #newpizza help? [1] A visual timeline of the of Positive Cultural Identity, first four days is available on wordsworth the Arthur W. Page’s website: http://www.awpagesociety.com/insights/winning-case-studies/2010/ Aula, P. (2011). Meshworked reputation: Publicists’ views on toyota malaysia the reputational impacts of online communication.

Public Relations Review, 37 , 28-36. William? Beaubien, G. (2009, April 21). Toyota Malaysia? Domino’s YouTube flap: ‘A landmark event in crisis management.’ Public Relations Tactics . William Poems? Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.prsa.org/SearchResults/view/7978/105/Domino_s_YouTube_flap_a_landmark_event_in_crisis_m. Bell, L. M. (2010). Crisis communication: The praxis of response.

The Review of Communication, 10 (2), 142-155. Burgess, J., Green, J. (2009). Essay On The Cultural? YouTube: Online video and participatory culture . Malden, MA: Polity Press. William Wordsworth Poems? Claeys, A., Cauberghe, V. (2012). Dental Office Essay? Crisis response and crisis timing strategies, two sides of the wordsworth, same coin.

Public Relations Review, 38 , 83-88. Coombs, W. On Edgar Allen Significance Of The? T. (2004). Impact of past crises on current crisis communication: Insights from Situational Crisis Communication Theory. Journal of william Business Communication, 41 (3), 265-289. Coombs, W. T. (2008, April 2). Crisis communication and social media. Institute for nestle malaysia company Public Relations . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from wordsworth http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/crisis-communication-and-social-media/ Esterline, R. M. (2009, April 25).

Case study: Domino’s YouTube video . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from. Flandez, R. (2009, April 20). Qualitative Size? Domino’s response offers lessons in crisis management. William Poems? The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://blogs.wsj.com/independentstreet/2009/04/20/dominos-response-offers-lessons-in-crisis-management. Dental Office Management? Garfield, B. (2010, January 11).

Domino’s does itself a disservice by coming clean about its pizza: We like apologies and poems, honesty, but there are limits. Just ask Ford. Ad Age Blogs . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://adage.com/article/ad-review/advertising-domino-s-a-disservice-ads/141393. Gregory, S. Nestle Company Background? (2009, April 18). Poems? Domino’s YouTube crisis: Five ways to fight back. Time Magazine . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1892389,00.html. Hale, J. Nestle? E., Dulek, R. E., Hale, D. P. (2005). Crisis response communication challenges: Building theory from qualitative data. Journal of Business Communication, 42 (2), 112-134. How social media are changing crisis communications—for better and worse. (2009, November 1). Security Director’s Report, 9 (11), 2-5.

Jacques, A. (2009, August 17). William Poems? Domino’s delivers during crisis: The company’s step-by-step response after a vulgar video goes viral. The Public Relations Strategist . On Edgar Allen Of The? Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.prsa.org/Intelligence/TheStrategist/Articles/view/8226/102/Domino_s_delivers_during_crisis_The_company_s_step. William Wordsworth? Jaques, T. (2008). Qualitative Research Sample? A case study approach to william poems issue and crisis management: Schadenfreude or an opportunity to learn? Journal of Communication Management, 12 (3), 192-203.

Johnson, P. R., Bazaa, U., Chen, L. (2011, May). The new boundary spanners: Social media users, engagement, and public relations outcomes . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Boston, MA. Sample? Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.icavirtual.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/FULL-PAPER-SUBMISSION-TEMPLATE-EK1.pdf. Levick, R. William Wordsworth Poems? S. Person? (2009, April 21). William Wordsworth Poems? Domino’s discovers social media. Bloomberg Businessweek . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from malaysia http://www.businessweek.com/print/managing/content/apr2009/ca20090421_555468.htm. Oneupweb. (2007). Principles of poems crisis management in a viral age: Integrating the tools and person, lessons of search 2.0 into a comprehensive crisis response [White paper]. Traverse City, MI: Oneupweb. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://internetetopinion.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/crisis_management.pdf.

Peeples, A. Vaughn, C. (2010). Poems? Domino’s “special” delivery: Going viral through social media (Parts A B). Arthur W. Element Of Love? Page Society case study competition in corporate communications . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from william wordsworth http://www.awpagesociety.com/insights/winning-case-studies/2010. Schiller, M. (2007, March 5). Company? Crisis and william wordsworth, the web: How to leverage the research, Internet when a brand takes a hit. Adweek, 48 (10), 16. William Wordsworth Poems? Seeger, M. Management? W. (2006).

Best practices in crisis communication: An expert panel process. Poems? Journal of toyota malaysia Applied Communication Research, 34 (3), 232-244. Tinker, T., Fouse, D. (Eds.), Currie, D. (Writer). (2009). Expert round table on social media and risk communication during times of crisis: Strategic challenges and opportunities [Report]. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from wordsworth poems http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/47910BED-3371-46B3-85C2-67EFB80D88F8/0/socialmedreport.pdf. Veil, S. R., Buehner, T., Palenchar, M. J. On The Of Positive Cultural? (2011). A work-in-progress literature review: Incorporating social media in risk and crisis communication. Journal of Contingencies and wordsworth, Crisis Management, 19 (2), 110-122. Vogt, P. (2009, April 24).

Brands under attack: Marketers can learn from Domino’s video disaster. Essay On Edgar? Forbes . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from william wordsworth http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/24/dominos-youtube-twitter-leadership-cmo-network-marketing.html. Weiss, T. First Narrator? (2009, April 22). William Wordsworth? Crisis management—Domino’s case study research. Trendsspotting Blog . Toyota Malaysia? Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.trendsspotting.com/blog/?p=1061. William Poems? York, E. B. (2009, April 20). What Domino’s did rightand wrongin squelching hubbub over YouTube video. Toyota Malaysia? Advertising Age [Online].

Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://adage.com/article/news/crisis-pr-assessing-domino-s-reaction-youtube-hubub/136086/ CORY L. YOUNG, Ph.D. William Poems? , is an toyota malaysia, associate professor of communication management and design in the Department of wordsworth poems Strategic Communication, Roy H. Park School of first narrator Communications, at poems Ithaca College in Ithaca, New York, where she teaches courses in Allen Significance of the Imperial Suite, corporate communication. William? Email: youngc[at]ithaca.edu. ARHLENE FLOWERS is an toyota malaysia, associate professor of poems integrated marketing communications in the Department of company background Strategic Communication, Roy H. Park School of Communications, at Ithaca College in william wordsworth, Ithaca, New York, where she teaches courses in public relations. Email: aflowers[at]ithaca.edu. This manuscript was made possible in sample, part by a James B. Pendleton grant from the poems, Roy H. Qualitative Sample Size? Park School of Communications at william poems Ithaca College.

A version of this paper was presented at the International Communication Association’s pre-conference hosted in Tokyo, Japan, June 2010. Additionally, the following graduate assistants need to be acknowledged for their research contributions: Rui Liu, Savitha Ranga, Nate (Zheli) Ren, and Danielle Clarke.

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lsu resume Louisiana State University. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Baton Rouge, LA 70813. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Baton Rouge, LA 70803. UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE, Newark, DE. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering, Jan. 1998.

Master of Mechanical Engineering Degree, May 1995. CORNELL UNIVERSITY, Ithaca, NY. Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Bachelor of Science Degree, May 1992. TEACHING RESEARCH EXPERIENCE.

Mechanical Engineering Program. Louisiana State University Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA. Adjunct Professor 2011-Present. Environmental Toxicology Ph.D. Program. Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA. Director, NSF Center for Next Generation Composites 2009-Present. Southern University Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.

Chair of william wordsworth poems, Graduate Studies 2009-2013. Mechanical Engineering Department. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Associate Professor 2003-2009. Mechanical Engineering Department. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Associate Professor 2004-2008. Mechanical Engineering Department.

Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA. Assistant Professor 1998-2004. Mechanical Engineering Department, Louisiana State University. Assistant Professor 1998-2003. Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA. Visiting Assistant Professor 1997-1998.

College of Engineering, Winona State University, Winona, MN. Engineering Design Lecturer Summers 1993-1996. RISE Office of University of Delaware, Newark, DE. Graduate Teaching Assistant 1993-1995. Department of Mechanical Engineering, U.D., Newark, DE. Research Engineer 1990-1992. Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP), Ithaca, NY. M.S. THESIS SUPERVISED (21) - Haftay Hailu , Analysis and Essay on Edgar Poe: Significance Suite, Numerical Simulation of Stress and Load Transfer in an Adhesion Bond between Composite Plates and Concrete, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (August 2001). - Samuel Kidane , Buckling Analysis of Grid Stiffened Composite Panels, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (August 2002). - Amol Jadhav , Determination and Modeling of william, High Strain Rate Properties of PMC’s, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (August 2003).

- Rochell Williams, “Self-Healing Composites using Hollow Fibers,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (August 2005). - Zelalem A. Aga, “Effect of Thickness and Dental Office Management Essay, Surface Preparation on Impacted Adhesively Bonded Composites-Nondestructive Evaluation”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (August 2006). - Paul Wehmer , “Dynamic Characterization of Rubber Hybrid Syntactic Foam,” Department of william, Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2008). - Sameer Peter, “High Strain Rate Properties of Nanoparticulate Syntactic Foam Composites,” Department of on Edgar Allen Poe: Significance of the, Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2008). - Narendra Sankella , “Impact and Flexural Characterization of Nanoclay Syntactic Foam Sandwich Structures,” Department of wordsworth poems, Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2008).

- Nebiyu Fikru , “Self-Healing Polymer Composites,” Department of element of love, Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Aug. 2009). - Kanakaji Chittineni , “Functionally Gradient Syntactic Foam,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Aug. William Poems! 2009). - Kamissia Stampley , “Integrated Syntactic/ Nanoparticulate Grid Foam Composites,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (July 2009). - Jennifer R. Lee, “Nanoclay Grid Vinylester Composite Foam Structures,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (July 2009). - Tiffany Augustine-Brown, “ Nanoparticulate - Functionally Gradient Syntactic Foam Composites,” Department of malaysia background, Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Dec. 2009). - Chorondalette D. Moore, “Nanoclay Vinyl Ester Foam Composite Structures,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Dec.

2009). - Pratap Bhat , “Development and Thermal Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Grown Microballoon Epoxy Composite,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Dec. William! 2009). - Berhanu Demissie , “Hygrothermal Characterization of Nano-Reinforced Vinylester Foam Composites,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2010). - Rediet Abera , “Composite Sandwich Structures based on Functionally Gradient Foam,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Dec.2010). - Ineaka Carbo , “Nanoclay Functinally Gradient Syntactic Foam Sandwich Structures,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Dec.2011). - Orlandis Smith, “Micro-Fabrication of Essay on Edgar Poe: Significance Imperial Suite, Point-of-Care Devices using Cost-Effective Micro-Milling and Polymer Laminate Technique”, Department of william wordsworth, Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA (Aug. 2013). - Niteesh Morampudi , “Characterization of Ti/SU8 for DSSC”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA (Dec. Malaysia Background! 2013).

- Jillian Crawley-Foster, “ Microfluidics of Antibody Conjugated Nanofibers for poems Rapid Detection of first person narrator, Diseases,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA (May 2015). M.S. PROJECT SUPERVISED (6) - Satish K. Tiwari , “Web Based Interactive Micromechanical Analysis of Laminated Composites,” Engineering Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (December 2003). - Kiran T. Asokan , “Heat Transfer Analysis and Simulation of william wordsworth poems, a Disk,” Engineering Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (August 2004). - Vikrant S. Thakare , “Web Based Simulation of Composites Fabrication Processes,” Engineering Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (December 2004). - Naveen Pallempati , “Heat Transfer Optimization and Dental Office Management, Real Time Simulation of william wordsworth, Heat Conduction in a Circular Plate,” Engineering Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2005). - Prashanth Mahadevan , “Interactive Simulation of Introductory Mechanical Design,” Engineering Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2006). - Sriram Sunnam , “Simulation and size, Instrumentation of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar,” Engineering Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Aug 2006).

- Nikhil Gupta, “Characterization of Syntactic Foams and william wordsworth poems, their Sandwich Composites: Modeling and Experimental Approaches,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (August 2003). - Phani Kiran Mylavarapu , Characterization of Advanced Composites – A Non-Destructive Approach, Department of element of love, Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (December 2007). - Kanika Vessel, “Secondary School Academic Preparation and Its Direct Effect on Postsecondary Engineering Education of william, African American Students,” Science, Mathematics, and Essay Poe: Significance of the Imperial Suite, Education PhD Program, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2011). - Rochelle Williams, “ Engineering Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities - African-Americans Achieving PhDs ,” Science, Mathematics, and Education PhD Program, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2011). - Ephraim F. Zegeye , “Smart Multifunctional Nanofoam Composite Structures,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2012). - Ali Ghamsari , “Morphing Nanocomposites,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (May 2012). - Fareed Dawan , “Optimized Shape Solar Cell Integrated Composites,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Dec. 2013).

- Lulit Affin , “Polyurethane/Activated Carbon Multifunctional Composite for william Water Filtration,” Environmental Toxicology PhD Program, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Aug. 2014). - Emmanuel Gikunoo , “Utilization of Carbon Nanofibers Grown On Glass Microballoons (NMBs) in on Edgar Allen Poe: Significance Imperial Suite Point-Of-Care Diagnostic Devices,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, (Aug. 2014). CURRENT PLANNED RESEARCH PROJECTS. - POC Rapid Detection using Nanomaterials. - Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Testing (NDT) - Sandwich Composite Structures. - Self-Healing Composite Materials. - High Strain Rate Properties of william poems, Composite Materials. - Analysis and Design of Composite Sucker Rods for sample the Oil Industry.

- Rehabilitation of Structures Using Composites. - Winona State University. Dynamics; Strength of Materials; Finite Element Analysis. Introduction to Engineering; Mechanics of william wordsworth, Materials; Statics;

Fracture Mechanics and Fatigue Failure. - Louisiana State University. Composite Materials: manufacturing, properties design; Materials Science Laboratory; Composite Sandwich Structures; Solid Mechanics: Impact Mechanics, Laminate Mechanics, and Damage (New course); Materials of element of love, Engineering; Introduction to ME Design; · Next Generation Composites Crest Center, NextGenC 3 , National Science Foundation, $5 Million (09/01/09-08/31/14) E. Woldesenbet (Director and PI), K. Crosby and G. Li.

· Functionally Gradient Nanofoam and Sandwich Composites: Dynamic Response, Hygrothermal Study NDE Characterization, ONR, $356,025 (6/1/08-5/31/11) E. Woldesenbet (PI). · HBCU-UP SMART Research Laboratory - Enhancement of wordsworth poems, Research in Material Science through the Essay Allen of the Imperial Suite Acquisition of Non-Destructive Investigative Equipment, Southern University/NSF, $59,506 (03/01/08-06/31/08) E. Woldesenbet (PI) and P. Wordsworth Poems! Mylavarapu . · Advanced Infrastructure Composites (AIC), NSF, $1 Million (10/1/07-9/31/10) E. Woldesenbet (PI), G. Li, S. Ibekwe , and K. Dental Office Management! Crosby. · Enhancement of Research in Materials Science and Physics through the Acquisition of Non-Destructive Investigative Equipment, Louisiana Board of Regents, $112,429 (07/01/07-06/31/08) E. Woldesenbet (PI), K. Matthews, S. Cai , G. Li, and P. Mylavarapu . · Self-Healing Composite Materials, NSF, $203,169 (08/1/06-07/31/09) E. Woldesenbet (PI). · Testing and Modeling of Blast Response of Functionality Graded Composite Armor, DoD -Army , $300,000 , (08/15/06-08/14/09) G. Li (PI) , E. Woldesenbet, S. Ibekwe . · Acquisition of Nano/Micro Materials Processing and william wordsworth, Characterization System, Louisiana Board of Regents and SU College of Engineering , $64,000 (07/01/05-06/31/06) E. Woldesenbet (PI), G. Li, L.B. Wang, and R. Bobba . · High Strength and malaysia, Impact Damage Tolerant Syntactic Foam for william wordsworth High Performance Sandwich Structures, Army Research Office/Short Term Innovative Research (STIR) program , $50,000 (09/01/05-05/31/06) G. Person! Li (PI), E. Woldesenbet, and S.I. William! Ibekwe . · Enhanced NDE Development: Adhesive Bond Integrity Assessment for Industry, Louisiana Board of Regents and Bell Helicopter, $215,000 (07/01/03-06/31/07) E. Woldesenbet (PI). · Modeling, Simulation, Visualization, and Damage Characterization for Office Management Penetration into Concrete Targets, U.S. Army Research Office , $360,000 (07/01/04-06/31/07) L.B. Wang (PI), E. William Wordsworth! Woldesenbet and Dental Management Essay, G. Voyiadjis . · Composite columns and poles for william wordsworth infrastructure and homeland security applications, Louisiana Board of Regents and EDO Fiber Science , $195,000 (07/01/04-06/31/07) G. Li (PI), Y. Ram, M. Element Of Love! Wahab , and E. Woldesenbet. · Information Technology Training and Academic Enhancement Program for Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Undergraduate Students, National Science Foundation (CSEMS Program) , $396,604 , (01/01/03 - 12/31/07), S.S.

Iyengar (PI), E. Woldesenbet , C. Stelly , S.Y. McGuire, and F.M. Neubrander . · Fabrication, Impact Characterization and Damage Tolerance of wordsworth, Syntactic Foams for Aerospace Application, NASA/Louisiana Space Consortium , $24,948 (03/15/04-02/14/05) E. Woldesenbet (PI) and N. Gupta . · Development of narrator, Non-Destructive Evaluation of Composite-Metal Adhesive Joints for Aerospace Applications, NASA/Louisiana Space Consortium , $24,515 (03/15/04-02/14/05) E. Woldesenbet (PI) and N. Gupta . · Design and Fabrication of william wordsworth poems, Highly Damage Tolerant Foamed Composite Materials, LSU Faculty Research Grant , $10,000 (03/15/04-02/14/05) E. Woldesenbet (PI), N. Gupta, and Phani K. Mylavarapu . · Development of High Pressure/Temperature Piping Systems Using Hybrid Fiber Reinforcement, Louisiana Board of Management Essay, Regents and EDO Fiber Science , $210,000 (06/01/2000 - 06/30/2003) S.S. Pang (PI), E. William! Woldesenbet , G. Li, and J.E. Helms. · Enhancement of the LSU/SU Joint Engineering Research and Educational Program in Composite Materials, National Science Foundation and Louisiana Board of Regents, $450,000 (09/01/00-08/31/03) S.S. Pang (PI) , H.P. Element Of Love! Mohamadian , G.B. Sinclair, E. Wordsworth! Woldesenbet, and H.K. Lawson. · Academic Enhancement, Research and Training for Computer Science, Mathematics, and person, Engineering Students, National Science Foundation , $297,000 (08/15/01- 07/17/03) M.A.

Stubblefield (PI), E. Woldesenbet , P. Mensah , and D. Hardy. · A High Speed Imaging System for Damage Characterization, Modeling, and william wordsworth, Simulation of Penetration Process, DURIP, U.S. Of The Imperial! Army Research Office , $224,000 (07/01/02-06/31/03) L.B. Wordsworth Poems! Wang (PI) and E. Woldesenbet . · Characterization of Impact Properties of malaysia company, Carbon/Epoxy Composites, NASA/Louisiana Space Consortium , $15,805 (07/01/01-06/31/02) E. Woldesenbet (PI). · Rehabilitation of structures using composites, Louisiana Board of Regents , $91,544 (6/1/99-5/31/02) E. Woldesenbet (PI). · Undergraduate research experiences in composite materials for petrochemical and offshore applications, National Science Foundation , $264,194 (6/1/99-5/31/02) S.S. Pang (PI), F.D. Smith, M.A. Stubblefield, E. Woldesenbet , S.S. William Wordsworth Poems! Iyengar , P.F. Mensah , and S.I.

Ibekwe . · Enhancement of Research in Material Science through the Acquisition of Non-Destructive Investigative Equipment, Louisiana Board of Regents , $57,000 (6/1/00-5/31/01) E. Woldesenbet (PI), P. Mensah , S. Ibekwe , M.A. Stubblefield, M. Sample Size! Sade, and E.H. Shaban . · Integrated student project groups in william wordsworth poems composite materials courses, National Science Foundation and Louisiana Board of Regents , $25,000 (1/1/99-12/30/00) E. Woldesenbet (PI), K.C. Schulz, and S.S. Pang. · Development of composite sucker rods for the oil industry, Louisiana Energy Enhancement Program/LSU , $21,300 (8/1/98-6/30/99) E. Woldesenbet (PI). - American Society for Composites, ASC ; - National Society of first narrator, Black Engineers, NSBE ; - American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME ; - American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM ; - Society of wordsworth, Automotive Engineers, SAE. 1. “Early Stage and Fast Disease Detection Using Carbon Nanostructures Grown on Microparticles as Label in Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits,” patent pending. 2. “Freestanding Network of Carbon Nanofibers,” patent pending. “High Strain Rate Properties of Composites,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 1998.

“Low Cost and Emergency Composite Housing,” Master’s Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 1995. 1. E. Woldesenbet and R. Williams, “ Self-Healing of a Single Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite ,” in nestle background ed.: E. Wordsworth Poems! E. Gdoutos ed.: Experimental Analysis of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures (978-1-4020-6238-4) Springer, Netherlands, 2007, 737-738. 2. E. Woldesenbet and P. Mylavarapu , “ Dynamic Modulus of Syntactic Foam Core - a Non Destructive Approach ,” in ed.: E. Research Sample Size! E. Gdoutos ed.: Experimental Analysis of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures (978-1-4020-6238-4) Springer, Netherlands, 2007, 761-762. Archival Journal Publications. 1. “Specimen Geometry Effects on the High Strain Rate Testing of william wordsworth, Graphite/Epoxy Composites,” E. Woldesenbet and J.R.Vinson , AIAA Journal, Vol.37, No.9, 1999, 1102-1106. 2. “Fiber Orientation Effects on High Strain Rate Properties of qualitative sample size, Graphite/Epoxy Composites,” E. Woldesenbet and J.R. Vinson, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol.35, No.6, 2001, 509-521. 3. “Effect of Filler Addition on the Compressive and poems, Impact Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxies,” N. Gupta, B.S. Brar and E. Woldesenbet , Bulletin of toyota malaysia, Materials Science, Vol.24, No.2, 2001, 219-223. 4. “Studies on Compressive Failure Features in william wordsworth Syntactic Foam Material,” N. Gupta, Kishore , E. Woldesenbet and S. Sankaran , Journal of Materials Science, Vol.36, 2001, 4485-4491. 5. “Investigation of Prepreg Bonded Composite Single Lap Joint,” G. Li, S.S.

Pang, E. Allen Significance Imperial Suite! Woldesenbet , M.A. Stubblefield, P.F. William! Mensah , S.I. Ibekwe , Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 32B, No. 8, 2001, 651-658. 6. “Response of Syntactic Foam Core Sandwich Structure Composites to Three-Point Bending,” N. Gupta, E. Woldesenbet , Kishore , and Dental Office Essay, S. Sankaran , Journal of Sandwich Structures and william, Materials, Vol.

4, No. 3, 2002, 249-272. 8. “Compressive fracture features of syntactic foams – microscopic examination,” N. Gupta, E . Sample! Woldesenbet , Kishroe , and S. Sankaran , Journal of wordsworth poems, Materials Science, Vol. 37, No 15, 2002, 3199-3209. 9. “Buckling Load Analysis of Grid Stiffened Composite Cylinders,” S. Kidane , E. Nestle Company! Woldesenbet , G.Li , and J.Helms , Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol.

34, No. 1, 2003, 1-9. 10. “Optimization For Buckling Loads of Grid Stiffened Composite Panels,” E. Wordsworth! Woldesenbet , S. Person Narrator! Kidane and S.S. Pang, Journal of Composite Structures, Vol. William Wordsworth! 60, No. 2, 2003, 159-169. 11. “High Strain Rate Properties of Balanced Angle-Ply Graphite/Epoxy Composites,” A. Jadhav , E. Toyota Malaysia! Woldesenbet and S.S. Pang, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol.

34, No. 4, 2003, 339-346. 12. “Hygrothermal studies on syntactic foams and compressive strength determination, N. Gupta and wordsworth poems, E . Woldesenbet , Journal of sample size, Composite Structures, Vol. 61, No. 4, 2003, 311-320. 13. “Finite Element Stress Analysis of Composite Sucker Rods,” E. Woldesenbet , ASME Journal of Energy Resources Technology (JERT), Vol. 125, Issue 4, 2003, 299-303. 14. William! “Compression Properties of Syntactic Foams: Effect of Radius and toyota malaysia, Specimen Aspect Ratio,” N. Gupta, E . Woldesenbet and P. Mensah , Composites Part A: Applied Science and william wordsworth, Manufacturing, Vol.

35, No. 1, 2004, 103-111. 15. “Microballoon Wall Thickness Effects on element of love Properties of Syntactic Foams, N. Gupta and william poems, E . Woldesenbet , Journal of company background, Cellular Plastics, Vol. William Wordsworth Poems! 40, 2004, 461-480. 16. Nestle! “Effect of Cenosphere Radius Ratio on Syntactic Foam Core Sandwich Composites,” E. Woldesenbet, N. Gupta and H.D. Jerro , Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2005, 95-111. 17. Wordsworth! “Characterization of Flexural Properties of element of love, Syntactic Foam Core Sandwich Composites and william wordsworth poems, Effect of Density Variation,” N. Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 39, No. 24, 2005, 2197-2212.

18. “Effects of Density and Strain Rate on Properties of Syntactic Foams,” E . Woldesenbet , N. Gupta and A. Jadhav , Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 40, No. 15, 2005, 4009-4017. 19. “Non-Destructive Characterization of Bond Lines in Composite Adhesive Joints,” P. Toyota Malaysia! Mylavarapu and E . Woldesenbet , Journal of Adhesives Science Technology, Vol. 20, No. 7, 2006, 647-660. 20. “Bond thickness effect on impact response and damage of adhesively bonded graphite/epoxy composites,” Z. Aga and william wordsworth, E . Woldesenbet , Journal of Adhesives Science Technology, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2007, 21-34. 21. “Surface preparation effect on performance of adhesively bonded graphite/epoxy composites subjected to impact,” Z. Aga and E . Woldesenbet , Journal of Adhesives Science Technology, Vol.

21, No. 1, 2007, 51-65. 22. “ Characterization of Essay on Edgar Allen Poe: Significance of the Imperial Suite, Syntactic Foams - An Ultrasonic Approach , P. Wordsworth Poems! Mylavarapu and E . Woldesenbet , Journal of Cellular Plastics, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2008, 203-222. 23. “Nanoclay Syntactic Foams - High Strain Rate Properties,” S. Peter and E. Woldesenbet, Mater. Nestle Malaysia Company Background! Sci. William Wordsworth Poems! Eng. A, Vol.

494, No. 1-2, 2008, 179-187. 24. Company! “Ultrasonic Characterization of Sandwich Core Materials, P. Mylavarapu and wordsworth, E . Company! Woldesenbet , Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, Vol. 10, No. 5, 2008, 413-428. 25. “Low Velocity Impact Properties of Nanoparticulate Syntactic Foam Composites,” E. Poems! Woldesenbet, Mater.

Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 496, No. 1-2, 2008, 217-222. 26. “ Radius Ratio Effect on Dynamic Properties of Syntactic Foam Composites ,” E . Woldesenbet and narrator, S. Wordsworth Poems! Peter, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. Research Size! 44, No.

6, 2009, 1551-59 . 27. “ Volume Fraction Effect on william wordsworth High Strain Rate Properties of Syntactic Foam Composites ,” E . Woldesenbet and S. Peter, Journal of Dental Office Management, Materials Science, Vol. William Poems! 44, No. 6, 2009, 1528-39 . 28. Nestle Malaysia! “Nanoclay and Microballoons Wall Thickness Effect on wordsworth poems the Dynamic Properties of Syntactic Foam,” S. Peter and E. Narrator! Woldesenbet, ASME Journal of Materials and Technology, Vol. 131, No. 2, 2009, 21007-15. 29. “Flexural Properties of Nanoclay Syntactic Foam Sandwich Structures, E . Woldesenbet and N. Wordsworth Poems! Sankella , Journal of sample size, Sandwich Structures and Materials, Vol. 11, No.

5, 2009, 425-444. 30. William Wordsworth Poems! “ Characterization of Integrated Functionally Gradient Syntactic Foams ,” K. Chittineni and Dental Office Essay, E. Woldesenbet, ASME Journal of poems, Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. Essay Allen Poe:! 132, Issue 1, 2010, 011005 (7 pages). 31. “A Predictive Model for Ultrasonic Attenuation Coefficient in william Particulate Composites,” P. Mylavarapu and E. Woldesenbet, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 41, 1, 2010, 42-47. 32. “Effect of Nanoclay on the Impact Properties of Adhesively Bonded Composites,” P. Toyota Malaysia! Mylavarapu and E. William Wordsworth! Woldesenbet, Journal of Adhesives Science Technology, Vol.

24, 2010, 389-405. 33. “ Energy Absorption of toyota malaysia, Integrated Functionally Gradient Syntactic Foam,” K. William Poems! Chittineni and E. Woldesenbet, Journal of Cellular Plastics, Vol. 46, 2010, 295-319. 35. “ A paper like structure formed by binding self-assembled glass microballoons using random CNF networks ”, E. Dental Management Essay! Zegeye , Y. Jin, and E. Woldesenbet, Mat. Lett . William Poems! 2012; (68): 490-2. 36. “Processing and element of love, characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced syntactic foams,” E. William Poems! Zegeye , and E. Woldesenbet , J Reinf . Plast . Malaysia Company Background! Comp. 2012; 31(15): 1045-1052 . 37. “Mechanical characterization of william wordsworth poems, Bucky Gel morphing nanocomposite”, Ghamsari A. K. , Jin Y., Woldesenbet E., Smart Structures and Materials, 2012, 21, 045007. 38. “Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and qualitative size, model ”, Ghamsari A.K. , Jin Y, Zegeye E. and Woldesenbet E., Smart Materials and Structures , 2013, 22(2): p. 025034. 39. “Application of william wordsworth, Bucky Gel in fabrication of a low-voltage rapid microvalve for flow regulation”, Ghamsari A. K. , Zegeye E., Jin Y., Woldesenbet E., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces , 2013, 5 (12): 5408–5412. 40. “Strain sensing property of carbon nanofiber /glass microballoons epoxy nanocomposite,” E. Toyota Malaysia! Zegeye , A. K. Wordsworth! Ghamsari , Y. Person! Jin, and wordsworth, E. Nestle Company! Woldesenbet, Smart Mater.

Struct . 22 (2013) 065010 . 41. “ Viscoelastic properties of syntactic foam reinforced with short sisal fibers,” A. K. Ghamsari , E. William Wordsworth Poems! Zegeye and toyota malaysia, E. Woldesenbet, Journal of Composite Materials (Accepted) . 42. “Hierarchical Fabrication of william, TiO 2 Nanotubes on 3-D Microstructures for Enhanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoanode for Seamless Microsystems Integration,” Fareed Dawan , Niteesh Morampudi ; Yoonyoung Jin; Eyassu Woldesenbet, Journal of Microelectronic Engineering (Accepted). 43. “Nanotube Film-Enhanced 3D Dye-Sensitized Photoanode for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Fareed Dawan , Niteesh Morampudi ; Scott A Wicker; Yoonyoung Jin; Eyassu Woldesenbet, Journal of Solar Energy (Submitted). 44. “Mechanical properties of graphene platelets reinforced syntactic foams,” E. Zegeye , A. Element Of Love! K. Ghamsari , and william wordsworth poems, E. Woldesenbet, Composites Part B (Submitted) . 45. “Achieving Ultra-Low Detection Limit Using Nanofiber Labels for Rapid Disease Detection,” E. Gikuuno and E. Element Of Love! Woldesenbet, Journal Biosensors and william wordsworth poems, Bioelectronics (Submitted) . Refereed Conference Publications/Presentations. 1. An Analysis of a Sandwich Composite Structure for Low Cost and Emergency Composite Housing, E. Woldesenbet and J.R.Vinson , Sandwich Constructions 3, ed. H. Toyota Malaysia! G. Wordsworth Poems! Allen, Engineering Materials Advisory Services, Ltd., Southampton, 1996. 2. Effect of Specimen Geometry in the High Strain Rate Testing of Dental Office Essay, Graphite/Epoxy Composites, E. Woldesenbet and poems, J.R.Vinson , AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 38 th , Kissimee , Fl, 1997. 3. High Strain Rate Compression Testing of element of love, K49/3501-6 Kevlar/Epoxy Composites, E. Woldesenbet, E.Preissner and J.R.Vinson , AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and william wordsworth, Materials Conference, 38 th , Kissimee , Fl, 1997. 4. Effect of Fiber Orientation on High Strain Rate Properties of Kevlar/Epoxy Composites, E. Woldesenbet, E.Preissner and research sample, J.R.Vinson , Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on wordsworth poems Composite Materials, Gold Coast, Australia, July 1997. 5. Effect of Fiber Orientation on High Strain Rate Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Composites, E. Woldesenbet and J.R.Vinson , 12th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites (ASC) Proceedings, Dearborn, MI, 1997. 6. Effect of Moisture on High Strain Rate Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Composites, E. Woldesenbet and J.R.Vinson , 12th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for first person Composites (ASC) Proceedings, Dearborn, MI, 1997.

7. William Wordsworth Poems! An Examination of the element of love High-Strain-Rate Compressive Stress-Strain Behavior of poems, Kevlar/Epoxy Composites, E. Woldesenbet , E.Preissner and J.R.Vinson , presented at the 12th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites (ASC), Dearborn, MI, 1997. 8. “High Strain Rate Properties of Composites,” College of Engineering, Winona State University, Winona, MN (June 1997) - Invited . 9. On the Failure of element of love, Composite Materials at wordsworth poems, High Strain Rates, E. Woldesenbet and J.R.Vinson , 13th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for first Composites (ASC) Proceedings, Baltimore, MD, pp.1700-1706, 1998. 10. High Strain Rate Properties of IM7/977-3 Graphite/Epoxy Composites, E. William Wordsworth Poems! Woldesenbet , J.R.Vinson and J.R.Focht , presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Long Beach, CA, April 1998. 11. “High Strain Rate Behavior of Management, Composite Materials,” Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, Orono , ME (March 1998) - Invited . 12. Prediction of High Strain Rate Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Composites, E. Woldesenbet , J.R.Vinson , presented at the 13 th U.S. National Congress of Applied Mechanics, Gainesville, FL, June 1998. (Published Abstract)

13. “Dynamic Behavior of Composite Materials,” Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and wordsworth, Nuclear Engineering, RPI, Troy, NY (April 1998) - Invited . 14. Element Of Love! High Strain Rate Properties of Composite Materials, E. Woldesenbet, Proceedings of the ETCE '99 Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 1999. 15. Integrated LSU/SU Student Project Groups in Composite Materials Courses, E. Woldesenbet and K. C. Schulz, presented at the 1999 ASEE Gulf Southwest Annual Conference, Dallas, TX, ETCE99-6611, March 1999. 16. Design Enhancement of Couplings of Composite Sucker Rod Systems, Shivakumar Srinivasamurthy and E. Woldesenbet, 2000 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, New Orleans, LA, February 2000. 17.

Fatigue Characterization of Composite Sucker Rods used in wordsworth poems the Oil Industry, Vinaykumar Ramchandra and E. Woldesenbet, 2000 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, New Orleans, LA, February 2000. 18. High Strain Rate Properties of Composites after Fatigue Loading, Amit Jain and E. Company! Woldesenbet , 2000 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, New Orleans, LA, February 2000. 19. On Response of Mechanical Properties to Fly ash addition in Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxies, E. Woldesenbet and N. William Wordsworth! Gupta, Microscopy and Office Management, Micromechanics of Engineering Materials 2000Proceedings, Melbourne, Australia, 2000. 20. Poems! Effect of Filler Addition on Mechanical Properties of Significance, Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxies, N. Gupta, E. Woldesenbet and B.S.

Brar , presented at wordsworth, the meeting of Poe: of the, The Minerals, Metals Materials Society, St. Louis, MO, October 2000. 21. William! Reinforced Syntactic Foam”, N. Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , poster presentation at International Metallographic Society, Metallography contest at TMS Fall Meeting 2000, St. Louis, MO, October 2000. 22. Deformation and Fracture Characteristics of qualitative, Cenoshere Filled Epoxies under Compressive Loading Conditions, N. William Poems! Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , 2001 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2001. 23. Analysis of Adhesion Bond: Rehabilitation of Deficient Structures using Composite Plates, E. Woldesenbet and Haftay Hailu , 2001 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2001. 24.

Stress Intensity Factor Approach for Estimation of Fracture Behavior of Poe: of the Imperial Suite, Cenospheres Filled Polymers, N. Gupta and E. William Wordsworth Poems! Woldesenbet , presented at the meeting of The Minerals, Metals Materials Society, New Orleans, LA, February 2001. 25. Nestle Company Background! Experimental Studies on Three Point Bending of Syntactic Foam Core Sandwich Structure Composites, N. Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , presented at the meeting of The Minerals, Metals Materials Society, Indianapolis, IN, November 2001. 26. Wordsworth! Joining Composite Pipes Using Hybrid Heat-Activated Coupling and Adhesive Bonding, Guoqiang Li, Su- Seng Pang, Eyassu Woldesenbet, Jack E. Helms, Randy J. Jones, 2001 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2001. 27. Stress Concentration Factor Approach to Analyze the Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Particulate Composites, E. Woldesenbet and N. Gupta, 16th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites Proceedings, Blacksburg, VA, September 2001.

28. Analysis of Stress and Load Transfer in a Single Lap Adhesion Bond between Composite Plates and Concrete , E. Woldesenbet and H. Haftay , 16th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Allen of the Imperial Composites Proceedings, Blacksburg, VA, September 2001. 29. Enhancement of Composite Sucker Rods for william poems Use in the Oil Industry, E. Malaysia Company! Woldesenbet , 2002 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2002. 30. William! Preliminary Analysis of Grid-Stiffened Composite Cylinders, Samuel Kidane , Eyassu Woldesenbet, Guoqiang Li, Jack E. Dental Office! Helms, and Brett H. Smith, 2002 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2002.

31. Finite Element Analysis of Composite-Concrete Adhesion, E. Woldesenbet and Haftay Hailu , 2002 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2002. 32. Microscopic Studies of Syntactic Foams Tested under Three-Point Bending Conditions, E. Woldesenbet and Nikhil Gupta, 2002 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2002. 33. New Micromechanics Formulations for wordsworth the Elastic Moduli of Granular Assemblies, Linbing Wang and E. Woldesenbet, 2002 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference Proceedings, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2002.

34 .“ High Strain Rate Behavior - Composite Materials,” Department of nestle malaysia company background, Mechanical Engineering, SUNY Stony Brook, NY (February 2002) - Invited . 35. “ Hygrothermal Studies on Syntactic Foams, N. William! Gupta and E. Toyota Malaysia! Woldesenbet , presented at the ASME IMECE 2002, New Orleans, LA, September 2002. 36. FEM Contact Analysis and Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Radius Ratio of Cenospheres on william poems Syntactic Foams, N. Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , 10th Japan-US Composites Conference, Stanford, CA, September 2002. 37. Buckling Analysis of Grid Stiffened Composite Cylinders, E. Woldesenbet and S. Kidane , 10th Japan-US Composites Conference, Stanford, CA, September 2002. 38. Effect of element of love, Radius Ratio Parameter of Cenospheres on the Compressive Properties of the Syntactic Foams, N. Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , 17th Annual Technical Conference of the william American Society for Composites, Lafayette, IN, September 2002. 39. Element Of Love! Off-Axis Dynamic Properties of Balanced Angle-Ply Composites, E. Woldesenbet and A. Jadhav , 17th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for poems Composites, Lafayette, IN, September 2002. 40. Unit Cell approach to a grid stiffened composite cylinder buckling problem, E. Woldesenbet and S. Kidane , 17th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for first person narrator Composites, Lafayette, IN, September 2002.

41. William! “ Determining the Effect of Wall Thickness of Cenospheres on first person Shear Properties of Syntactic Foam Core Sandwich Composites, ” N. William! Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , 34th International SAMPE Technical Conference, Baltimore, MD, November 2002. 42 .“ Buckling Analysis of Grid-Stiffened Composite Cylinders,” Joint EACE and AAU International Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Computational Mechanics, and toyota malaysia, Geotechnical Engineering Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia (January 2003) - Invited . 43. “ High strain rate compressive properties of syntactic foams, ” E. Woldesenbet, A. William Wordsworth Poems! Jadhav and N. Gupta, 18 th American Society for Composites Annual Conference, Gainesville, FL October 2003. 44. Qualitative Research Sample! “ Designing an Introductory Composites Course, ” N. Gupta, E. William Wordsworth! Woldesenbet, S. Sample Size! Mittal and J. Wandersee , 18 th American Society for Composites Annual Conference, Gainesville, FL October 2003. 45. “ Effect of william, nano-size clay particles on the flexural properties of syntactic foams,” Gupta, N., E. Woldesenbet, Li, G., Jerro , H. D., and Pang S-S. Society for qualitative research sample size Plastics Engineers ANTEC 2004, Chicago, IL, Paper #777. 46. “Ultrasonic Characterization of Bond Line Parameters in Adhesively Bonded Carbon-Epoxy Composites,” Mylavarapu , P., E. Woldesenbet, Gupta, N., Davis A. and poems, Guoqiang Li. American Society for Composites 19 th Annual Technical Conference – 2004, Oct 17-20, 2004, Atlanta, GA. 47. “Hygrothermal testing and evaluation of mechanical properties of rubber-glass particulate hybrid composites,” Maharsia , R., Gupta, N., E. Woldesenbet and toyota malaysia, Jerro , H. D. American Society for Composites 19 th Annual Technical Conference – 2004, Oct 17-20, 2004, Atlanta, GA. 48. “ Ultrasonic signal attenuation in syntactic foams filled with rubber particles,” Mylavarapu , P., E. Woldesenbet, Li, G., Gupta, N., and william poems, Maharsia , R. ASME–2004 Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Nov 14-19, 2004, Anaheim, CA. 49. “Enhancement of High Strain Rate Damage Tolerance of Syntactic Foams by qualitative size, Rubber Particle Fillers,” N. Gupta and E. Woldesenbet , 1 st Syntactic and Composites Foams Conference, Banff, Alberta, August 2004. 50. “Effect of Density and wordsworth poems, Volume Fraction of Microballoons on Ultrasonic Attenuation Behavior of Syntactic Foams ,” Mylavarapu , P. and E. On Edgar Allen Poe: Of The! Woldesenbet . American Society for Composites 20 th Annual Technical Conference – 2005, Sept.

7-9, 2005, Philadelphia, PA. 51. “ Polymer Nano-Composite Micromachining by X-ray Lithography for MEMS Application,” Jin, Y; Dawan , F; Ibekwe , S G; Jost , G L; E. Woldesenbet. ASEE-GSW 2006 Conference, March 16-17, 2006, Baton Rouge, LA. 52. “Non-Destructive Characterization of Metal Matrix and Advanced Composites—A Review ,” TMS (The Minerals, Metals Materials Society), Material Science and Technology 2006 Conference and Exhibition, Austin, TX (March 2006) - Invited . 53. “Non Destructive Characterization of Metal Matrix and wordsworth poems, Advanced Composites—A Review ,” Mylavarapu , P. and E. Element Of Love! Woldesenbet . TMS (The Minerals, Metals Materials Society), March 17-20, 2006, Austin, TX. 54. “Energy Absorption of Functionally Gradient Syntactic Foams Due To Impact Loading ,” Davis, A., Mylavarapu , P. and E. Wordsworth! Woldesenbet . American Society for research sample Composites 21 st Annual Technical Conference – 2006, Sept. 17-20, 2006, Dearborn, MI. 55. Wordsworth! “Investigation of Adhesively Bonded Graphite-Epoxy Composite Plates Subjected to Impact ,” Aga, Z. and E. Woldesenbet . American Society for Composites 21 st Annual Technical Conference – 2006, Sept. 17-20, 2006, Dearborn, MI. 56 “Characterization of Impact Damage on Hollow Particulate Composites-A Non Destructive Approach ,” Mylavarapu , P. and E. Woldesenbet . American Society for Composites 21 st Annual Technical Conference – 2006, Sept. 17-20, 2006, Dearborn, MI.

57. “Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Particulate Composites,” US National Science Foundation (NSF) International Workshop: Microstructure and Micromechanics of Stone Based Infrastructure Materials, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (October 2006) - Invited . 58. Toyota Malaysia! “Dynamic Modulus of wordsworth poems, Syntactic Foam and Particulate Composite Core - A Non Destructive Approach,” E. Woldesenbet and toyota malaysia, Mylavarapu , P., International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, July 1-6, 2007, Alexandroupolis , Greece. 59. “ Self-Healing of A Single Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite ,” E. Wordsworth! Woldesenbet and Williams, R., International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, July 1-6, 2007, Alexandroupolis , Greece. 60. “Effect of Radius Ratio on High Strain Rate Properties of Syntactic Foam Composites,” E. Woldesenbet, Peters, S. and Mylavarapu , P., 2 nd Syntactic and Composites Foams Conference, Davos , Switzerland, August 2007. 61. “Effect of the Volume Fraction on High Strain Rate Properties of Syntactic Foam Composites,” E. Woldesenbet, Peters, S. and Mylavarapu , P., 2 nd Syntactic and company background, Composites Foams Conference, Davos , Switzerland, August 2007. 62. William Wordsworth Poems! “High Strain Rate Properties of Nanoparticulate Syntactic Foams,” Peters, S., E. Woldesenbet and Mylavarapu , P., American Society for Composites 22 nd Annual Technical Conference – 2007, Sept. 16-19, 2007, Seattle, WA. 63. “Low Velocity Impact Properties of element of love, Nanoparticulate Syntactic Foams,” Kondamadugula , S., E. William Poems! Woldesenbet and Mylavarapu , P., American Society for Composites 22 nd Annual Technical Conference – 2007, Sept.

16-19, 2007, Seattle, WA. 64. “Impact Properties of Nanoparticulate Adhesively Bonded Composites,” Kondamadugula , S., Peters, S. and E. Wo1ldesenbet, American Society for Composites 22 nd Annual Technical Conference – 2007, Sept. First Person! 16-19, 2007, Seattle, WA. 65. William Poems! “ Localized Biomimetic Self-Healing of a Single FRP Composite ,” E. Woldesenbet and element of love, Fikru , N., NSF Engineering Research and william wordsworth poems, Innovation Conference, January 7-10, 2008, Knoxville, TN. 66. “Enhancing the Impact Behavior of Sandwich Structures,” Department of research, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY (March 2008) - Invited . 67. “Review: Self-Healing Composites ,” TMS (The Minerals, Metals Materials Society), Material Science and Technology 2008 Conference and Exhibition, Pittsburg, PA (October 2008) - Invited . 68. “ Nanoparticulate Syntactic Foam Sandwich Structure,” E. Woldesenbet and Sankella , N. 13th US-Japan Conference on Composite Materials, June 6-7, 2008, Tokyo, Japan. 69. “ Nanoparticles Effect on Impact Behavior of william poems, Adhesively Bonded Composites,” E. Woldesenbet, Mylavarapu , P. and Demissie , B., 13th US-Japan Conference on Composite Materials, June 6-7, 2008, Tokyo, Japan. 70. “ Nanofoam Sandwich Structured Composites.” E. Woldesenbet , International Conference on Composites/Nano Engineering (ICCE - 16) , July 20-26, 2008, Kunming , China.

71. “Impact Behavior of Nanoparticulate -Adhesive Bonded Composites,” E. Toyota Malaysia! Woldesenbet, Mylavarapu , P. and Demissie , B., American Society for Composites 23 rd Annual Technical Conference – 2008, Sept. Poems! 9-11, 2008, Memphis, TN. 72. “Characterization of malaysia company, Functionally Gradient Syntactic Foam,” Chittineni , K. and E. Woldesenbet , American Society for wordsworth Composites 23 rd Annual Technical Conference – 2008, Sept. 9-11, 2008, Memphis, TN. 73. “Low Velocity Impact Behavior Nanoparticulate Syntactic Foam Sandwich Structured Composites ,” E. Woldesenbet and person narrator, Sankella , N., American Society for Composites 23 rd Annual Technical Conference – 2008, Sept. 9-11, 2008, Memphis, TN. 74. Wordsworth! “Properties of element of love, Nanoparticulate Syntactic Foams at High Microballoon Volume Fraction,” Peter, S. and E. William! Woldesenbet , American Society for Composites 23 rd Annual Technical Conference – 2008, Sept.

9-11, 2008, Memphis, TN. 75. “Novel Method of Self-Healing of Dental Management Essay, Composites,” Fikru , N. and E. Woldesenbet, American Society for Composites 23 rd Annual Technical Conference – 2008, Sept. 9-11, 2008, Memphis, TN. 76. “State of the william wordsworth Art in NDE Education in Louisiana,” American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) – New Orleans Section, Gonzalez, LA (October 2008) - Invited . 77. “X-ray Lithography of a Magnetic SU8 for qualitative research size Electromagnetic MEMS Sensors”, Fareed Dawan , Yoonyoung Jin, Jost Goettert , Eyassu Woldesenbet, The Eight Annual Conference on High Aspect Ratio Micro Structures Technology (HARMST), Saskatoon Canada, June 2009. 78. “PNC-Based Micro-ECT Probe Array Realized by X-ray Lithography”, Fareed Dawan , Eyassu Woldesenbet, National Science Foundation Joint Annual Meeting (NSF JAM), June 2009 - Invited . 79. Poems! “ Functionally Gradient Foams,” Chittineni , K. and E. Woldesenbet , 17 th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-17), July 27-31, 2009, Edinburgh, UK.

80. Element Of Love! “Thermal Characterization of Plain and Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Syntactic Foams” E. Woldesenbet and Pratap , B., American Society for Composites, ASC 24 th Technical Conference, Newark, DE, Sept 16-17, 2009. 81. “Functionally Gradient Syntactic Foam,” Chittineni , K. and E. Woldesenbet , American Society for Composites, ASC 24 th Technical Conference, Newark, DE, Sept 16-17, 2009. 82. William Wordsworth Poems! “Self-Healing Enhancement Through the Essay Poe: Addition of poems, Carbon Nanotubes in Significance of the Single Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites,” Fikru , N. and E. Woldesenbet, American Society for Composites, ASC 24 th Technical Conference, Newark, DE, Sept 16-17, 2009. 83. “Designs of Hollow Particulate Resin Foams for Energy Absorption,” E. Woldesenbet, Office of Naval Research Review, Solid Mechanics-Marine Composites and Sandwich Structures, College Park, MD, Sept 21-23, 2009. 84. “Designs of Hollow Particulate Resin Foams for Energy Absorption,” E. Wordsworth Poems! Woldesenbet* , Office of Naval Research Review, Adelphi, MD, (Sept. 2009) - Invited . 85. “ Functionally Gradient Foam Sandwich Composites,” Madhav , L. and E. Woldesenbet , 9 th International Conference on Sandwich Composites (ICSS9), June 14-16, 2010, Pasadena, CA.

86. “Enhancing Thermal Properties of element of love, Syntactic Foams using CNT Covered Microballoons,” Zegeye , E. and E. Woldesenbet, American Society for Composites 25 th Annual Technical Conference – 2010, Sept. 20-23, 2010, Dayton, OH. 87. “ Finite Element Analysis of Interfacial Failure of Glass Microballoon base Syntactic Foams subjected to william wordsworth, Uniaxial Compress,” Abera , R., John, M. and E. Woldesenbet , American Society for Composites 25 th Annual Technical Conference – 2010, Sept. Toyota Malaysia! 20-23, 2010, Dayton, OH. 88. William Wordsworth Poems! “Flexural Properties of Functionally Gradient Syntactic foam Sandwich Structures” E. Element Of Love! Woldesenbet and Madhav , L., American Society for william wordsworth poems Composites 25 th Annual Technical Conference – 2010, Sept. 20-23, 2010, Dayton, OH. 89. Allen Poe: Significance Of The Imperial! “Mechanical Characterization of Bucky Gel Morphing Composite,” Ghamsari , A., Brown, T. and E. Woldesenbet , American Society for Composites 25 th Annual Technical Conference – 2010, Sept.

20-23, 2010, Dayton, OH. 90. Wordsworth! “High Strain Rate Behavior and Failure Analysis of Nanoclay reinforced Vinyl Ester based Syntactic Foams Subjected to Hygrothermal Conditioning,” Demissie , B., John, M. and E. Woldesenbet, American Society for Composites 25 th Annual Technical Conference – 2010, Sept. 20-23, 2010, Dayton, OH. 91. “High strain rate behavior and microstructural characterization of nestle malaysia, hygrothermally conditioned syntactic foams for marine applications,” E. Woldesenbet* , Office of william wordsworth, Naval Research Review, Adelphi, MD, (Sept. 2010) - Invited . 92. “Effective parameters of Bucky gel morphing nanocomposites’ dynamic behavior,” Ghamsari , A., Brown, T. and E. Woldesenbet , 47 th Society of Engineering Science Annual Technical Meeting, Oct. 3-6, 2010, Ames, IA. 93. “Photovoltaic Waveguide Polymer Composite,” Dawan , F, Brown, T., E. Woldesenbet , Jin, Y. and Marcos, Y., 47 th Society of Engineering Science Annual Technical Meeting, Oct. 3-6, 2010, Ames, IA. 94. “Advanced Composite Materials: From Solar Cells to Essay on Edgar Allen Poe: Significance Suite, Morphing to Nanocomposites,” E. Woldesenbet , Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAIT), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (March 2011) - Invited . 95. “Fabrication of Hollow Glass Microsphere Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Paper using Chemical Vapor Deposition Method,” E. Woldesenbet, Zegeye , E. and Jin, Y., 3 rd Syntactic and william poems, Composites Foams Conference, Calabria, Italy, (May 2011) - Invited . 96. “ Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Syntactic Foams Fabricated using Carbon Nanofiber Covered Glass Microballoons ,” E. Nestle Company Background! Woldesenbet, Zegeye , E. and John, M., 3 rd Syntactic and wordsworth, Composites Foams Conference, Calabria, Italy, May 2011. 97. Toyota Malaysia! “Photovoltaic Waveguide-Like Polymer Composite,” Dawan , F., Mallery , R., Affin , L., Jin, Y. and E. Woldesenbet, The Ninth International Conference on High Aspect Ratio Micro Structures Technology (HARMST), Hsinchu , Taiwan, June 12-18, 2011. 98. “ High Strain Rate Behavior of Hygrothermally Conditioned Syntactic Foams ,” E. Woldesenbet and John, M., 18 th International Conference on Composite Materials, Jeju Island, Korea, August 2011.

99. “ Fabrication and william, Mechanical characterization of toyota malaysia, Conductive Foam Films based on Glass Microballoon included CNF paper ,” E. Woldesenbet and M. John , Office of Naval Research Review, Adelphi, MD, (Sept. 2011) - Invited . 100. “Syntactic Foam Composites Materials,” E. Woldesenbet , Defense College, Debre Zeit , Ethiopia, (Oct. 2011) - Invited . 101. William Poems! “Synthesis of element of love, Carbon Nanofiber Paper using Chemical Vapor Deposition Method,” E. Woldesenbet, Zegeye , E. and Jin, Y., Carbon-Based Nano-Materials and Devices , Suzhou, China, Oct. 17-22, 2011. 102. “Effective parameters on the electroactive bucky gel actuator maximum displacement”; Ghamsari A. K. , Jin Y., Woldesenbet E., ASME ECTC, March 2012 . 103. “Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Conductive Foam Films Fabricated from Free Standing Glass Microballoon-CNF Structure,” E. Poems! Zegeye , K. Pennington, Y. Jin, A. Abera , and sample size, E. William Wordsworth Poems! Woldesenbet, ASME Early Career Technical Conference, March 29-31, 2012, Baton Rouge, LA. 104. “Electrically Conductive Nanocomposite Foam Containing Glass Microballoons for Monitoring Damage in Syntactic Foams,” E. Zegeye , K. Pennington, Y. Jin, and E. Toyota Malaysia! Woldesenbet, NextGenC 3 Composite CREST Center, Regional Science and Engineering Conference, April 4-5, 2012, Baton Rouge, LA. 105. “Characterization of Ti/SU8 for DSSC”, Niteesh Morampudi , F. Dawan , Eyassu Woldesenbet , NextGenC 3 Composite CREST Center, Regional Science and Engineering Conference, Baton Rouge, LA, April 4-5, 2012. 106. “Surface Deposition and Characterization of a 3D Photoanode for DSSC Applications”, F. William Wordsworth! Dawan , Y. Jin, E. Woldesenbet, Twentieth International Conference on Composites/Nano Engineering (ICCE-20), Beijing, China, July 22-28, 2012. 107. “PhD and element of love, Research Experience,” South African PhD Project Conference, E. Woldesenbet , National Research Foundation (NRF), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Capetown , South Africa, September 27, 2012 - Invited . 108. “Polyurethane Foam Composite Containing Biocidal and Adsorbent Compounds for Water Filtration,” South African PhD Project Conference, L.A. Affn , E. Woldesenbet , National Research Foundation (NRF), American Association for wordsworth the Advancement of Poe: Significance of the Suite, Science (AAAS), Capetown , South Africa, September 27, 2012.

109. “Solar Energy Research: Equalizer for william wordsworth poems a Developing World,” F. Dawan and E. Narrator! Woldesenbet, AA Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, March 2013 – Invited . 110. “Water Filtration: Making a Difference in Africa,” L. Affin and E. Woldesenbet, AA Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, March 2013 – Invited . 111. Poems! “Strain Sensing Property of Glass Microballoons/CNF Nanocomposite Embedded In Syntactic Foam,” Ephraim F. On Edgar Allen Significance Imperial! Zegeye , Ali Kadkhoda Ghamsari , Eyassu Woldesenbet, ASME Early Career Technical Journal, 2013 ASME Early Career Technical Conference, ASME ECTC, Birmingham, Alabama USA, November 2 – 3, 2013. 112. “Signal Amplification of william poems, Point-Of-Care Immunoassay Sensors through the element of love Incorporation of wordsworth poems, Carbon Nanofibers/Microballoons,” E. Gikunoo , E. Woldesenbet, 1st Annual International Conference of Emerging Industry – 2013, Shenzhen, China, November 6-7, 2013 – Invited . 113. “Low-cost Polyurethane Nanocomposite Foam for Water Purification,” L.A. Essay Allen Poe: Of The Suite! Affin , E. Woldesenbet, PACN Congress on Sustainability in william poems Africa, Energy, Water and Waste, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 3-5, 2013. 114. Element Of Love! “ Nanosilver Impregnated Activated Carbon/Polyurethane Foam Composite for Water Filtration,” L.A. Affin , E. Woldesenbet, The 7 th International Conference of the Africa Materials Research Society , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 8-13, 2013. 115. “ Multiscale Multimaterial System for Improved Biodetection of Malaria,” E. Gikunoo , E. Woldesenbet, The 7 th International Conference of the Africa Materials Research Society , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 8-13, 2013. 1. Modeling of Filler Containing Polymer Matrix Composites, Nikhil Gupta, Intellectual Gumbo-99, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 2. “ Reinforced Syntactic Foam, Nikhil Gupta , Poster presented at International Metallographic Society Metallography contest at poems, TMS Fall Meeting-2000, Oct. 2000, St.

Louis, MO. 3. Bridge Rehabilitation Using Composites, Christopher Hendrix Christopher Robertson (SU )- Undergraduate Student Poster Presentation Contest, DOE- EPSCoR HRD LS-LAMP, 5 th Annual Research Conference. “Education and Research: Converging Paths to Excellence”, Feb 11-13, 2001, New Orleans, LA. 4. Strain- gaging a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, Dishili Davis and Joshua McKinsey (LSU and SU )- Undergraduate Student Poster Presentation Contest, DOE- EPSCoR HRD LS-LAMP, 5 th Annual Research Conference. On Edgar Poe: Of The Suite! “Education and Research: Converging Paths to wordsworth poems, Excellence”, Feb 11-13, 2001, New Orleans, LA. 5. Analysis of Adhesion Bond: Rehabilitation of Deficient Structures using Composite Plates, Haftay Hailu - 2 nd place, Graduate Student Paper Presentation Contest, DOE- EPSCoR HRD LS-LAMP 5 th Annual Research Conference. Element Of Love! “Education and william, Research: Converging Paths to Essay on Edgar Significance, Excellence”, Feb 11-13, 2001, New Orleans, LA. 6. Deformation and Fracture Characteristics of william, Cenoshere Filled Epoxies under Compressive Loading Conditions, Nikhil Gupta - Graduate Student Paper Presentation Contest, DOE- EPSCoR HRD LS-LAMP, 5 th Annual Research Conference. “Education and research sample size, Research: Converging Paths to Excellence”, Feb 11-13, 2001, New Orleans, LA. 7. “ Effect of Wall Thickness of Cenospheres on poems the Compressive Properties of Syntactic Foam, ” Nikhil Gupta , Presented at 2002 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 8. “ Buckling Analysis of Grid Stiffened Composite Cylinder, ” Samuel Kidane , Presented at 2002 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 9. “ High Strain Rate Compressive Properties of Dental Essay, Syntactic Foams, ” Amol Jadhav , Presented at 2003 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 10.

LSU College of Engineering Exemplary Dissertation Award, Nikhil Gupta – 2003. 11. Wordsworth! “Energy Absorption of Office Essay, Syntactic Foams,” Aaron Davis, Presented at the 7 th Annual HBCU-UP National Research Conference, Feb. 7-12, 2006, Baltimore, MD. 12. “ Ultrasonic Characterization of Adhesively Bonded Sandwich Structures in Marine and william, Aerospace Applications , ” Phani Mylavarapu , Presented at 2006 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 13. “ Bond Thickness Effect on Impact Properties of Adhesively Bonded Graphite/Epoxy Composites, ” Zelalem Aga , Presented at 2006 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 14. “High Strain Properties of Nanoclay Syntactic Foams,” Sameer Peter, Presented at Essay Allen Imperial, 2008 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 15. “Flexural Properties of Nanoclay Syntactic Foam Sandwich Structures,” Narendra Sankella , Presented at william wordsworth, 2008 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 16. “Evaluation of Effective Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Bucky Gel Morphing Nano-Composite for Potential Applications,” Ali K. Ghamsari , Presented at 2011 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.

17. Toyota Malaysia! “ Titania Nanotubes on Non-planar Microstructures,” Fareed Dawan , Presented at 2011 ME Graduate Student Conference, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 18. “Fabrication of Glass Microballoon Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Paper using Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for william Thin Conductive Syntactic Foams,” E. Zegeye , ME Graduate Student Conference, LSU, April 30, 2011, Baton Rouge, LA. 19. “Research at NextGenC 3 South African PhD Project Conference, F. Dawan , L. Affin , National Research Foundation (NRF), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Capetown , South Africa, September 27, 2012. COMPANY PROJECT REPORT. “Report 1: Finite Element Stress Analysis of Composite Sucker Rod Endfittings ,” E. Woldesenbet and Shivakumar R. Srinivasamurthy , FiberFlex , Inc., Big Spring, TX, April 2001. “Report 2: Stress Analysis of toyota malaysia, Composite Sucker Rod Endfittings and Recommendations,” E. Wordsworth! Woldesenbet and toyota malaysia, Shivakumar R. William Wordsworth! Srinivasamurthy , FiberFlex , Inc., Big Spring, TX, April 2001. “Results of Impact on Old Building Stones,” National Center for Preservation Technology and Training/ National Parks Service, Natchitoches, LA, Sept.

2005. “ Enhanced NDE Development: Adhesive Bond Integrity Assessment,” E. Woldesenbet , Bell Helicopters, Fort Worh , TX, July 2007. - National Center for Essay Preservation Technology and Training/ National Parks Service, Natchitoches, LA. - FiberFlex , Inc., Big Spring, TX. - Orion Instruments, Baton Rouge, LA. - ASTM D30.93 Task Group-Composite material testing.

- SAE Faculty Advisor-Louisiana State University 2002-Present. - ASME Faculty Advisor-Southern University, 1999-2001. - NSBE Faculty Advisor-Louisiana State University 2005-2007. - Senior Design Sponsor and Advisor at LSU – Design of william, a Gas Gun Facility. - Organizing Committee Member of the First and Second Syntactic and Composite Foams Conference, Alberta, Canada, August 2004, and element of love, Davos , Switzerland, August 2007. - Session Chair on. - High Strain Rates - 12th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites (ASC), Baltimore, MD, Sept. 1998;and.

- Impact on Laminated Composite Materials I and poems, II - ETCE '99 Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, Feb. 1999. - Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and element of love, Structures - 2002 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2002. - Foamed Composites II – 21 st Annual Technical Conference of the ASC, Dearborn, MI, Sept. 2006. - Joining II – 21 st Annual Technical Conference of the william ASC, Dearborn, MI, Sept . Dental Office Essay! 2006. - Office of Naval Research – 13 th US-Japan Conference on Composites, Tokyo, Japan, June 2008.

- Nanocomposites Fabrication – 23 rd Annual Technical Conference of the poems ASC, Memphis, TN Sept. 2008. - ONR Symposium-Multifunctional Composites-American Society for Composites, ASC 24 th Technical Conference, Newark, DE, Sept 16-17, 2009. - Session Organizer and element of love, Chairman. - Design and Analysis: Composites and Non-Composites - 2000 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, New Orleans, LA, February 2000. - Damage and Rehabilitation of Composites - 2001 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2001. - Composite Piping Technology - 2002 ASME/ETCE-OMAE Joint Conference, ASME's Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, February 2002. - Foams Characterization - 1 st Syntactic and Composites Foams Conference, Banff, Alberta, August 2004.

- Composite Foams - 20th Annual Technical Conference of the wordsworth ASC, Philadelphia, Sept. Malaysia! 2005. - Modeling – 2 nd Syntactic and Composites Foams Conference, Davos , Switzerland, August 2007. - Smart Foams – 3 rd Syntactic and Composites Foams Conference, Cetraro , Italy, August 2011. - Journal of Materials Science. - Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials. - COMPOSITES Part B: engineering. - Polymer Engineering and Science. - Materials Science and Engineering A. - Journal of william wordsworth, Composite Structures. - International Journal of Solids and Structures. - Structural Engineering and Mechanics.

- Surface and Interface Analysis. - Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. - Journal of Dental Office Management Essay, Composites for Construction. - International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. - Proposal: NSF, AFOSR, Southern University. - Member of ASME/PETROLEUM DIVISION COMMITTEE Offshore Operations. - Judge: Oral Competition at the Great International Southwest Region X Conference of william, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Lafayette, LA, 2000. - Judge: Region VII Science Fair for Essay Significance of the Imperial Suite Engineering Projects, Baton Rouge, LA, 2006, 2008. - Earth Day - SU: Co-chair for william wordsworth poems Faculty/Student Relations. - American Society of malaysia background, Mechanical Engineers, Baton Rouge Section-Executive Committee 98-00. - Presenter at william wordsworth poems, SU-Proposal Writing Workshop, 04-07.

- Internal Reviewer of Office Management, Proposals – SU, 04-07. - Presenter at NSBE Graduate Students International Students Workshop, “Bridging the Gap between African and poems, African Americans,” 2007 Region V Fall Conference, Baton Rouge, LA, October 2007. - Panelist – South Africa Graduate Studies Experience, National Research Foundation (NRF), American Association for toyota malaysia the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Capetown , South Africa, 2012. - SU: Curriculum Committee, Design Committee, Lab Committee, ABET Committee. - LSU: Materials Group; Mechanical Systems Group; Undergraduate Studies. Graduate Studies.

- Certificate of Participation: Enhancing Student Learning: Focus on Engineering Mechanics Workshop at Southern University. April 2001. - Southern University 2001 Research Award. - Southern University 2002-2003 Competitive Grant Award. - Excellence in Research Mentoring Award, HBCU-UP SMART (Strengthening Minority Access to poems, Research and Training), Southern University, 2004, 2005, 2007. - Senior Design Advising: Walking Cast, 2000. - The Two-Stage Light-Gas Launcher, 2001. - Formula SAE Car – Senior Design Project Advisor, 2004-06, 07-08.

- Thesis and Dissertation Committee (not as a major advisor): 1. Wier Effects in Office Management Resin Transfer Molding, by Kiran M D’Silva – M.S., Mechanical Engineering, 2000. 2. Improved Bottomhole Pressure Control During Underbalanced Drilling Pipe Connections, by.

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UE : Selon un rapport, la Marine nationale est la seule a etre reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee Partager la publication UE : Selon un rapport, la Marine nationale est la seule a etre reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee Alors qu’elle ne represente que seulement 1% de la surface des mers, la Mediterranee concentre plusieurs enjeux strategiques de taille. Poems. Le premier est qu’elle reste une zone de passage essentielle au commerce maritime, avec 25% du trafic global, dont 30% du trafic petrolier mondial, notamment grace au Canal de Suez, essentiel pour l’approvisonnement en hydrocarbures de l’Europe. Si l’on est reste a la question energetique, la Mediterranee recelerait plus de 3.500 milliards de metres cubes de gaz naturel, surtout dans sa partie orientale. Element Of Love. Ces gisements, decouverts au large de l’Egypte, de Chypre, d’Israel et du Liban, sont de nature a exacerber des tensions entre les pays concernes, comme cela s’est passe en octobre 2014, entre Ankara et Nicosie. Second enjeu : le possible desinteret americain – qui serait cependant relatif – pour cette region au profit de l’Asie-Pacifique, parallelement a l’interet croissant de la Russie et de la Chine. William. Pour la premiere, en s’implantant militairement en Syrie, il s’agit de garantir un acces aux mers chaudes, de contenir une eventuelle extension de la menace jihadiste, via la Turquie et les republiques du Caucase, et de reaffirmer son statut de grande puissance. Quant a la seconde, elle est presente en Mediterranee de par ses investissements dans les infrastructures portuaires. Toyota Malaysia. Sur le plan militaire, la marine chinoise y a participe a des exercices avec son homologue russe en 2015. Une autre question de premier plan est celle des flux migratoires. William Poems. A ce sujet, le rapport sur l’action de la Marine nationale en Mediterranee [.pdf] , publie par les deputes Jean-David Ciot et Alain Marleix, parle d’echec relatif de l’operation Sophia, lancee en juin 2015 par l’Union europeenne pour casser le modele economique des passeurs operant depuis le littoral libyen.

Si elle est essentielle car elle a permis le sauvetage de milliers de vies, l’operation Sophia est dans le meme temps derisoire car elle ne repond qu’aux symptomes de la crise et non a ses causes, bien plus globales. Malaysia Background. En outre, avec des resultats modestes au egard a ses objectifs initiaux, elle aurait meme cree un appel d’air pour les passeurs de migrants qui, grace a la presence de navires europeens a la limite des eaux libyennes, ont meme consolider leur activite en ameliorant leur ‘offre' . Enfin, les questions securitaires, et en particulier celles liees au terrorisme, constituent un dernier enjeu de taille. Poems. On peut actuellement distinguer quatre grands fronts jihadistes dans la zone Mediterranee et Afrique du Nord : le Levant (Syrie et Irak), la peninsule du Sinai, la Libye et la bande sahelo-saharienne (BSS). Qualitative. Meme si les previsions en matiere geopolitique sont un exercice difficile, on william poems, ne peut totalement ignorer le risque majeur que representerait l’unification de ces quatre fronts , previennent les deputes Ciot et Marleix. Face a ces enjeux, quels sont les moyens que peut mettre en oeuvre l’Union europeenne? Les deux parlementaires ont fait un tour d’horizon des forces en presence en se posant la question suivante : Quelles sont a l’heure actuelle les ‘vraies’ marines en Europe, capables materiellement et pretes ‘psychologiquement’ a mener tout type de missions et d’operations, y compris de haut du spectre?

Bien qu’on ne pourra bientot plus la compter parmi les marines de l’UE, Brexit oblige, la Royal Navy a ete evoquee dans le rapport. Nestle Malaysia Company Background. Elle reste une grande marine mais elle fait face a des defis et blocages majeurs, tant en termes de ressources humaines qu’en termes capacitaires. Wordsworth Poems. En outre, et pour ce qui concerne cette zone specifique, la Mediterranee ne constitue plus une zone d’interet prioritaire pour elle , expliquent les deputes. La Deutsche Marine est, selon eux, hors jeu. Element Of Love. A l’image de l’ensemble des forces armees allemandes, elle n’a pas encore manifeste concretement et substantiellement sa volonte a s’impliquer davantage dans les affaires strategiques du monde , lit-on dans le rapport. William Poems. Quant a la marine italienne, meme si elle dispose de batiments dits de premier rang, elle s’est en quelque sorte demilitarisee , menant quasi exclusivement des operations de simple garde-cotes et ayant perdu des competences critiques dans certains domaines essentiels (la lutte ASM notamment). Toyota Malaysia. Enfin, soulignent les deputes, l’armada espagnole doit faire face a des problemes budgetaires , qui se traduisent aussi par des pertes de competences , notamment en matiere de lutte anti-sous-marine. Par ailleurs, les cooperations avec ces differentes marines sont compliquees, principalement en raison de modalites d’engagements differentes. Wordsworth. C’est pourquoi je suis quelque peu reserve sur un approfondissement de la cooperation vers un dispositif plus integre , a ainsi fait valoir le depute Jean-David Ciot, lors de l’examen du rapport en commission. Alors, la conclusion s’impose d’elle-meme.

Avec 35% de ses navires et 14% de ses aeronefs bases sur la facade mediterraneenne, la Marine nationale est est la seule marine europeenne reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee, car en mesure d’agir sur l’ensemble du spectre des missions , estiment les deux deputes, tout en se defendant de faire preuve d’arrogance ou de condescendance. First. Et d’ajouter : Au-dela de la capacite, elle en a la volonte, repondant ainsi aux instructions de l’autorite politique. Wordsworth. Aussi, il faut faire en sorte de ne pas baisser la garde . Element Of Love. Porter l’effort de defense et le maintenir a un niveau coherent par rapport aux menaces, aux risques, aux necessites et responsabilites strategiques et aux priorites politiques suppose une rigueur et des efforts constants et durables , previennent MM. William Poems. Marlex et Ciot. Et cet effort doit permettre de conserver des capacites de lutte ASM a un moment ou la menace dans ce domaine est de plus en plus forte ainsi qu’en temoignent les actions menees par la flotte sous-marine russe notamment.

Il passe par la recherche d’une solution rapide aux problemes de disponibilite des helicopteres NH 90 , par le maintien du calendrier de livraison des sous-marins nucleaires d’attaque Barracuda (deja retarde de deux ans) et la realisation de ‘trame fregate’ avec 15 batiments de premier rang, voire de la renforcer a l’avenir. On Edgar. Fort de ce constat, les deputes en ont conclu qu’il est l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens . William Wordsworth. Et cela pourrait passer par une neutralisation au moins temporaire d’une partie des depenses de defense pour le calcul des regles de deficit excessif. Toyota Malaysia. Si l’on devait constater un desengagement americain au sein de l’Otan et si l’Union europeenne se voyait contrainte d’augmenter son effort de defense, une telle modification des regles budgetaires europeennes n’en serait que plus legitime , ont-ils plaide. 85 commentaires sur “UE : Selon un rapport, la Marine nationale est la seule a etre reellement presente et credible en Mediterranee ” Le budget de la dette pese aussi sur le budget US et pourtant ils ne sont lies a Maastricht. Faut arreter d’accuser l’Europe d’etre responsable de tous les maux.

Si les parlementaires ne sont pas capables de concilier equilibre budgetaire, budgets regaliens a la hauteur des missions et les choix impopulaires qui en decoulent, ils peuvent demissionner. USA et UE ne sont en rien comparable au niveau de la creation de dettes… Les USA disposent de LA monnaie etalon mondiale (meme si l’etalon-or a ete supprime par Nixon) avec laquelle se chiffre le cours du petrole. Wordsworth Poems. La Fed peut du coup se permettre n’importe quoi et vomir des quantite gargantuesques de Q.E. Le dollar est correle au petrole et a la sante economique des USA. Toyota Malaysia. La dette US, a la limite, tant que la confiance dans la Fed existe, on william wordsworth, s’en fou, ils pourront toujours faire tourner la planche a billet, avec la benediction des Saoudiens. L’ˆ est beaucoup plus fragile, il est correle sur la confiance des investisseurs dans la zone euro (enfin, dans l’economie Allemande quoi… ce n’est pas pour rien que la parite Deutschmark-ˆuro etait proche de 1). Research. Et la planche a billet, en Allemagne, comment dire, NEIN. Par contre, enlever les depenses militaires des objectifs de 3% du deficit serait legitime a l’heure actuelle. La premiere partie de votre commentaire me convient. Le quantitative easing ne vous semble donc pas etre une autre maniere de faire tourner la planche a billet?

La crise de la bulle immobiliere des banques, assurances et reassurances ne semble pourtant pas resolue. Poems. J’en veux pour preuve ces massives arrivees de populations qui crees des besoins de logement et donc augmentent la valeur de la pierre et donc la capacite a preter emprunter speculer des groupes susmentionnes… Chouette un relais de croissance ! Ne dites plus migrant #128521; L’Europe n’a plus de reserve d’espace vital. Dental Office Management. Les US si… et cela me semble le plus important. Meme si bien peu d’informations sur l’etat des banques italiennes et espagnoles filtres dans l’actualite… Or une nouvelle moitie mauvaise sur le sujet prendrait sans doute un tour triomphale avec majorettes et tout le fourniment, au milieux de te deum hip-hop!

Oui, les Q.E sont bien une maniere detournee de faire de la planche a billet, sauf que ca n’a pas d’impact immediat sur la masse monetaire. Poems. Et vu les volumes insenses vomis par la Fed depuis 2008, nul doute que les USA se contrebouteront des dettes tant que le petrole sera correle au dollar. Element Of Love. Le jour ou l’OPEP commencera a faire des clins d’?il aux Chinois (voir, qui sait, a l’ˆ), je n’ose imaginer ce qui se deroulera. Oui et c’est a mon sens la raison principale du virage strategique vers la Chine d’Obama. Amorce mais non realise pour diverses raisons. Un creancier mort fait une dette eteinte. Parfaitement d’accord il faut militariser le port de Collioure… Et cela pourrait passer par une « neutralisation au moins temporaire d’une partie des depenses de defense pour le calcul des regles de deficit excessif. Poems. » Maintes fois propose, toujours aussi absurde. Office Management. S’endetter toujours plus n’est pas une solution, et comme il n’y a pas de budget europeen destine a renforcer la defense europeenne il faut prendre l’argent la ou il est.

Si on william, n’a pas de c…. on person narrator, le prend sur le budget national, et si on william poems, a des c… on first person, le prend sur le budget europeen, c’est a dire qu’on recupere tout ou partie du surplus donne au budget europeen par la France, environ 9 milliards d’euros. Wordsworth Poems. Mais comme les dirigeants francais sont des pleutres et des traitres, ils continueront a parler pour rien et ne feront rien. Pour finir, le constat de la credibilite de la Marine Nationale ressemble beaucoup au borgne dans le royaume des aveugles. Au royaume des aveugles, les borgnes sont mal vus. Nestle Malaysia Background. Il y a plus simple a faire et preconise par Hamon.

Pas besoin de demander des autorisations ou de l aide… Juste retirer unilateralement notre budget de la Defense des criteres des 3% de ma trique . Quant aux pays europeens bisounours du Nord qui nous le reprocheraient … la reponse serait immediate. On arretera quand il y aura vos soldats vos avions et vos bateaux en Mediterrannee et bande sahelo sahelienne Le gaz au large de la Syrie est ici oublie. Pourtant ce gaz est une des raisons, sinon la raison de la guerre en Syrie. Ca faisait longtemps ! Ravis de vous lire en pleine sante. Jean-Luc M. William. approuve ce message. C est pas plutot un pipeline qui devrait passer ailleurs et ca plait pas aux enturbannes du Golfe qu ASSAD s enrichisse ? Les propos ici tenus sont assez interessants. Element Of Love. En gros, si je resume bien, nos parlementaires estiment que la France, si elle recevait les moyens financiers adequats, n’aurait qu’a proceder a une montee en puissance, la ou d’autres marines (italiennes et espagnoles) devraient reacquerir de nouvelles capacites, voire renaitre de leurs cendres (allemande) pour assurer la suprematie navale europeenne en mediterranee. Wordsworth. Ceci sur la base du constat du desengagement presume des anglo saxons et de l’arrivee des russes, et des chinois a la marge.

Si l’Europe acceptait enfin d’entendre le son de la sebile que nos armees tendent depuis un moment, son rendu plus audible par l’isolationnisme anglo-saxon, nous serions en position de force. Ceci dit, je crois assez peu a cette solution: il n’est pas dans l’interet de l’Allemagne, puissance economique dominante au sein de l’Union, de laisser la France rearmer: cela nous redonnerait un poids tel que le couple franco-allemand , joli terme qualifiant une opposition economique constante depuis la WW2, renaitrait a l’equite, voire a l’avantage de la France, qui pourrait devenir leader europeen inconteste en matiere d’industrie de l’armement. On Edgar Allen Poe: Imperial Suite. A nos politiques de faire avaler la pilule aux autres pays europeens en leur rememorant quel est desormais la seule puissance nucleaire, membre du Conseil de Securite, au sein de l’Union (point qui, je suis sur, doit causer quelques suees a Berlin et dans d’autres capitales)… C’est vrais (concernant l’Allemagne) , sauf dans l’hypothese d’une menace militaire percue par l’Allemagne… Ceci dit, l’Allemagne fera tout pour contenir une prise de position de leader par la France en Europe. Poems. Il ne faut attendre aucun soutien : Je pense notamment a l’approche de T Breton qui propose de faite porter la dette defense des pays par la BCE pour beneficier des taux europeens, qui ne pourra voir le jour sans que la France ai deja renverse le rapport de force.

Notez bien que, selon moi, cette situation releve d’une immense opportunite pour la France de relancer son industrie par la defense tout en prenant un role exclusif en Europe. Le deal tacite entre la France et l’Allemagne c’est a vous l’economie a nous le politique. Si jamais le deal n’est plus respecte, on on Edgar Allen Poe: of the Suite, a qu’a partir et laisser les allemands se debrouiller. C’est pour qu’il faut le faire, par nous-memes dans un premier temps, sans demander l’autorisation ou de participation financiere aux autres. William Poems. Il faut INVESTIR, mettre plus d’argent dans nos armees. Research Sample Size. Et plus tard, on william wordsworth poems, mettra les autres devant le fait accompli, on first, negociera en position force et on william poems, obtiendra des compensations. Element Of Love. C’est comme ca que ca marche depuis toujours. C’est effectivement le cheminement strategique qui serait a suivre par la France sur le plan diplomatico-economique a l’echelle de l’UE. Investir, mais avec quel argent? A un moment ou l’Allemagne voit une route commerciale tres directe s’ouvrir vers la mediterrannee via la Suisse avec le tunnel du Gothard et l’Italie en debouche, cette derniere pourrait a minima payer sa part du fardeau. William Poems. Ainsi que l’Italie si elle ne peut le faire.

Si personne ne veut le faire, deduire de notre contribution excedentaire au budget europpeen l’effort necessaire. First Narrator. On nous reproche assez notre deficit, pas de raison que la maison fasse credit, surtout quand on wordsworth, voit que nous n’avons aucun retour sur investissement avec tous ces pays qui ne font meme pas tourner notre industrie mais attendent qu’on fasse la police du ciel et, demain, des mers. Investir, mais avec quel argent? Avec par exemple l’argent qu’on preleverait sur le remboursement annuel de la dette… Rassurez-vous, il existe de nombreuses autres possibilites moins polemiques sur le plan diplomatique de trouver cet argent en France #128521; ! Ca fait longtemps qu on Essay, dit ici qu il faut une marine forte et qu il faut vite augmenter ses moyens reels …l’Union europeenne dresse un bilan sec sur ce qu on william wordsworth poems, sait: on nestle company background, reste les seuls puisque les autres espagnols et italiens sont faibles et les allemands neutres depuis longtemps. William Poems. Il y a par contre une marine algerienne et une israelienne et de l egyptienne depuis peu et les russes..il faut a la France une vraie politique navale et Zee…qui le veut? Qui voudra commander plus de tout …et avoir les marins…il faudrait des annees..pour les helico achetons autre chose que le caiman…marre de ces modeles uniques trop chers et pas disponibles…un quart seulement des helico est disponible selon les chiffres officiels donnes au depute toulonnais vitel…ca veut dire qu on toyota malaysia, compte les machines a l’unite…vrai pb en cas d accident ou de perte au feu…les accidents d alouette 3 sonnent le tocsin… – sur la continuite des 4 fronts djihadistes.

C’est un rappel de l’absolue necessite de barkhane. William. C’est aussi un appel a soutenir haftar, l’egypte et les eau qui sont le deuxieme rideau vers l’est dans le desert libyque. Allen. Pour la premiere fois recemment les djihadistes ont frappe le sud ouest egyptien. – si les marines espagnoles et italiennes sont en perte de vitesse, l’egypte et l’algerie font des efforts consequents pour leurs forces navales. William Poems. Une politique navale entre les deux rives relancerait peut etre le partenariat euro-mediterranee. Essay Allen Poe:. Parce qu’au final, uk a peut etre une legitimite mediterraneenne avec Gibraltar et malte mais les marines d’Europe du nord ont d’autres sollicitations dans leur ere geographique. ( est ce que c’etait merkel qui s’etait opposee au partenariat euro-med soutenu par sarkozy ?) – hs marine gb, un truc a lire sur la lettre ttu mais a valider parce que c’est la lettre ttu… Oui c’etait bien Merkel qui s’etait, avec d’autres chefs de gouvernements europeens, opposee au projet de partenariat euro-mediterraneen de Sarkozy qui n’avait d’ailleurs aucune dimension militaire.

Le jour ou vous verrez l’Algerie participer a une alliance militaire avec la France et qui plus est avec le Maroc, les poules auront des dents #128521; ! et oui comme dit rc, l’algerie s’inscrit dans le temps long…Le probleme c’est que ce n’est pas l’algerie qui donne le tempo. Poems. Les russes poussent au mouvement pour un engagement plus prononces vers leur position sur le dossier libyen. Sample. c’est un bon test a observer. ce sera un bon test en Libye sur cet engagement algerien inscrit dans le temps long , surtout a l’image de la position initialement prise. Je suis tombe sur une itw d’un general algerien* a propos de la crises des migrants, des mafias, et des destabilisations que cela implique sur toute la ligne. Figurez vous que le poireau d’la bas dit la meme chose que le contributeur d’ici.

En d’autres termes nous ne devrions pas avoir de difficultes a nous entendre** pour peu que nous evacuions ceux qui qualifient justement de negrier les passeurs tout en leur facilitant la vie… * (il y a une grosse semaine… mais pas moyen de le retrouver!) ** M’est avis qu’une certaine entente operative (pour faire moderne ) est en place dans ces regions ou pour cuire le diner il suffit de le poser sur une pierre ou de l’enterrer dans le sable #128521; Si donner le tempo c’est des incantations du genre bashar doit partir alors oui nous ne donnons pas le tempo… Et on poems, a vu le resultat de la strategie des incantations (i.e. Allen Poe: Significance Of The Suite. le tempo ). Poems. Donc laissons les choses se decanter et rira bien qui rira le dernier #128521; Pour le reste notre marine est bien ou elle est a defendre notre littoral tout en gardant un oeil sur la mediterranee occidentale et alentours #128521; Nous parlons precisement de la Libye. Donc on sample size, est les seul a s’investir strategiquement en Mediterranee? Alors soit on poems, est des joueurs de premiere ordre s’adonnant a des regles strategiques incroyable, ce qui participe ainsi a la croissance du pays, et a un meilleur budget militaire?… Soit on Allen, est un peu trop vaniteux, et on william wordsworth, se la joue au dessus de nos moyens, la baisse de dotation en Fremm et sur d’autres materiels au compte-goute, nous rappellent cette realite tous les jours? Quatre autres points sont presentes ici aussi dans le sujet: Le petrole et le gaz; la posture vis-a-vis de l’OTAN et de nos partenaires, egalement de nos adversaires; le flux migratoire; et le terrorisme. Element Of Love. Alors voyons si nous avons des contributeurs capable de developper une analyse affinee sur la question plutot vaste de: Quel vision strategique la France doit adopter dans le futur en Mediterranee? Vous avez 1 heure, PC, smartphones, et tablettes sont interdits.

Top chrono! Je suis assez surpris des conclusions concernant la marine italienne, dont les Fremm passent pour etre superieures aux batiments francais par exemple. Poems. Zayus, puisque vous etes largement plus cale que moi sur le sujet, auriez vous quelques elements a partager a ce sujet ? J’imagine que l’absence de SNA et de PA pese dans la balance, mais la marine italienne est integralement dediee a la mediterranee, contrairement a la marine nationale, d’ou ma perplexite. En quoi les fremm italiennes seraient superieures ? Elles n’ont pas du tout les memes fonctions , les fregates francaises etant probablement les meilleurs batiments ASM du moment, disposant d’une autoprotection AA et de capacite anti-surfance et de feu a terre. Ce n’est pas tant le potentiel de la Marina Militare que la volonte politique italienne qui est ici jugee negativement. Globalement, la marine italienne reste celle avec le plus important potentiel base en Mediterranee, mais la 6e flotte US et la Marine Nationale presentent ponctuellement des capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR. Les Italiens comptent surtout sur les USA,ca leur permet de faire des economies,j’imagine.Voir avec Trump si ce sera la meme musique. Meme reaction. On Edgar Allen Significance Of The. De superbes fregates mais peu de savoir faire? Les anglais aussi sont etonnants.

Le probleme des italiens, ce ne sont pas leurs navires mais leur entrainement. Cela fait bien longtemps qu’ils n’ont pas fait une quelconque operation militaire avec leurs navires, et la capacite d’agir des equipages comme de l’etat-major ne peut s’en trouver qu’affaiblie. M’ouais, plus objectifs ces deux deputes ce serait sympa… Venir dire que les marines espagnoles et italiennes sont a la traine (et pire pour cette derniere, qu’elle a perdu certaines capacites strategiques) me fait gousser. William Wordsworth Poems. Oui, les Espagnols ont des difficultes mais ils se maintiennent, tout comme les Italiens. Alors oui, il faut bien employer des moyens pour sauver les migrants vu le faible engagement europeen mais ce n’est en rien symptomatique d’une perte de qualite quand on toyota malaysia, sait que la marine italienne (comme espagnole d’ailleurs) s’exercent particulierement pour maintenir ce savoir.

Quant a l’Allemagne, sa presence en Mediterraneen ne repond a aucun besoin strategique allemand. Poems. Tout au plus, ils y envoient un navire ou deux de temps en temps…. Qualitative Research Sample Size. Apres oui, ces trois marines ne sont pas des va-t’en-guerre. Wordsworth. Deployer des navires pour aller frapper inefficacement en Syrie ne sert aucun objectif. Allen Significance Of The Imperial Suite. Il n’y a aucun gain reel : pas de vision strategique globale, on wordsworth poems, ne pourra pas intervenir avec les Turcs et Russes dans le coin (dans tous les cas) et se contenter de frapper (que ce soit 6000 ou 10000 sorties) ce qui n’aide en rien les objectifs initiaux. First Narrator. Assad s’est consolide, le pays est detruit et restera un foyer terroriste pour pendant quelques annees encore…

Bref, ces deux deputes devraient se renseigner un peu plus et diminuer le dosage niveau condescendance. William Poems. #128578; Quand vous evoquez ce savoir , parlez-vous de celui de sauver les migrants #128578; ? Pour donner le change a vos visions egalitaristes europeistes, vous etes vraiment pret a raconter n’importe un peu tout et n’importe quoi sur un sujet que visiblement vous ne maitrisez pas… Je peux developper si vous me le demandez. Venant d’une personne qui a maintes fois demontre sa non comprehension de la politique exterieure, abstenez-vous. Il est de notoriete que la marine italienne maintient ses competences dans la lutte ASM et preserve ses capacites. Research Sample. Elle n’a pas besoin de capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR parce qu’elle n’a pas droit (ni la volonte d’ailleurs) d’en posseder et que c’est une peninsule, litteralement un porte-avion en mer. Poems. De meme, elle n’a pas la ZEE francaise (dont le format de la MN est tres insuffisant pour une surveillance optimale, notamment en Nouvelle-Caledonie).

Par contre, le format de la marine italienne est largement suffisant pour tenir la Mediterranee et agir au M-O et dans l’ocean indien, sphere d’influence italienne. Toyota Malaysia. Les italiens et les espagnols font bien plus de mission que nous en ocean indien. Wordsworth Poems. Nous ne fournissons plus aucun navire a l’operation de l’union europeenne Atalante depuis 2012. Element Of Love. La classe San Gorgio qui se relais sur place pour assurer le commandement de l’operation. William. Votre reponse Quand vous evoquez « ce savoir », parlez-vous de celui de « sauver les migrants » #128578; ? , votre manque de connaissance des operations des autres marines europeennes, demontre la meme condescendance que ces deux deputes. On parle d’une marine qui participe a pas mal d’operation Active Endeavour-Sea Guardian, CMF – Combined Maritime Forces en mer Rouge, Atalanta, Sophia, Ocean Shield (golfe somalien)), qui tient depuis des mois des exercices en mer (Mare Aperto et ses subdivisions) qui continuent en ce jour.

Alors oui, la marine italienne s’est un peu concentree sur la Libye et est active dans le sauvetage des migrants (ce qui doit faire peu plaisir au xenophobe que vous semblez etre) parce qu’il faut bien sauver des personnes en mer, peu importe la nationalite. First Narrator. Par contre, pour quelles raisons devrait-elle se deployer pres de la Syrie ? Pour participer a des bombardements, gaspiller des munitions ? Quel a ete l’apport occidental au conflit ? Oui, on william, a elimine des terroristes…. Toyota Malaysia. Mais l’on ne pourra jamais resoudre le probleme syrien militairement depuis l’arrivee des Russes qui ont consolide Assad. Poems. Je vous l’ai deja dit plus d’une fois, il y a plusieurs mois d’ici et vous persistez a croire que nos operations de combat la-bas sont utiles alors que non. First Person Narrator. Meme d’anciens militaires francais, le colonel Goya par exemple, sont plus que perplexes. Le fait est simple : les italiens n’ont pas envie de s’engager en Syrie, l’intervention etant tout au plus illegale stricto sensu (contrairement a l’intervention russe), au mieux particulierement discutable sur le plan legal (et je peux le demontrer sur pied du droit international public, d’ailleurs la diplomatie francaise avait eu un conflit juridique a propos d’un terme dans le projet de resolution propose par les USA sur ce point). Wordsworth Poems. Or, la Constitution italienne interdit a l’Italie l’usage de moyens de guerre de cette facon (raison pour laquelle l’Italie n’aide que l’Irak qui a effectue une telle demande d’assistance militaire au regard du droit international). …Venant d’une personne qui a maintes fois demontre sa non comprehension de la politique exterieure, abstenez-vous. Research Size. Si tel etait le cas vous n’auriez pas developpe votre reponse apres un tel decret que vous seriez d’ailleurs incapable de demontrer #128578; … Alors essayez de rester correct car l’insulte est souvent synonyme d’une incapacite a argumenter revelant d’emblee votre posture defensive. …Il est de notoriete que la marine italienne maintient ses competences dans la lutte ASM et preserve ses capacites.

- Mais je n’ai jamais dit le contraire #128578; … …Par contre, le format de la marine italienne est largement suffisant pour tenir la Mediterranee et agir au M-O et dans l’ocean indien, sphere d’influence italienne. Wordsworth. - Avec plus qu’un seul navire de soutient a l’horizon 2020, la Marina Militare n’aura plus d’importantes capacites (temps et volume) pour se projeter en Ocean Indien et ne touchera que la partie Mediterraneenne du Moyen Orient … …Les italiens et les espagnols font bien plus de mission que nous en ocean indien. Person Narrator. Nous ne fournissons plus aucun navire a l’operation de l’union europeenne Atalante depuis 2012. Wordsworth. - Alors la, quand vous me parlez de ma non comprehension de la politique exterieure je vous reponds que pour comprendre la politique exterieure il faut deja avoir les bonnes informations : La France est une des 3 nations cadre de l’EUNAVFOR ATALANTA avec l’Allemagne et l’Espagne, mais pas l’Italie. Qualitative. Dommage #128578; ! Quant a dire les italiens et les espagnols font bien plus de mission que nous (les francais) en ocean indien . – 1 – vous ignorez tous les deploiements du GAN depuis 2002. – 2 – vous avez besoin d’un serieux rappel geo-strategique pour constater que la France est presente en Ocean Indien avec 2 DOM et avec 2 bases navales l’une a La Reunion et l’autre a Djibouti en plus de sa base aux EAU qui n’est accessible qu’a partir du Golfe Persique qui se trouve justement dans … dans … l’Ocean Indien, bingo #128521; ! – 3 – Demontrez-nous comment les marines italienne et espagnole font plus de missions en Ocean Indien que la Marine Nationale qui y est en permanence . Poems. Allez, assumez vos propos mon vieux. Vous affirmez que la Marine Nationale ne fournit plus aucun navire a l’operation de l’union europeenne Atalante depuis 2012.

– 1 – J’ai deja explique plus haut que la France est une des nations cadres de cette mission et que par consequent la presence de la Marine Nationale est permanente sur ATALANTE. Voici une presentation officielle d’ATALANTE par le site du MinDef : – La France participe a l’operation Atalante avec le deploiement permanent d’une fregate pendant toute la duree de l’operation et la participation ponctuelle d’un avion de patrouille maritime, ATL 2, base a Djibouti. La France propose egalement un soutien logistique a l’operation avec son dispositif prepositionne a Djibouti. Element Of Love. Les pays participant a l’operation peuvent s’appuyer sur les infrastructures aeroportuaires de la base des FFDj (Forces francaises a Djibouti) qui fournit egalement un soutien sante avec un Role 3. Wordsworth Poems. Et comme vous etes une grande gueule incapable de demontrer ses propos ou d’y apporter une source, je vous renvoie a ce lien du site du MinDef: La classe San Gorgio qui se relais sur place pour assurer le commandement de l’operation. Nestle Company Background. - La encore il s’agirait d’arreter de fumer la moquette ionisateur #128578; … Les 3 LPD classe San Giorgio ne se sont pas relayes sur ATALANTE, mais 2 de ces navires y ont opere sur deux periodes bien distinctes : le San Giorgio du 3 mai 2009 au 13 Aout, 2009 et. San Giusto du 26 Juillet 2012 au 16 Decembre 2012 … Maintenant, sans ne parler que des San Giorgio je peux au moins affirmer que d’aout a decembre 2009, d’avril a juillet 2010, de juin 2011 a avril 2012 et de decembre 2012 a juin 2013, la Marina Militare est absente d’ATALANTA… Je vous rappelle que seules les marines francaises espagnoles et allemandes y maintiennent une permanence en tant que nation cadre de l’operation. William Poems. C’est d’ailleurs pour ca que les espagnols ce sont aussi constitue un point d’appui a Djibouti. …On parle d’une marine qui participe a pas mal d’operation Active Endeavour-Sea Guardian, CMF – Combined Maritime Forces en mer Rouge, Atalanta, Sophia, Ocean Shield (golfe somalien)), qui tient depuis des mois des exercices en mer (Mare Aperto et ses subdivisions) qui continuent en ce jour. Dental Essay. - Je vous ai deja repondu au sujet d’ATALANTA et l’operation Ocean Shield n’en est que la version de l’OTAN sous commandement US.

- Les operations Sea Guardian (ex-Active Endeavour) de l’OTAN ainsi que Sophia ou EUNAVFOR MED de l’UE (dont l’Italie est la nation cadre et a laquelle participe egalement la France) sont inscrites dans le bassin mediterraneen et dans l’activite usuelle de la Marina Militare depuis 2002 pour la premiere et 2015 pour la seconde. Rien d’extraordinaire si vous comparez aux missions de la Marine Nationale plus lointaines. - Quant a des mois des exercices en mer (Mare Aperto et ses subdivisions) qui continuent en ce jour (..); je vous reponds en italien au sujet de Mare Aperto: … Dieci giorni di intense esercitazioni per wordsworth poems gli equipaggi della Marina Militare, dal il Mar Tirreno e il Mar Jonio, le navi della Marina hanno ‘simulato’ situazioni da intervento tempestivo. Nestle Background. …Dix jours d’exercices intenses pour les equipages de la marine, de la mer Tyrrhenienne et la mer Ionienne, les navires de la marine ont «simule» par des situations d’intervention en temps opportun… Ce n’est rien d’autre qu’un exercice annuel de 10/15 jours de la Marina Militare #128578; ! Il est vraiment nul cet exemple #128578; … Par contre, pour quelles raisons devrait-elle se deployer pres de la Syrie ? Pour participer a des bombardements, gaspiller des munitions ? Quel a ete l’apport occidental au conflit ? Oui, on poems, a elimine des terroristes…. Toyota Malaysia. – D’abord par la solidarite de l’Italie avec ses allies et notamment avec la France victime du terrorisme. – Ensuite les bombardements representent la principale source de destruction pour reduire le potentiel humain et materiel et donc de nuisance de daech et aussi appuyer les troupes autochtones qui le combattent au sol, sans donner le sentiment d’une ingerence (ou d’occupation) avec trop de troupes occidentales sur le terrain. Le fait que vous y voyez du gaspillage prouve que vous suivez rien de ces sujets en sous-entendant que la situation n’a pas evolue depuis septembre 2014…

– Daech est deja supplante en Libye, et est entrain de l’etre en Irak qui commence a entrevoir le 3e acte de la reconquete de Mossoul. …Mais l’on ne pourra jamais resoudre le probleme syrien militairement depuis l’arrivee des Russes qui ont consolide Assad. William Poems. Je vous l’ai deja dit plus d’une fois, il y a plusieurs mois d’ici et vous persistez a croire que nos operations de combat la-bas sont utiles alors que non. Allen Of The Imperial. Meme d’anciens militaires francais, le colonel Goya par exemple, sont plus que perplexes. William Poems. - Sachez que meme qu’en plus d’anciens, d’actuels militaires pensent le contraire de Michel Goya #128578; … Je vous rejoins sur un point sachant que j’ai toujours affirme sur ce site, que la Syrie ne connaitra pas la paix tant que Assad sera au pouvoir. Essay On Edgar Allen Poe: Significance Imperial Suite. Mais imprimez aussi qu’eliminer du potentiel ou des hommes de daech (notamment d’origine francaise), reste la priorite de raids francais en Syrie.

Je reste au passage impressionne de votre vision lointaine de ce sujet qui vous echappe completement… …Le fait est simple : les italiens n’ont pas envie de s’engager en Syrie, l’intervention etant tout au plus illegale stricto sensu (contrairement a l’intervention russe), au mieux particulierement discutable sur le plan legal (et je peux le demontrer sur pied du droit international public, d’ailleurs la diplomatie francaise avait eu un conflit juridique a propos d’un terme dans le projet de resolution propose par les USA sur ce point). William Wordsworth. Or, la Constitution italienne interdit a l’Italie l’usage de moyens de guerre de cette facon (raison pour laquelle l’Italie n’aide que l’Irak qui a effectue une telle demande d’assistance militaire au regard du droit international). Qualitative Research Sample Size. Evitez-nous cette argumentation hypocrite au sujet de l’Italie qui comptait parmi les principales nations de l’OTAN ayant participe a Iraki Freedom en 2003. William. L’Italie soutenait et participait aussi aux operations en Libye en 2011… A moins que l’Italie ait change de constitution depuis 2011 #128578; … Quant a la notion de legalite d’une guerre stricto sensu comme vous dites, c’est une abstraction. Il y a un droit de la guerre regit par des conventions internationales entre armees qui possedent encore un canal diplomatique, mais il n’y a pas de guerre legale d’autant moins face a une force qui refuse tout dialogue tel que daech. Si a l’echelle du droit international et donc de l’ONU, vous evoquez la violation d’un etat souverain en Syrie, entendez que Assad ne s’est jamais oppose a la presence alliee en Syrie aupres de l’ONU. Allen Poe: Significance. C’est un fait. Entendez aussi que l’ONU reconnait a la France sa « legitime defense » pour agir sachant que l’operation a pour cadre legal l’article 51 des Nations unies qui stipule qu’un Etat peut intervenir s’il « est l’objet d’une agression armee » tels que les attentats de daech. Quid de la solidarite italienne ? Les attentats subis par la France et la Belgique ont-ils eu lieu en France et en Belgique ou en dans l’UE ? Vous etes le premier a nous reciter des mantra sur les avantages et les bienfaits d’une Armee Europeenne…

Mais vous etes aussi le premier a monter au creneau pour justifier la desolidarisation de l’Italie quand des membres de l’UE sont victimes du terrorisme. Voila je vous mets face a vos contradictions de soit-disant pro-Europe, pourtant adepte du chacun pour soit des qu’il y a du danger (dans le style d’ailleurs italien du commandant du Costa Concordia). Ceci apres vous avoir confronte plus haut a votre manque d’infos fiables, de sources et de precision sur des sujets que vous avez pourtant choisi d’aborder apres une introduction clairement insultante. J’aurai au moins ici demontre votre non comprehension de la politique exterieure due a ces manques auxquels on william wordsworth, peut ajouter le manque de references en droit international, culture militaire et geopolitique pour ne pas dire geographique (avec les base francaises de Djibouti, La Reunion et des EAU…). …(ce qui doit faire peu plaisir au xenophobe que vous semblez etre)… - Oui evidement comme tous ceux qui ne partage pas votre vision hypocrite de l’Union Europeenne… Alors permettez-moi de vous repondre que vous ne semblez pas etre, mais etes bien qu’un pauvre naze avec ses prejuges et sa morale hypocrite pour qui ceux qui ne partagent ses raisonnements pro-europeens ne sont fatalement que des xenophobes ; pour ne pas dire racistes, fascistes etc… …votre manque de connaissance des operations des autres marines europeennes, demontre la meme condescendance que ces deux deputes… - Si vous aviez lu mes nombreux commentaires sur ce site, vous auriez constate que j’ai toujours vante les choix, le format et le modele italien de la Marina Militare par rapports aux ambitions et moyens italiens ! Je suis d’ailleurs le seul de nous deux a designer la Marina Militare par son nom et ce detail revele plutot mon respect que la condescendance que vous me pretez. Quant a l’Armada Espanola, je n’aurai reproche que le programme S80 de Navantia et ses F80 aux capacites clairement insuffisantes. Constater comme le ferait n’importe qui en dehors ces deputes, que la Marine Nationale a des capacites clairement superieures a celles de toutes les autres marines europeennes de l’UE post-Brexit, est une evidence ou une realite objective qui ne saurait etre comparee a une vision subjective et condescendante. Seuls les abrutis nieront que la Marine Nationale est la plus importante de l’UE et d’Europe occidentale avec la Royal Navy.

Alors apres la xenophobie que vous me pretez et maintenant ma soit-disant condescendance sur la realite des marines europeennes, epargnez-moi vos proces d’intention, ionisateur le moralisateur bien-pensant. Entendez aussi que ce qui n’est pas legal n’est pas forcement illegal notamment dans un conflit qui implique une organisation terroriste dans un pays tiers tel que la Syrie qui ne s’est pas formellement opposee a l’intervention occidentale qui en fait un allie objectif face a deach. Donc meme en dehors des dispositions l’article 51 des Nations unies, l’intervention occidentale en Syrie n’est pas illegale dans la mesure ou nous sommes plutot ici confrontes a un vide juridique sur le plan du droit international. Deployer un porte-aeronefs a 1 milliard d’euros pour sauver des migrants, la ou un supply de moins de 50 millions fait le travail aussi bien, c’est juste de la com’, de la com’ et encore de la com’. En ce qui concerne la marine italienne, mes informations nuancent a la baisse la valeur supposee des fregates italiennes mais c’est du detail. Element Of Love. En revanche il faut bien constater que la plupart des menaces sur la France et l’Europe passent par la Mediterranee. William Wordsworth. Aujourd’hui comme hier il y a deux priorites strategiques pour nous:la mediterranee et nos diverses ZEE metropolitaines et d’outre-mer. Je suis tres etonne des conclusions de ce rapport etant donne le manque de moyen que rencontre la marine .Par ailleurs on on Edgar Significance Imperial Suite, parle du format de 15 batiments de premier rang mais je crois qu’ils ne sont pas alle voir la realite sur le terrain.Entre nos FLF sous armee , nos FASM et FAA depasse , nos FREMM qui sont de bon batiments mais on william poems, en aura que 8! Et bien sur nos 2 FDA qui sont aussi de tres bon batiment. Nestle Background. Mais vous prenez aussi les FS et les avisos dont on wordsworth, a enleve les exocets et les torpilles et aussi que nous avons pas assez de batiment logistique.Je ne veux pas denigrer notre marine ou la rabaisser mais j’aimerai juste qu’on soit plus realiste . Egalement je suis etonne de ce qui est dit sur la marine italienne sachant que quand ils auront acheve leur programme ils disposerons de plus de batiment de premier rang que nous…et leur fremm possede de meilleur senseurs. Ce que vous detaillez est vrai, mais la marine francaise dispose de plus de navires de soutient, de renseignement, avec un plus important potentiel de projection de nos 3 BPC, un PAN CATOBAR, 6 SNA et 4 SNLE qui representent une puissance plus importante que les marines d’Italie et d’Espagne reunies. Il est inquietant de voir certains marine occidentales perdre leurs capacites ASM.

Quand on qualitative size, voit qu’actuellement on poems, fait l’asm pour le royaume uni (aux alentours de l’ecosse)on peut se dire que l’on deja a franchit un cap…. oui le cap du fife ness. Faut etre realiste la-dessus, les sous-marin ont une tres longue avance sur l’ASM, a 500m de profondeur peu de chose peuvent etre detecter. Office. A pars des balise-radar positionnes ca et la, je ne vois pas trop de contre-mesure efficace en lutte ASM. C’est un peu vite oublier l’Italie quand meme. En plus d’enlever la defense du deficit, ce qui ne leurs coute rien, il faut les faire cracher au bassinet . La methode Trump pour l’OTAN : tous le monde participe a l’effort de Defense soit directement soit indirectement (en participant au budget commun) mais il ne peut plus y avoir de passager clandestin qui se repose uniquement sur les autres. Enfin bon il y aura toujours la suisse qui profitera des efforts de ses petits voisins #128521;

L’armada a surtout des capacites anti-aerienne (F80 et surtout F100, et peut-etre F110 si les coupes budgetaires arretent de saigner les achats de materiels) et de projection de troupes a courte/moyenne distance (Le BPE et 2 LPD). La capacite ASM a toujours ete en retrait, que ce soit avec de vieilles fregates ASM, ou avec des sous-marins de la classe Agosta qui connaissent tellement d’incidents du fait de leur age, qu’il valait mieux pour l’Armada les mette au rebut, plutot que de devoir remplir 60 cercueils. – 1 – Le choix de s’equiper de 5 fregates antiaeriennes F100 (qui restent des fregates reussies en tant que telles) est surdimensionne par rapport aux besoins de l’Armada Espanola et s’est fait sous l’influence politico-industrielle des USA qui equipent lesdites fregates. – 2 – Le remplacement du Principe de Asturias semble aujourd’hui abandonne… – 3 – Le BPE Juan Carlos 1er (qui est egalement une belle reussite) semble condamne a operer avec ses Matador jusqu’a l’horizon 2030… – 4 – Les 6 F80 a savoir des fregates classe Perry (de 1900 tpc) construites sous licence par Bazan de 1986 a 1994, presentent des capacites ASM limitees… – 5 – Les 4 Agosta qui trainent a etre remplaces a cause du fabuleux programme de Navantia S80: no comment… – 6 – Les LPD ou TCD classe Rotterdam/Galicia (de 14 000 tpc) gardent encore un potentiel tres interessant. « l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens ».

Finalement l’Europe de La Defense va se faire: la France va maintenir toutes les composantes et competences rares et couteuses, les autres pays vont continuer a se desengager et faire de la figuration. Wordsworth Poems. Et pour en arriver la on Essay on Edgar Imperial, aura l’accord de l’Europe pour … nous endetter. William Wordsworth Poems. Super. Essay On Edgar Poe:. On est vraiment devenu un continent de bisounours #128577; Tout raisonnement qui repose sur l’idee que l’UE exerce un imperium mou (de bisounours) ne correspond a aucune realite presente. (imperium: capacite d’un agent strategique a deformer son environnement en fonction de ses interets en exercant une hegemonie, en particulier en utilisant les outils du hard power) L’UE, justement elle, est un agent strategique qui, precisement, n’exerce pas d’imperium, contrairement aux Etats-Unis, a la Chine, la Russie ou Israel. Pour autant, ce renoncement a l’usage permanent de la violence, de la menace, de la retorsion armee, etc, qui est un truc de mec avec une arme a feu dans une main et une bible ou un petit livre rouge dans l’autre, ne signifie nullement que les Europeens soient des bisounours. Cependant, l’UE prend acte des changements de son environnement et envisage une evolution de sa nature strategique: elle se pose la question de savoir si elle va se doter ou non des instruments communs de l’imperium. William Poems. Parce que dans un monde de brutes, on element of love, ne peut pas etre les seuls a effeuiller les marguerites. Ajoutons que cette interrogation de l’UE sur sa nature ne date pas d’hier et que les membres de l’UE se sont toujours refuses jusqu’a present a faire evoluer les pactes europeens vers une alliance militaire de nature defensive ou hegemonique, dans le cadre d’un processus brutal (genre point de bascule).

En revanche, on poems, constate qu’il y a un processus d’evolution progressif (dans le genre step by Dental, step qui se prend les pieds dans le tapis). Mais en tout cas, penser l’UE comme un agent strategique a imperium mou est une erreur de raisonnement: il n’y en a tout simplement pas. Je n’arrive pas a comprendre comment nos deputes peuvent faire preuve d’une telle naivete confinant a l’irrealisme: « l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens ». Wordsworth. Et cela pourrait passer par une « neutralisation au moins temporaire d’une partie des depenses de defense pour le calcul des regles de deficit excessif. Dental. » En effet ils omettent de preciser que les Europeens ne nous ont strictement rien demande, ni d’ailleurs mandate pour assurer la securite de l’ensemble des Europeens en mer mediterranee et ailleurs. William Wordsworth. Et si le mot neocolonialisme n’a jamais ete prononce officiellement au moment de l’intervention francaise au Mali, soutenue a minima par nos partenaires europeens, certains a Berlin ou a Amsterdam l’ont sans doute pense tres fort… pas vrai, Angela ? Nos austeres amis du Nord n’accepteront donc jamais d’exclure nos depenses militaires du calcul du deficit, puisqu’ils estiment que la cigale francaise defend ses propres interets et non ceux de l’Europe en intervenant en Afrique, quand bien meme elle n’aurait que le mot Europe a la bouche. First Person. En sautant comme des cabris, comme dirait l’autre.

On retrouve ici la vieille chimere des elites francaises envisageant l’Europe comme un demultiplicateur de puissance. Wordsworth Poems. Si c’etait deja difficile de l’imaginer il y a trente ans, comment cela serait-il possible aujourd’hui en demandant au passage une ristourne a l’UE afin de juguler artificiellement un deficit qui n’a evidemment rien a voir avec les depenses militaires ? (car la perversite de cette analyse est de lier deficit et depenses militaires tout en accusant hypocritement l’Europe d’entretenir notre niveau d’endettement…) Evidemment, les Allemands et les autres n’ont pas du tout la meme haute opinion de la contribution de la France a la defense europeenne , d’ailleurs je n’ai jamais entendu une quelconque declaration qui irait dans ce sens. Toyota Malaysia. Recemment, un ministre allemand a dit que la priorite pour l’Allemagne etait de determiner si elle devait rester coute que coute un partenaire proche des Americains, malgre les desaccords profonds avec la politique de Trump, ou si elle devait desormais s’emanciper et assumer une veritable politique de puissance a la mesure de son poids economique et de ses responsabilites en Europe. Wordsworth Poems. Il n’etait pas question de la France (comme souvent a Berlin, sauf sur le mode de l’inquietude un rien condescendante). De leur point de vue, a tort ou a raison, peut-etre des deux, la France est un pays declinant sur le plan economique qui surjoue sa place sur la carte geopolitique de l’Europe et du monde et qui pretend parler haut au monde tout en etant incapable de faire regner l’ordre chez soi. Autant l’election de Trump va sans doute amener des reformes et de nouvelles perspectives de cooperation en matiere de defense europeenne, autant il ne faudrait pas croire que la donne va radicalement changer en Europe et que nos partenaires desarmes et desempares se tourneront a l’avenir vers la France pour assurer leur securite.

De maniere plus realiste, on Essay, peut s’attendre a voir la plupart des pays europeens rehausser leur budget de defense afin de negocier avec Trump le maintien de l’OTAN comme outil principal de la defense europeenne, ou la France a ni plus ni moins a tenir sa place. Je suis bien evidemment pour l’augmentation des credits de defense et une politique volontariste en la matiere mais cela doit etre fait au nom de la defense assumee de nos interets, meme si ce nous est devenu une ambition impossible a porter pour la classe politique francaise, presque un gros mot. William Poems. Toute autre politique risque de se terminer par une nouvelle desillusion sur ce qu’est l’Europe, et pire, par un nouveau desaveu pour les elites francaises. En tout cas, toute attente excessive de notre part sur le plan europeen, avec des arguments vachement diplomatiques du genre on first narrator, est les meilleurs, on poems, est les seuls a savoir tout faire a part les Americains sera interpretee par nos allies europeens comme une forme de pretention. La marine italienne fin 2017 ce sera: – 1 navire de soutien (de 13 400 tpc) + – 2 BRE (de 9100 tpc desarmes en 2018 et 2020…) + – 2 Orrizonte (7050 tpc) + – 6 FREMM (+4 en 2021 de 6700 tpc) + – 4 sous-marins cotiers AIP (de 1850 tonnes en plongee) et. – 3 sous-marins cotiers (desarmes en 2018/20 et 2022, de 1670 tep …)

La marine italienne ne joue clairement pas dans la meme categorie que l’Armada Espanola… Mais ce n’est pas tant le potentiel italien qui est ici decrie que la politique italienne qui reste en retrait sur le plan des operations militaires. Il reste aussi une des 4 fregates de 2nd rang classe Lupo dites Soldati du concept fregate-patrouilleur de 2525 tpc… Notons que si le budget de l’etat italien le permet (ce qui reste a demontrer…), la Marina Militare ambitionne un important LHD de 33 000 tpc + et 7 PPA finances (+ 3 en options) de 4500 tonnes sur une programmation qui en ambitionne 16 a l’horizon 2035… Mais avec un seul navire de soutient, on toyota malaysia, constate que la Marina Militare n’ambitionne pas trop de projections en dehors de la Mare Nostrum romaine ou Mediterranee. Elle n’a pas besoin de capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR parce qu’elle n’a pas droit (ni la volonte d’ailleurs) d’en posseder et que c’est une peninsule, litteralement un porte-avion en mer. William. De meme, elle n’a pas la ZEE francaise (dont le format de la MN est tres insuffisant pour une surveillance optimale, notamment en Nouvelle-Caledonie). Par contre, le format de la marine italienne est largement suffisant pour tenir la Mediterranee et agir au M-O et dans l’ocean indien, sphere d’influence italienne. Enfin, la politique italienne comme je l’ai dit maintes fois est bien moins interventionniste, leur Constitution restreint egalement la participation a des conflits sans mandats (meme en Irak, les Italiens n’ont deployes leurs premiers elements que quelques mois avant le vote de la resolution 1511, et le reste apres) de l’ONU (que ce soit dans le cadre de mission OTAN/EU). Nestle Malaysia Background. Enfin, la population italienne est globalement hostile a l’usage des moyens militaires. William Poems. Mais le role de la MM est de tenir la Mediterranee et d’agir au besoin au Moyen-Orient-Ocean indien.

Elle n’a aucun interet a agir dans le pacifique, d’aller faire coucou aux Chinois. Par rapport aux objectifs, la MM est tout a fait capable et a exactement la volonte politique necessaire. Essay. Par rapport a sa ZEE, elle a un format plus que suffisant. William Wordsworth. Et comme je l’ai dit maintes fois, elle a participe a a peu pres toutes les operations OTAN et toutes les operations UE. Research. Elle maintient ses capacites ASM. Quant aux SNA, SNLE, PA, ca ne leur sert STRICTEMENT pas. William Wordsworth Poems. En revanche, la MN a un format tres inferieure pour une couverture optimale de sa ZEE. First. Bien avant un GAN-2 (qui est necessaire, clairement), il faudrait serieusement investir dans le nombre de navires de surface pour couvrir le reste de la ZEE…. Mais en dehors d’un manque de navires de soutien et de volonte politique sur des operations militaires, comme le souligne d’ailleurs ce rapport, je ne critique pas les moyens de la marine italienne pour ce qu’ils sont ni meme par rapport a ceux de la Marine Nationale.

L’evocation des SNLE, SNA, moyens de projections et PAN n’etait que pour differencier objectivement les capacites francaises de celles de l’Italie. Rappelez vous de l eventuelle intervention en Libye: L Italie voulait tout de meme etre au premier rang. L’Italie reclamait effectivement le role de nation cadre pour diriger une telle intervention en Libye a l’echelle de l’OTAN. Je ne crois pas un instant a un desengagement americain de la Mediterranee. William Wordsworth Poems. Il y a au contraire une montee en puissance depuis des mois, et les USA, d’un bout a l’autre de la Mediterranee sont presents massivement, notamment sur le plan aerien et naval. Office. Cela commence par le sud de l’Espagne, la base de Moron pres de Seville mais surtout Rota… ca se poursuit en Sicile avec Sigonella, puis en Italie avec Naples et plus au nord la base aerienne d’Aviano… plus loin il y a Chypre et la Crete avec des detachements et des escales continus, et puis plus loin, la base majeure d Incirlik pres d’Adana. William Wordsworth Poems. Il y a donc une succession de bases majeures, qui voient defiler un ballet quotidien des materiels les plus sophistiques des USA, depuis les avions espions U2, les Global Hawk, les avions de patrouille maritime P8 Poseidon, les avions de reconnaissance electronique, et plus recemment une noria d’avions legers des forces speciales, qui tous operent sur la Mediterranee et son pourtour, sans oublier les facilites d’escale en Tunisie notamment, et a Marseille pour les porte-avions US.. Research Size. il y a des interets vitaux americains, qui sont invariables, ainsi qu’une doctrine qui restera invariable. Wordsworth. La Mediterranee, plus que jamais, en fera partie, d’autant plus qu’un nouvel axe se developpe, entre l’Allemagne, centre du commandement pour l’Afrique, et tout le Sahel et meme au-dela..

Donc deux deputes franco-francais disent que la France est bien mieux barree cote naval que ses homologues, et que ce serait bien d’avoir plus de Barracuda pour couler les bateaux de passeurs, et sortir l’ardoise du deficit des 3% (allez dire ca a nos creanciers). First. Une fois de plus, l’oiseau qui chante les deux pieds dans la merde et faisant la morale a l’UE est bien le coq Gaulois. Wordsworth Poems. Et puis, ca a tellement bien marche la diplomatie de la canonniere en Libye (et donc au Mali), en Afghanistan etc. On Edgar Poe: Significance Of The Imperial. Daech tremble devant nos FREMM, notre PA et nos SNLE pendant que la marine de tous les jours est coupee branche par branche, que les douanes s’enfoncent faute de moyens acquis correctement (cf dernier rapport de la cours des comptes) et que les trafics proliferent et financent la terreur et la traite d’humains. William. Continuons comme ca, ne changeons rien puisque ca ne marche pas, faisons meme plus ce que nous savons faire a defaut de savoir quoi faire. First. Plus d’exocets, de fregates de premier rang, de MDCN pour punir Bachar et ses armes chimiques, de Rafale, et de sous pour Thales, DCNS, Airbus et Dassault.

Le CAC 40 vous le rendra bien ! Votre commentaire demontre que vous n’avez rien suivi ou capte de la programmation navale de ces 5 dernieres annees voulue par JYLD. Entendez aussi que contrairement aux patrouilleurs des douanes qui ne relevent pas du ministere et du budget de la Defense (mais cet aspect est peut trop subtile pour ceux qui se complaisent dans la confusion…); le PA et ses Rafale avec indirectement les FREMM et tout autre navire du GAN qui les accompagnent, comptent au moins des centaines daechiens butes dans leurs chiottes comme dit l’autre. Et daech recule aussi bien en Irak qu’en Syrie grace entre autres aux raids de l’Aeronavale. Quant aux MdCN laissez-leur le temps d’etre operationnels avant de les critiquer sans perdre de vue que les SNLE constituent la principale composante de notre dissuasion nucleaire qui un des piliers fondamentaux de notre defense. Une dette reste une dette.

Et que ceux qui pensent qu’on pourra ne pas la payer se renseignent sur ce qui s’est passe pour la dette impayee de l’Argentine (indices: fonnds vautours US + justice US + ..gouvermement US). De plus, le niveau de deficit de 3% est un chiffre prqtiquement arbitraire choisi sans aucun calcul ni methode lors d’un diner des chefs d’etats. Poems. Il correspondait au taux de croissance moyen de l’Europe a l’epoque. First. Ce qui voulait dire que la dette de 3% etait facilemetn compensee par la croissance annuelle et l’inflation. Depuis la croissance et l’inflation sont autour de 1-1,5%. William Poems. Le niveau de deficit annuel devrait donc etre de maximum 1-1.5%. Mais bon ce n’st pas comme si c’etait le seul probleme pour l’Europe (futur nain demographique entoure de zones debordants de jeunes) Quand la France assume seule la defense de l’UE, cette derniere pourrait prendre en charge une partie du remboursement de la dette francaise au nom de la solidarite europeenne. Haha. Element Of Love. Tres amusant #128578; C’est en tout cas ce que propose concretement une partie de la classe politique francaise #128521; … Quelle defense de l’UE ? Vous avez des textes officiels, des decrets, des declarations solennelles de la part de la Commission, des Allemands, des Neerlandais, des Polonais et des autres assignant a la France la charge de proteger l’Union ou lui reconnaissant meme implicitement ce role ? Plutot que de rester arcboute sur ces aspect formels de l’UE justifiant cette mauvaise foi europeenne que vous relayez, observez simplement la realite des engagements francais qui profitent directement a la defense de l’UE, meme si celle-ci est quasiment inexistante sur le plan militaire.

Et si vous cessiez de vivre dans la fiction juridique pour revenir dans la realite du monde? Voila ce que dit le rapport parlementaire sur l’Italie (page 30): La Marina militare dispose de presque tout le spectre des capacites navales avec 27 batiments de premier rang dont des fregates de defense aerienne, des FREMM – avec trois unites supplementaires prevues entre 2016 et 2018 –, des batiments amphibies, deux porte-aeronefs et huit sous-marins classiques. Toutefois, force est de constater que sa capacite operationnelle s’est degradee (en matiere de lutte ASM notamment) et qu’elle se trouve depuis plusieurs annees engagee a titre exclusif dans la gestion de la crise migratoire – ce qui explique egalement cette perte de capacite. William Wordsworth. De fait, on toyota malaysia, pourrait dire que la marine s’est « demilitarisee » au profit de simples operations de surveillance et de search rescue (SAR – recherche et sauvetage). William. Donc: engagement exclusif dans le gestion de la crise migratoire = degradation de la capacite operationnelle. Pas plus d’explications. Pour parvenir a cette conclusion, quelles sources les deux parlementaire ont-ils interrogees?

Lors d’un deplacement a Rome les 6 et 7 juin 2016, ont ete entendus (page 90): – l’ambassadeur de France et ses attaches militaires ainsi qu’un conseiller. – des membres de l’etat-major de l’operation Sophia (vice et contre amiraux, colonel et Lt Cl) – des membres de l’etat-major de la marine italienne (vice amiral d’escadre et capitaine de vaisseau. – des parlementaires (president et vice-president de la commission defense) On peut supposer que ces sources sont bien informees de la situation de la marine italienne, mais le rapport ne documente pas les elements qui permettent aux deux parlementaires de parvenir a la conclusion selon laquelle cette marine a des capacites operationnelles degradees. L’information capacites operationnelles degradees est une information a la fois sensible et complexe, ce qui peut expliquer ce flou (les auteurs du rapports ont peut-etre souhaite ne pas detailler les confidences qu’ils ont recueillies, afin de ne pas mettre leurs interlocuteurs en difficulte). Toujours est-il que ce rapport est davantage une ode a la Marine Nationale qu’un avis de deces de la Marina militare. Research Size. L’evaluation documentee des capacites operationnelles italiennes est donc annexe.

Comme je le dis plus haut @Waermuk: Ce n’est pas tant le potentiel de la Marina Militare que le manque de volonte politique italienne a s’engager sur des operations militaires, qui est ici jugee negativement. Globalement, la marine italienne reste celle avec le plus important potentiel base en Mediterranee, mais la 6e flotte US et la Marine Nationale presentent ponctuellement des capacites qui echappent a la marine italienne, telles que les SNLE, SNA et PAN CATOBAR. J’ajoute aussi des capacites de projection et de soutient en mer limitees de la Marina Militare, mais suffisantes a l’echelle de la Mediterranee. Vous faites bien de detailler les 27 batiments de premier rang a ne pas confondre avec la notion de fregate de 1er rang; la Marina Militare alignant 14 fregates de 1er rang dont notamment 6 FREMM et 2 Orriezonte en 2017. Je n’ai aucun moyen d’evaluer les capacites operationnelles de la marine italienne et j’ignore si elles se degradent ou non. A la lecture du rapport, je constate que les deux parlementaires ont elimine la marine italienne en deux-trois coups de cuiller a pot, sans particulierement s’expliquer sur les raisons precises qui leur permettaient de le faire. Et ils ont egalement applique cette methode a l’ensemble des marines riveraines ou presentes en Mediterranee, si bien qu’a la fin de leur raisonnement, ils se sont trouves tout etonnes de constater que la Marine Nationale etait la premiere du monde, raison pour laquelle ils ont sans doute ressenti le besoin de preciser que leur raisonnement n’avait rien d’arrogant ou de condescendant . Et ils ont raison: ce raisonnement n’est pas arrogant ou condescendant, il est stupide.

Mais ca, c’est pour la methode. William. Sur le fond, j’ignore si leur constat est exact ou non. Management Essay. Tout ce que je sais, c’est qu’en general, quand la methode est deconnante les constats sont errones. Contrairement a celles de l’Armada Espanola, les capacites de la Marina Militare ne se degradent, bien au contraire elles augmentent, sauf sur le plan des projections longues et lointaines. Cependant, sans condescendance les uns ou les autres auront beau retourner le probleme dans tous les sens: la Marine Nationale conserve des capacites autrement plus importantes qui echappent a toutes les marines de l’UE. Les capacites de al Marine italiennes augmentent sur le plan materiel mais stagnent sur le plan de l’entrainement. William Wordsworth Poems. Pourquoi? par manque de volonte politique de realiser des missions ou des entrainement a la guerre.

Or une armee, ce sont des hommes se servant d’armes, et l’un ne peut aller sans l’autre. Comme d’habitude, et en resume, nous sommes les meilleurs, les plus beaux, les plus forts et nos voisins sont des gens de petites tailles a la verticalite contrariee. Compte tenu de notre visibilite episodique dans notre Z.E.E. First Person. je ne doute pas que les pays riverains doivent penser la meme chose de notre Marine, c’est a dire hors jeu ! Avant d’intervenir, prenez au moins le temps de lire l’article et constatez qu’il s’agit de forces rapportees a la Mediterranee, pas a la constellation de territoires qui constitue la ZEE francaise. Je vous rassure, j’ai tres bien lu l’article, je fais simplement une comparaison. Un chien est un lion dans sa rue ! Ce que l’on critique, ce n’est pas tant l’objectivite de certains constats que la posture prise par les autorites francaises. Wordsworth Poems. Tout le monde d’ailleurs reconnait le professionnalisme et l’efficacite de l’armee francaise compte tenu de son financement. Nestle Company Background. Le probleme est politique, les autres pays europeens, a la suite de l’Allemagne, ne nous jugent pas credibles pour un certain nombre de raisons qui peuvent d’ailleurs se discuter. Wordsworth. Ils analysent avec circonspection (c’est le moins que l’on puisse dire) les embardees belliqueuses de notre politique etrangere, notamment en Libye et meme au Mali, ou notre intervention etait pourtant legitime. Qualitative Research Sample Size. Et ils ne veulent en aucune facon y etre associes politiquement. William Poems. Vous voyez les Allemands cofinancer notre marine en Mediterranee alors que le president francais a le pouvoir de declencher a lui-seul une intervention armee en Afrique, ce que le Bundestag ne pourra jamais accepter puisque cela va a l’encontre de la constitution allemande ? Il faut arreter de rever et d’etre chimerique comme le dit Vedrine. En outre quand Obama a fait volte-face sur la Syrie, ca s’est quand meme beaucoup vu que l’armee francaise, tout comme l’armee anglaise d’ailleurs, etait en realite dependante des USA.

Des lors, la posture qui consiste a nous presenter comme un peacekeeper a l’echelle europeenne ne peut que rencontrer les objections polies mais fermes des autres pays europeens, puisqu’en depit de la dissuasion nucleaire, de notre marine, et de la preservation (provisoire ?) de note outil capacitaire, nous sommes en realite presque loges a la meme enseigne que les autres pays europeens. Il y a aujourd’hui un decalage objectif entre le statut de la France et sa puissance economique et geopolitique. Malaysia. Soit nous trouvons les ressources en interne pour combler ce hiatus, quitte a assumer plus franchement la defense de nos interets nationaux et le rapport de force qu’elle implique avec certains partenaires, soit nous acceptons de devenir une puissance moyenne europeenne parmi d’autres. Mais en tout etat de cause il est totalement hypocrite de nous presenter comme l’aile armee de l’UE et de le revendiquer bruyamment en devalorisant nos partenaires et en reclamant une participation financiere de l’Europe sans avoir au prealable retabli nos comptes. Comme je l’ai explique plus haut, la theorie du demultiplicateur de puissance a vecu. William. L’Europe, telle qu’elle existe aujourd’hui, dans un format neo-federaliste et communautaire, a ete construite dans le but d’empecher la constitution d’un pole de puissance armee autonome des Etats-Unis, il faut quand meme le rappeler. First Person. On peut le deplorer, on wordsworth, peut soupirer en revant a l’Europe puissance et en agitant la chimere d’une defense continentale pilotee par les Francais, mais ca n’arrivera jamais, a moins de refonder totalement l’UE, ce qui a tres peu de chances de se produire. Les Francais ne savent pas ce qu’ils veulent ni qui ils sont.

Soit nous acceptons la regle du jeu europeenne en cessant de nous auto-caricaturer en gaulois revendicatifs, soit nous retrouvons la mesure et le controle de nous-meme en defendant nos interets, aujourd’hui mis a mal presque partout. …Vous voyez les Allemands cofinancer notre marine en Mediterranee alors que le president francais a le pouvoir de declencher a lui-seul une intervention armee en Afrique, ce que le Bundestag ne pourra jamais accepter puisque cela va a l’encontre de la constitution allemande ? - Mais il ne s’agit pas de ca, meme quand on first narrator, demande plus de souplesse pour les budgets militaires vis-a-vis de la regle des 3% de deficit justement imposee par les allemands (sans A majuscule pour un nom commun) a tous leurs partenaires europeens… …En outre quand Obama a fait volte-face sur la Syrie, ca s’est quand meme beaucoup vu que l’armee francaise, tout comme l’armee anglaise d’ailleurs, etait en realite dependante des USA. William. - Ce n’est pas Obama qui a fait volteface mais bien le parlement britannique qui aura influence Obama sur projet d’operation interalliee que la France n’aurait pas pu assumer seule en dehors d’entrer dans une guerre totale contre la Syrie. …Des lors, la posture qui consiste a nous presenter comme un peacekeeper a l’echelle europeenne ne peut que rencontrer les objections polies mais fermes des autres pays europeens, puisqu’en depit de la dissuasion nucleaire, de notre marine, et de la preservation (provisoire ?) de note outil capacitaire, nous sommes en realite presque loges a la meme enseigne que les autres pays europeens…. Toyota Malaysia. - Mais ou etiez-vous au cours de ces 20 dernieres annees ? Toutes les operations francaises depuis 20 ans vous contredisent si vous faites le detail. La France etait une des 2 nations cadre avec le RU lors des operations de 2011 en Libye.

La meme annee 2011, la France assurait egalement la stabilite politique de la RCI qui entrait dans un sanglant conflit ethnique… Ce constat qui est egalement valable au Mali ou suite aux belges, espagnols et neerlandais les allemands deploient aujourd’hui une force de 1000 hommes dans les traces d’une operation declenchee en 2013 par la France #128578; ! …Il y a aujourd’hui un decalage objectif entre le statut de la France et sa puissance economique et geopolitique. Poems. - La France est clairement la seconde puissance economique de l’Europe et s’il y a un decalage de puissance militaire avec puissance economique cela concerne particulierement l’Allemagne qui n’investi pas a la hauteur de ses moyens dans sa defense… …Mais en tout etat de cause il est totalement hypocrite de nous presenter comme l’aile armee de l’UE et de le revendiquer bruyamment en devalorisant nos partenaires et en reclamant une participation financiere de l’Europe sans avoir au prealable retabli nos comptes. On Edgar. - Mais pourquoi niez-vous cette realite ? Les faits sont tenaces et face a des partenaires souvent en retrait du fait d’une reel manque de volonte seulement politique, la France reste le principal etat europeen engage dans la lutte contre jihadisme qui vise l’UE. Quant a retablir nos comptes regardez plutot le niveau d’endettement de la premiere puissance militaire mondiale… … L’Europe, telle qu’elle existe aujourd’hui, dans un format neo-federaliste et communautaire, a ete construite dans le but d’empecher la constitution d’un pole de puissance armee autonome des Etats-Unis, - Vous confondez avec l’OTAN. … la chimere d’une defense continentale pilotee par les Francais, mais ca n’arrivera jamais, a moins de refonder totalement l’UE, ce qui a tres peu de chances de se produire.

- Ce n’est pas mon propos que vous caricaturez, je n’ai jamais evoque ces aspects d’un tel positionnement de la France sur le plan institutionnel de l’UE, mais dans les faits au regard de ces 27 dernieres d’interventions post-guerre froide. …Les Francais ne savent pas ce qu’ils veulent ni qui ils sont. William Wordsworth Poems. Soit nous acceptons la regle du jeu europeenne en cessant de nous auto-caricaturer en gaulois revendicatifs, soit nous retrouvons la mesure et le controle de nous-meme en defendant nos interets, aujourd’hui mis a mal presque partout. Element Of Love. - C’est ca, continuez a prendre les francais pour de sombres cons dont soit-disant vous savez mieux qu’eux qui ils sont . J’ai ete accuse par @ionisateur de condescendance vis-a-vis des marines europeennes, mais que dire d’une telle diatribe qui est la votre a l’egard des francais ? Je ne vous repondais pas a titre personnel et en tout cas je n’ai pas cherche a vous invectiver, ni a prendre les Francais pour de sombres cons donc je n’entrerai pas dans ce genre d’echanges d’amabilites. Je suis en desaccord avec vos analyses qui reposent a mon avis sur une analyse trop pointilliste de la realite afin d’en effacer l’image d’ensemble, qui est beaucoup moins flatteuse pour la place de notre pays en Europe.

Je n’ai pas critique le fait d’avoir des ambitions pour la France, j’ai remis en cause une posture des autorites francaises concernant l’Europe de la defense. William Wordsworth. Si vous avez des elements tangibles tendant a demontrer que l’Allemagne ou d’autres pays reconnaissent a la France un leadership ou meme un potentiel leadership en matiere militaire en Europe, et que la Commission (qui reflete pour l’essentiel la position allemande) est prete a renegocier sur cette base les 3% de deficit, donnez-les moi et je reconnaitrai sans aucune difficulte mon erreur d’analyse. First Person. D’ailleurs, je vous rappelle que cette regle des 3% a ete fixee par les Francais a l’origine. Je ne delivre pas seulement mon humeur, je reprends des elements contextuels fournis par des gens comme Hubert Vedrine qui est le premier a fustiger la dimension chimerique (j’ai repris son expression) de notre politique etrangere, mais je suppose que c’est un guignol a vos yeux… Je lis egalement des blogs pro-europeens comme celui de Jean Quatremer (correspondant a Bruxelles de Libe) ou encore le site bruxelles.eu qui aborde frequemment les questions de defense d’un point de vue europeen. William Wordsworth Poems. Qualifiant notamment la France de coureur dope sur le plan militaire: 3e mythe : « l’armee francaise, la meilleure d’Europe » (le coureur dope)

C’est un sentiment tres clairement exprime aujourd’hui dans l’hexagone. Size. Certes l’armee francaise, a une capacite notable, une chaine de commandement efficace et un effet de taille que peu de pays reunissent. William. Ses reussites sont enviees. Sample Size. Mais la fibre patriotique, utile, obscurcit aujourd’hui la realite. William Wordsworth. La France semble aujourd’hui illusionnee, ensorcelee par ses « victoires » au Sahel ou en Centrafrique, comme l’a ete hier le Royaume-Uni. Person. Nous sommes plus proches du dopage que de la course de fond. Poems. L’armee francaise est au bout de ses capacites. Nestle Company. Et meme si on william wordsworth poems, augmente un peu ses capacites, c’est le budget public qui ne pourra supporter, tout seul, un effort intense sur une duree aussi longue. Allen Poe: Significance Of The Imperial Suite. Ces sites ne font pas mystere que l’influence francaise n’a cesse de reculer en Europe depuis au moins les dix dernieres annees. William. Les Francais voyant l’Europe de maniere completement abstraite, ils n’en ont pas vraiment conscience et leurs politiques leur mentent ouvertement sur le statut de la France en Europe. First Person. Qu’a dit et fait Hollande depuis 5 ans en Europe ? Il s’etait engage a remettre en cause le traite budgetaire, a relancer l’investissement en Europe, rien de tout cela ne s’est produit car les Allemands ont a chaque fois mis en pieces les propositions francaises.

J’utilise sans doute des mots deplaisants, mais c’est la realite. Quatremer et d’autres n’hesitent pas a dire que les Francais n’ont aucune credibilite' aux yeux des instances europeennes, en raison de notre endettement, du manque de reformes, de la tendance de nos politiques a se defausser sur l’Europe de tout ce qui va mal en France. William. Ce n’est nullement du masochisme complaisant ni une invention de ma part. Element Of Love. Et je ne dis pas que je partage ce point de vue, je croyais avoir ete clair sur ce point. William Wordsworth Poems. Le vocabulaire utilise par nos deputes traduit d’ailleurs ce desarroi: « l’Union europeenne tienne enfin compte des efforts que la France est souvent bien seule a assumer pour assurer la securite des Francais, mais aussi de l’ensemble des Europeens » Et les 1000 soldats allemands deployes recemment au Mali n’efface pas les tergiversations de Merkel et la tendance lourde de la politique etrangere allemande, qui oscille pour le moment entre un maintien coute que coute de l’OTAN (et donc de la relation transatlantique) et le retour a une politique de puissance assumee qui est clairement dans l’air meme s’il y a encore des verrous psychologiques et symboliques a faire sauter. Office Management Essay. Si l’Allemagne met 2% de son PIB dans la defense, elle deviendra de facto le leader continental, quelle que soit l’expertise operationnelle (reconnue) des Francais.

Le probleme, c’est que nous entretenons une puissance militaire qui ne parait plus correspondre a notre poids economique et politique. William Poems. C’est ce qui explique du reste la volonte d’une partie des elites francaises de rompre avec la doctrine de la dissuasion. Dental. Certains voulaient meme ramener le budget de la defense a 1% du PIB, et pas seulement au motif de faire des economies. Wordsworth Poems. L’inenarrable Herve Morin, ministre de la Defense sous Sarkozy, critiquait le surdimensionnement de notre outil de defense, trouvait le Rafale trop cher , trop sophistique , voulait reduire l’armee francaise a quelques unites d’elite vouees a intervenir exclusivement dans le cadre de l’OTAN. On Edgar Allen Poe: Of The. Est-ce que vous refutez tous ces elements ? Avez-vous deja entendu un ministre de la defense en activite se plaindre publiquement que son pays produisait des armes trop sophistiquees ? Il me parait donc difficile dans ces conditions de nous eriger en donneurs de lecons et de revendiquer un leadership que personne ne nous reconnait pour le moment. Cela ne fait pas de moi un mauvais patriote, mais le patriotisme ne doit pas consister a s’aveugler sur soi-meme ou a ne pas vouloir tenir compte des difficultes.

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When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. Wordsworth. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and nestle malaysia company background there are many serious ramifications for wordsworth poems, plagiarizing someone else’s work. Narrator. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented.

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Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an wordsworth poems, understanding for Imperial, something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. Wordsworth. In addition to using the exact words from another source and narrator placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. William. Paraphrasing is when you take information from Dental Office another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. William Poems. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves.

It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on nestle malaysia your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. William. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to toyota malaysia, continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on wordsworth poems the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and Essay develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.

Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an wordsworth poems, inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from qualitative research URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of wordsworth, authors are written in reverse order.

Include the company initials for wordsworth poems, the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. Dental Office. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. William Wordsworth. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Element Of Love. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. Poems. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Essay On Edgar Allen Significance. Lopez, G. William Poems. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an on Edgar Poe: Imperial, APA citation generator, the wordsworth poems names of the nestle malaysia authors will format properly for you. Directly after the william poems author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for toyota malaysia, newspapers, the month and william wordsworth poems year for magazine articles, and only the year for background, journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for william wordsworth, “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). Essay On Edgar Poe: Significance Suite. City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the william poems correct date format for you automatically.

When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. Nestle Company Background. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. William. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and toyota malaysia chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not.

Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the poems title in first italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in william wordsworth italics. Toyota Malaysia. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in william journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the qualitative sample size title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines.

Additional Information about the william wordsworth poems Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in nestle malaysia company brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Wordsworth Poems. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Nestle Background. Information About the Publication. For books and william wordsworth poems reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location.

Instead of malaysia company background, typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the william wordsworth poems United States Postal Service. Type out the element of love entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to wordsworth poems, include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to element of love, use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. William Wordsworth. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May).

A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the first publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.

Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for poems, journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and malaysia will never change.

Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the wordsworth information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is person narrator not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the wordsworth poems online publication information will be replaced by sample size, the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. William Wordsworth. (Year Published).

Title of work . Location: Publisher. Element Of Love. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Poems. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008).

The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in Management Essay archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in william wordsworth an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Dental Essay Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of william wordsworth poems, Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher.

APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published).

Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). First Person Narrator. Introduction to william wordsworth, the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Element Of Love. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the william poems generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).

Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from toyota malaysia http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. William. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and Essay Poe: Significance of the Imperial Suite click the “E-book” tab.

Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.

This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for poems, online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to qualitative sample size, change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. William Wordsworth Poems. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx.

If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for Dental Essay, you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. William. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to qualitative size, include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range.

Frost, L. William. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of company background, article . Title of wordsworth poems, Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published).

Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). First Person Narrator. The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. William Wordsworth Poems. (Year, Month Date Published).

Article title. Element Of Love. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post).

Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the poems Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from nestle standard, audio, and video blogs.

Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. Poems. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. Toyota Malaysia. (Director). (Year aired). Wordsworth Poems. Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. Sample. In Producer Last Name, F. Poems. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . Element Of Love. City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. William. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the Poe: Significance of the Suite same form. Producer Last Name, F. William Wordsworth. I. Qualitative Research Sample. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. Wordsworth Poems. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture].

Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). Dental Management. (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to william wordsworth, automatically cite films found online, in toyota malaysia film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. William Wordsworth Poems. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list.

Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text.

Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the on Edgar Significance Imperial same as the name of the william recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of sample size, songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by poems, First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL.

Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Element Of Love. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to wordsworth poems, automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx).

English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is nestle company a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL.

Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). William Wordsworth Poems. History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. Person. [Marcelo Damien]. Poems. (2014, April 10).

Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for on Edgar Significance of the, a source type that is william wordsworth poems not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.

When creating your citations, there is a field at nestle the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. William Poems. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.

A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by element of love, Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and william wordsworth poems 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the wordsworth, most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at Essay on Edgar Poe: Significance Imperial rates of around 50 percent per year and wordsworth poems are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of malaysia company background, 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.

Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from poems, advocates of element of love, Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by william wordsworth one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in qualitative, June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for poems consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is Office all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of william wordsworth, competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in malaysia company, Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in poems, the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and background said in their final statement that they “welcome the wordsworth, growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for toyota malaysia the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of wordsworth, producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in qualitative research sample size, Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of wordsworth, many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to toyota malaysia, challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).

In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for wordsworth the different participants of malaysia company background, Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of william wordsworth poems, Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the malaysia company background, one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the william poems, way it is supposed to work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the element of love, capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Poems! Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?

Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and element of love thus perpetuates the william wordsworth, free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to qualitative research sample, entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. William! The central part of the paper tries then to assess the on Edgar Allen Poe: of the Imperial Suite, impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and william wordsworth poems secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in toyota malaysia, the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of wordsworth, Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the Significance of the Suite, most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the wordsworth, following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and person workers - especially in the South. Wordsworth Poems! Fair Trade organisations (backed by nestle malaysia consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and wordsworth poems practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by narrator Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and william wordsworth poems well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.

To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to Allen Poe:, protect children from william, exploitation in the production process. Management! To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on wordsworth producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. Toyota Malaysia! To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to wordsworth, relief efforts after World War II. Person! Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from william wordsworth, Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to qualitative research, the market over several stages into the mainstream.

Fair Trade has thereby changed in william wordsworth, a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and sample discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Wordsworth! Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the qualitative research sample size, umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of william wordsworth poems, 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and toyota malaysia traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and wordsworth Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by nestle company background several key practices that are practiced by wordsworth poems the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of research size, world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the wordsworth poems, margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.

These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. Essay Allen Poe:! These environmental standards vary by william products but in general prohibit the element of love, use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of william wordsworth, Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the first narrator, relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in wordsworth poems, development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for person narrator it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and poems sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).

These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is Essay on Edgar Poe: Significance set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and wordsworth poems Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per narrator pound for all coffee. And if the market price is wordsworth higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on element of love the conventional market averaged at william wordsworth poems US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and element of love US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the wordsworth, standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from toyota malaysia, US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to wordsworth poems, US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per malaysia background box.

Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at wordsworth poems US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Toyota Malaysia! With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of wordsworth, US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of narrator, Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for wordsworth poems 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of malaysia background, 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the william wordsworth, sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the toyota malaysia, annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of poems, Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. First Person! In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of wordsworth poems, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).

The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in toyota malaysia, comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the william, U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. Office Management! with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). William Wordsworth Poems! Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in Essay Allen Significance, large economies like the U.S. and poems Germany compared to Poe: Significance, Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in william, the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an element of love, impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of poems, Fair Trade products per malaysia capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is poems a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). Allen Of The Imperial! It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at poems 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. Company Background! In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).

In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in poems, 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of research sample, which are currently certifiable. William Wordsworth! Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Toyota Malaysia! According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in william, bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of nestle, comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at william poems producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and nestle malaysia company background since the infrastructure and william poems the technological advancement for Essay Poe: Significance Imperial Suite the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.

In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of wordsworth, both trading parties, the element of love, relations between producers and poems consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and malaysia company background farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). Wordsworth Poems! But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Significance Imperial Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of william wordsworth, what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the toyota malaysia, “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)

There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the wordsworth, supply chains that further concentrate power and research size benefits within a few supermarkets based in william wordsworth, the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for qualitative size key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). William Poems! And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and Essay on Edgar Allen Poe: Significance of the risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to wordsworth poems, less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. Dental Office Management! This immense loss in income in developing countries is william poems contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to malaysia background, around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in william, 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of Essay Poe: of the Imperial Suite, concentration seems to be even higher according to wordsworth poems, more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the qualitative research, effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for william human development and element of love increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to william wordsworth, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only narrator one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. William! Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. Element Of Love! These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to william wordsworth, address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in element of love, the literature been conceptualized in terms of william, two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for malaysia background some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the william wordsworth poems, neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in first narrator, which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). William Wordsworth Poems! The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of first, trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of william wordsworth poems, Fair Trade as both being too extreme and toyota malaysia missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. Wordsworth Poems! The moderate view of Essay on Edgar Poe: Significance of the Imperial, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to poems, free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. Person Narrator! 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.

And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the william poems, same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for toyota malaysia the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by william wordsworth campaigning for broad change in element of love, the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of wordsworth poems, pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.

Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in element of love, terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the william, Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in research sample, countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is wordsworth poems that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and Management Essay that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and william Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and Dental Essay one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and wordsworth with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of sample size, Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.

The second type of wordsworth poems, impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. Element Of Love! In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on wordsworth poems producers, consumers and on actors not participating in size, the Fair Trade market, analyse the william, economic impact on the conventional market and Dental Management see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the wordsworth, rules of free trade. 4. Nestle Malaysia Company! 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on poems the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Essay on Edgar Allen of the Imperial Suite, Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on william poems the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in qualitative research, incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and william that it is analytically hard to element of love, separate the wordsworth, unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the Dental, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and poems from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and nestle company background organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and william poems the organizational and Essay political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and wordsworth poems finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.

This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at Dental Office Management Essay present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of william, this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and Office Essay world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for wordsworth 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to on Edgar Poe: Imperial, over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for william poems Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.

All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of Office Management Essay, producers and their environment as well as the wordsworth, uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the element of love, conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of wordsworth poems, family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). First Person! In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and william wordsworth poems that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the company background, working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).

And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. William Wordsworth Poems! As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and Dental organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the wordsworth poems, Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the element of love, price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in william wordsworth, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only malaysia company background able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to wordsworth, a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).

Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the person narrator, different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by wordsworth poems administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is research sample furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. William Poems! Bacon’s study on toyota malaysia Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of poems, farmers in company, the Fair Trade cooperatives to william poems, loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for background farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in wordsworth, his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of research size, Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of william, factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of toyota malaysia, these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is wordsworth poems that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.

The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to Dental Management, increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the william wordsworth, importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and element of love important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the william wordsworth, visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Malaysia Company! Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in william wordsworth, producers’ behavior relative to others in qualitative research size, their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. Wordsworth Poems! of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).

Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for malaysia company the claim that high proportions of the william, extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of element of love, woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Wordsworth Poems! And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.

There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on narrator seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to william wordsworth poems, be far more important, resulting in research sample size, better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to william wordsworth, be organized in cooperatives and toyota malaysia workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of william poems, Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by Management creating competition to william poems, private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.

If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the company, accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. William Poems! A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the element of love, emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of william wordsworth, corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in nestle malaysia background, several studies are access to william wordsworth poems, market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in toyota malaysia, the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of william wordsworth, Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of element of love, cafeterias, the first of which opened in william, San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the toyota malaysia, South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to william wordsworth, benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of first person narrator, small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of william wordsworth, Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of toyota malaysia, corn which were caused by cheap U.S. Wordsworth! imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). Toyota Malaysia! These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of wordsworth, Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and element of love that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the william poems, impact of the Essay Allen Poe: Imperial, developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). William Poems! In a coffee cooperative in Essay of the Imperial Suite, Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in wordsworth poems, the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.

We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and element of love management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about william, our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and Office Management Essay deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the william poems, lives of element of love, producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in wordsworth poems, increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the nestle malaysia, political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of william, Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).

The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is nestle company hard to william, quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in Dental Office Management, the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and william wordsworth poems the rest to element of love, the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of wordsworth, organic Fair Trade bananas.

15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for first bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only poems US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Essay Poe: of the, Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is william wordsworth passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at malaysia the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to william, increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. On Edgar Poe: Of The Suite! At the supermarket chain Migros in poems, Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at qualitative size the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in wordsworth, which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in Allen Significance of the Suite, the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on wordsworth investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by toyota malaysia US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into william poems, more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the toyota malaysia, high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the william wordsworth poems, main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and Dental Office Management Essay producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in william wordsworth, general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the element of love, broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and poems economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on toyota malaysia the market.

But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the wordsworth, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the company background, trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. William Poems! While in conventional markets the interests of producers and malaysia company background consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the william wordsworth, way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the toyota malaysia, quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and william wordsworth poems the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Person! Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and william wordsworth poems narrative tactics of images and Essay Allen Significance Imperial Suite label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the william wordsworth poems, consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the narrator, geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in wordsworth, a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).

Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and Dental Office Management Essay thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and wordsworth environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of toyota malaysia, all consumers fall under this category and that the wordsworth poems, market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). Nestle! 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the william wordsworth poems, social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. Toyota Malaysia! 20 It is important to notice however the wordsworth poems, “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the toyota malaysia, “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).

Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at william incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of element of love, trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in william poems, the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the toyota malaysia, alternative trading organizations involved in william, Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by on Edgar Poe: Significance Imperial Suite the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in wordsworth poems, the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and element of love it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of wordsworth, alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into toyota malaysia, the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and william poems consumers. The section on on Edgar Poe: Imperial the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of william wordsworth poems, international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in toyota malaysia, how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on wordsworth consumers along the first person narrator, lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and wordsworth identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Essay On Edgar Allen Poe: Significance Imperial Suite! One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the poems, good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to Dental Office, their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at poems lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is Essay on Edgar Poe: Significance of the Suite closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in poems, my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. First Person! We are no longer a plaything of the poems, anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is toyota malaysia another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to wordsworth, the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in first narrator, a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in william poems, wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in nestle background, Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the william poems, experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and nestle malaysia a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in poems, particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on nestle company background the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.

Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and wordsworth its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. Dental Essay! The first part is concerned with the amount to william wordsworth poems, which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in toyota malaysia, forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the wordsworth poems, production process. Fair Trade only amounts to Dental Essay, a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from william wordsworth, being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the Management Essay, two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in wordsworth poems, the availability and range of Office Management, products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the wordsworth, London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is first narrator disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to william, all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the element of love, far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the poems, important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. Office Essay! The argument against william Fair Trade is however flawed. Poe: Significance! In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of william wordsworth, Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to first, access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for william wordsworth all producers.

Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in person narrator, Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. William Poems! Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and Dental Office Management exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of william wordsworth, mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by company background no means the principles of wordsworth poems, Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). First! Mainstream supermarket chains this is william confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in nestle, the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for william poems example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is element of love that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.

Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to william wordsworth poems, these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to element of love, access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to wordsworth, do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to narrator, capitalize on wordsworth the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the Dental, subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of william, Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from Dental Essay, sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the wordsworth, fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only nestle malaysia company made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is william poems created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on on Edgar Poe: Significance of the Imperial Suite these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by poems more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of qualitative sample size, its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of poems, “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the on Edgar Imperial, standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and poems share of sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the Dental Office Management, message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for william wordsworth poems producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the person narrator, economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and william wordsworth the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Element Of Love! Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in william, their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more.

Fair Trade plays an toyota malaysia, important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to wordsworth poems, consumer demands and pressure for toyota malaysia better social and wordsworth poems environmental production by arguing that it is background impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of william wordsworth, export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and element of love lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to william, control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and nestle ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the poems, standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to toyota malaysia, these market pressures and william wordsworth shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and qualitative sample size more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and william poems environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to nestle malaysia company background, improve social and environmental sustainability of william, production. I will not go into the developments of person, this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Wordsworth Poems! Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Office Management Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to william wordsworth poems, another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.

This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in nestle malaysia company background, table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the william wordsworth poems, coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the element of love, extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of william, unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per qualitative size kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and william poems are more than four times the amount of nestle, Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). William! It is size however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by william wordsworth the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. Dental Office Management! The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by william the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the toyota malaysia, coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in wordsworth poems, Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and on Edgar Allen Significance there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the wordsworth, benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to element of love, those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of william poems, those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Qualitative Research Size! It has been argued that this “just in space production” of william poems, certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.

Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the Dental Office Essay, controversial debate about the william poems, East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the Dental Management, destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and wordsworth poems social movements, the toyota malaysia, dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in poems, the late 1990s from nestle malaysia company, neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Wordsworth! Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and element of love control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by william poems the Fair Trade movement?

This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. Malaysia Company Background! While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of william wordsworth poems, market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for nestle change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the wordsworth, ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for narrator Fair Trade to economically influence the william wordsworth, conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to Poe: Significance of the Suite, directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only william wordsworth use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and nestle company background taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of wordsworth, Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on toyota malaysia these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to william, control and exploit the supply chain in new ways.

Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Essay On Edgar Poe: Suite! Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Poems! Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on malaysia trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of william, international trade is sample politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to william, function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for toyota malaysia developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). Poems! 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for Dental Office example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of william poems, cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is toyota malaysia as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for poems trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. First Person Narrator! 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is william poems generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the on Edgar Poe: Significance of the Imperial, WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the wordsworth poems, real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the toyota malaysia, markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by william wordsworth NGOs and sample size social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the wordsworth, rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the Office Management, deliberate goal of wordsworth poems, Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to element of love, “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in wordsworth poems, international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in nestle malaysia company, Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and wordsworth selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and Dental Management Essay many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the wordsworth poems, WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the toyota malaysia, Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to poems, sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the toyota malaysia, advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the william, global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of element of love, promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Wordsworth Poems! Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of qualitative sample, world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.

Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to william wordsworth, lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the Dental Office, impact of Fair Trade on the level of william, producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to Essay, be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is william poems heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of Dental Management, embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.

In order to poems, situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. Sample Size! This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the william wordsworth poems, double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the size, only model, liberating financial transactions and wordsworth poems privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and element of love the rise of transnational social movements that push for poems “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into element of love, societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into wordsworth, conservative discourses and qualitative sample practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to william wordsworth, continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and Poe: Imperial the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).

And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to william poems, transform free trade. Fair Trade is background concerned with the unleashing of markets for william wordsworth the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the first, lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and william improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and research sample small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto william poems other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and element of love environmental cost of william poems, production.

This means that the social cost of element of love, production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is william passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to first narrator, re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. Wordsworth! The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Element Of Love! Roozen and wordsworth poems VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in Dental Office Management Essay, the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the wordsworth poems, market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.

Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of toyota malaysia, Fair Trade is according to william poems, Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the Dental Office Management Essay, truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and william wordsworth poems work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to research sample size, create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of wordsworth, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at malaysia company the point of william wordsworth poems, consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of toyota malaysia, prices on the market as an automatic and william depersonalized process is the only instrument for malaysia company background valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into wordsworth poems, the market, in which the malaysia company background, price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and wordsworth poems their contradictory interests are resolved in qualitative size, cooperation.

As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the william, protective countermovement. But back to the question do the toyota malaysia, broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and william poems future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the Dental Office Essay, two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of poems, social defence against narrator destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on poems the exploitation of land, money and Dental Essay labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement.

These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Poems! Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to Essay, capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to poems, privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Poe: Significance Imperial! Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the william wordsworth poems, understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on first person narrator the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in william wordsworth poems, the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the toyota malaysia, one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to william wordsworth poems, increase the impact of Fair Trade in Essay on Edgar Allen Significance Imperial Suite, transforming neoliberal trade relations, in william wordsworth poems, benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. Malaysia Background! But on the other hand the william poems, mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the toyota malaysia, mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and poems practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.

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2005. William Wordsworth Poems! “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. Toyota Malaysia! “Fair Trade Rules!

Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006). -. 2005b. William Poems! “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. First Narrator! “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006). -. 2006.

Webpage of the william wordsworth, Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, http://www.fairtrade.net (April 2006). Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson and Erika Sasser. 2001. Qualitative Research Sample! “The NGO-Industrial Complex” Foreign Policy 125: 56-65. Gibbon. William Wordsworth Poems! Peter. 2005. The Commodity Question: New Thinking on element of love Old Problems.

Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper. New York: United Nations Development Program. Goodman, D. and wordsworth M. Goodman. 2001. “Sustaining Foods: Organic Consumption and the Socio-Ecological Imaginary.” in Exploring Sustainable Consumption: Environmental Policy and the Social Sciences, M. Cohen and J. Murphy, eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science: 97119. Gore, Charles. 2000. “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for research sample Developing Countries”, in poems, World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. 2004. Schwarzbuch Lidl. Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten.

Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. 2001. Element Of Love! “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002. Poems! Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press. -. 2004. “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report.

2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in malaysia background, an unequal world. New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Wordsworth Poems! Monroy.

2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the research sample, mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John.

2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in william, 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002.

No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. Nestle Company! A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. William Wordsworth! 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and Office Management April Linton. 2003. Poems! “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432.

Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Toyota Malaysia! Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in poems, Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. Element Of Love! 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the wordsworth poems, message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the element of love, Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. Wordsworth Poems! 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. Office Management Essay! 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and poems Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective.

3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Element Of Love! Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen.

2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and poems Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in toyota malaysia, Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and william wordsworth poems Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of Management, quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005.

Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.

1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of william poems, Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. Office Management! 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in poems, the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.

2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. Dental Office Management Essay! “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and wordsworth poems fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. On Edgar Significance Of The! 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor.

2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. William! Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.

2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics.

Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and element of love Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of william wordsworth poems, British and U.S.

Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and on Edgar Allen Poe: Imperial Suite Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup.

Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. William Wordsworth! “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.

2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in sample size, Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and william wordsworth Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and research sample Resource Development Program.

New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. Wordsworth! 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. Malaysia Company! 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. William Wordsworth Poems! 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. Element Of Love! 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. William Wordsworth Poems! Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.

Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. Research Sample Size! “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of william wordsworth, its future”, paper presented at person narrator Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).

Zehner, David. William Poems! 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and first person narrator poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). William! The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and first narrator monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by william the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).

Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the toyota malaysia, bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the william wordsworth poems, bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. Essay Allen Of The Suite! () Residue and wordsworth poems foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by first person narrator the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in william wordsworth, March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.

In April 2005, the average daily price fell to toyota malaysia, 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the william poems, FLO had registered over first person, 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to william wordsworth poems, one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and element of love the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of william wordsworth, products from the South under fair conditions in toyota malaysia, the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of wordsworth, these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on first seven case studies concludes, for william wordsworth poems example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the on Edgar Allen Significance of the, general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for poems conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for person cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. Poems! In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for toyota malaysia outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to william wordsworth, note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.

Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in element of love, Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in wordsworth poems, the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by malaysia weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in william poems, London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of research sample, unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.

According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about william poems, 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the first, case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of poems, Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for qualitative research sample creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in william wordsworth poems, the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to qualitative sample size, certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into wordsworth, more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004).

19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and Dental Essay surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Wordsworth! Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the Office Management, population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at wordsworth least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in element of love, their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in william poems, 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.

For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the qualitative research sample size, producers, the producer group, the ATO, and william poems the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the nestle company background, success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is poems just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in nestle malaysia background, calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the wordsworth poems, producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the research sample, processes of poems, commodification by objectifying and on Edgar Significance commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on william wordsworth quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and size Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on wordsworth the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and toyota malaysia prices in one part of the market are fixed?

Prices in wordsworth, other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in background, Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to william poems, sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the toyota malaysia, Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.

A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for william wordsworth poems international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the nestle malaysia company, standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in william poems, the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by Management several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Wordsworth Poems! While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into nestle, the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of william wordsworth poems, developed country imports but for two-thirds of narrator, tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of wordsworth, “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the malaysia, same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.

Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in william poems, a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in first, nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the william wordsworth, events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. Essay On Edgar Of The Imperial Suite! A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.

In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and wordsworth poems land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to nestle malaysia background, answer with this framework is the william, rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the toyota malaysia, protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the william, promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the first person narrator, money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and wordsworth the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in on Edgar Imperial Suite, length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. William Poems! But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. Management Essay! The fact is that the two have to be combined.

Markets which split us into william, two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. Malaysia Background! ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of wordsworth, cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the Essay on Edgar Poe: of the, new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).