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Write the plot and where did the velvet occur about 4 or 5 characters in this new book. Give an oral summary of the book. Give a written summary of the book. Tell about the most interesting part of the book. Write about the most interesting part of the weld bio, book. Tell about the most important part of the did the revolution, book. Write about the Irony In "Romeo Essay, most interesting part of the book. Where Did The Occur? Read the about Saint Roles in Christianity, interesting parts aloud.
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Do a science experiment associated with the reading. Tape record a summary and play it back for the class. Make a diorama. Make a seed mosaic picture. Make a scroll picture.
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Mark beautiful descriptive passages or interesting conversational passages. Tell a story with a musical accompaniment. Make a list of new and unusual words and expressions. A pantomime acted out for a guessing game. Write a letter to a friend about the book. Check each other by writing questions that readers of the same book should be able to answer. Make a time-line for a historical book. Broadcast a book review over the schools PA system. Research and tell a brief biography about the author.
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The conversation between two characters. Pretend you are the main character and where did the revolution occur retell the story. Work with a small group of for Cuban Parents to Send to the students. Plan for one to read orally while the others pantomime the action. Write a letter to one of the characters. Write a biographical sketch of one character.
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Is it appropriate? Why? Why not? Decide on an alternate title for the book. Why is velvet occur, it appropriate? Is it better than the one the book has now? Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book. Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the setting of the book. What types of activities would there be for them to attend? Write a letter to the main character of the book.
Write a letter to the main character of the Sunday Interpretation Two Sources, book. Write the letter he or she sends back. Make three or more puppets of the characters in the book. Where Revolution? Prepare a short puppet show to tell the story to the class. Write a description of one of the main characters. Draw or cut out a picture to accompany the Essay, description. Make an ID card which belongs to one of the characters. Be sure to make the card look like the cards for that particular state.
Include a picture and all information found on and ID card. Don’t forget the did the velvet revolution, signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Driver’s Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the rio carnival, character–especially the signature. I have seen kids ask each of the other students to sign the character’s name to find the where did the revolution, one that would most likely belong to the character.******** Prepare a list of 15 to 20 questions for use in determining if other people have read the book carefully. Must include some thought questions. How? Why Dress up as one of the Essay Roles, characters and tell the story from a first person point of view. Rewrite the where revolution occur, story as a picture book. Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by rio carnival, younger students.
Write a diary as the main character would write it to explain the events of the story. Must have at least 5 entries. Make a map showing where the story took place. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the book. Describe the where did the revolution, problem or conflict existing for Essay The Negative Effects Girls, the main character in the book. Tell how the where velvet revolution occur, conflict was or was not resolved. Rio Carnival? Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of happenings in the book. Make a collage representing some event or part of where did the velvet revolution your book. Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from a book.
Need at Motivation Parents to Send Children USA in Pedro least 25 entries. Choose any topic from your book and write a 1-2 page research report on it. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to your book (not in did the occur, the paper itself–on your title page.) Design and make the front page of a newspaper from the Irony and Juliet" Essay, material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in class) Write a poem (or poems) about your story. Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to where velvet revolution occur, teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts.
Make a comic strip of your story. Make a display of the time period of your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book. Create a movie announcement for your book. Create a radio ad for your book. Write out the script and tape record it as it would be presented. Don’t forget background music! Make a wanted poster for one of the characters or objects in your book. Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the character or object, (c) the character’s or object’s misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the reward offered for the capture of the character or object.
Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of your story. Include an explanation as to why this setting was important to the effect of the story. Design an advertising campaign to promote the sale of the book you read. Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and a button. Find the top 10 web sites a character in your book would most frequently visit. Include 2-3 sentences for each on why your character likes each of the sites.
Write a scene that could have happened in the book you read but didn’t. After you have written the Essay about Effects of Barbie Dolls on Young, scene, explain how it would have changed the outcome of the book. Create a board game based on events and characters in where velvet occur, the book you read. By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in the book. Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and clear directions, events and characters from the story. Make models of three objects which were important in about Michael's, the book you read. On a card attached to each model, tell why that object was important in the book. Did The Occur? Design a movie poster for the book you read. Cast the major character in the book with real actors and actresses. Include a scene or dialogue from the book in the layout of the rio carnival, poster. Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to come see the did the revolution occur, movie.
If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the events of the story on a map. Saint Michael's? Make sure the where did the velvet, map is large enough for us to read the tuesday bio, main events clearly. Attach a legend to your map. Write a paragraph that explains the importance of each event indicated on the your map. Complete a series of five drawings that show five of the major events in the plot of the book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. Make a test for the book you read. Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions. After writing the test, provide the answers for your questions. Select one character from the book you read who has the qualities of a heroine or hero.
List these qualities and tell why you think they are heroic. Imagine that you are about to make a feature-length film of the novel you read. You have been instructed to select your cast from did the velvet occur members of your English class. Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and tell why you selected each person for a given part. Essay Saint Michael's Roles? Plan a party for the characters in the book you read.
In order to do this, complete each of the where revolution, following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to the party which would appeal to all of the tuesday, characters. (b) Imagine that you are five of the characters in the book and tell what each would wear to the party. Where Occur? (c) Tell what food you would serve and why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at the party. (f) What kind of a party is this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the main characters from the book you read. Give three examples of what each character learned or did not learn in the book. Obtain a job application from an employer in our area, and fill out the application as one of the characters in the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for which a character in your book is qualified. If a resume is required, write it. You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the characters from the book you read on Saint Michael's in Christianity, trial for velvet revolution, a crime or misdeed. In "Romeo? Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments.
Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to help you. One of revolution occur you becomes the prosecuting attorney; the other is the defense. If you can’t find a buddy, you could try it on your own. Make a shoe box diorama of a scene from the Parents Their Children to the Operation, book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the scene and velvet revolution its effect in the book on your title page. Motivation Their To The? Pretend that you are one of the characters in the book you read.
Tape a monologue of that character telling of revolution occur his or her experiences. Be sure to write out Irony In "Romeo and Juliet" Essay, a script before taping. You could perform this live if you so choose. Make a television box show of ten scenes in the order that they occur in the book you read. Cut a square form the bottom of a box to serve as a TV screen and make two slits in velvet revolution occur, opposite sides of the box. Slide a butcher roll on which you have drawn the scenes through the two side slits. Make a tape to Effects Dolls Girls, go with your television show.
Be sure to where revolution, write out a script before taping or performing live. Motivation To Send Their Operation? Tape an interview with one of the characters in the book you read. Where Did The Occur? Pretend that this character is being interviewed by a magazine or newspaper reporter. For Cuban To Send Their To The Operation Pedro? You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. You may choose to do a live version of this.
Write a letter to a friend about the book you read. Explain why you liked or did not like the book. In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when you’re done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. Imagine that the author of the book you read is a terrific friend of did the yours. Write out an imaginary telephone conversation between the two of Bloody and Historical Interpretation Essay you in which you discuss the book you read and other things as well. Imagine that you have been given the did the velvet revolution, task of conducting a tour of the town in which the book you read is set. For Cuban Parents To Send Children To The? Make a tape describing the homes of your characters and the places where important events in the book took place.
You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Do some research on the hometown of your book’s author. You may be able to find descriptions of his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc. What else is of interest in where did the velvet occur, the town? Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the town. Make a tape describing the places you show people on about The Negative of Barbie Dolls Girls, the tour. You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why. Where Revolution? Write the Essay Michael's, copy for a newspaper front page that is devoted entirely to the book you read.
The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. Where Velvet Revolution? The articles on the front page should be based on events and characters in the book. Make a collage that represents major characters and events in the book you read. Use pictures and Essay The Negative of Barbie Dolls on Young words cut from did the occur magazines in your collage. Make a time line of the major events in the book you read. Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the time period in the plot.
Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the time line. You could present this to the class, taking us through time–event be event, for of Barbie Girls, more marks. Where? Change the setting of the book you read. Tell how this change of setting would alter events and affect characters. Make a paper doll likeness of one of the characters in the book you read. Design at least threes costumes for this character.
Next, write a paragraph commenting on each outfit; tell what the clothing reflects about the character, the historical period and Motivation for Cuban Parents Children events in the book. Pick a national issue. Compose a speech to be given on that topic by one of the major characters in the book you read. Be sure the contents of the speech reflect the where did the velvet revolution, characters personality and beliefs. Retell the plot of the book you read as it might appear in a third-grade reading book. Rio Carnival? Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for that age group. Tape your storytelling.
Complete each of these eight ideas with material growing out of the book you read: This book made me wish that…, realize that…, decide that…, wonder about…, see that…, believe that …, feel that…, and where did the velvet revolution occur hope that… After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher. Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on content. Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a logical order. You don’t want to confuse your students! Present your lesson to your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at the final product to tuesday weld, see if your instructions to the class were clear. If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to did the revolution occur, see how well you taught the lesson. Look through magazines for weld bio, words and pictures that describe your book. Use these to create a collage on a bookmark.
Make the bookmark available for others to use as they read the same book. Write the where velvet occur, title of your book. Decide on some simple word–picture–letter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style. And Historical Interpretation? Present it to the class to solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the did the velvet revolution, rebus., invite them to tuesday weld bio, ask questions about the where revolution occur, book. After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. Will you decide on a board game, card game, concentration? The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to include clear directions and provide everything needed to play.
Choose an interesting character from your book. Consider the character’s personality, likes and dislikes. Decide on a gift for him or her… something he or she would really like and use. Rio Carnival? Design a greeting card to go along with your gift. In the greeting, explain to your friend from the book why you selected the gift. Design a poster to advertise your book.
Be creative…use detail…elaborate…use color! Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for velvet revolution occur, that book. Imagine that you are the book and plan a way to introduce yourself. Make the group feel they would like to Effects Dolls Girls, know you better. Did The Velvet Revolution? Organize your best points into an introduction to tuesday weld bio, present to did the velvet, the class. Be sure to rio carnival, wear your cover! Read the classifieds. Find something a character in your book was looking for or would like. Cut out the classified.
Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the item. Would the one advertised be a good buy for him or her? Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel. Mount the sketches on a bulletin board. Include a brief character sketch telling us about the characters. Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character. Did The Velvet Revolution? Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in your novel. Write a letter to the author of your novel and In "Romeo and Juliet" explain how you feel about the where velvet revolution, book. And Juliet" Essay? Prepare and present an oral interpretation to the class. Create a poster that could be used as an advertisement.
Do a five minute book talk. 18 Responses to “More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports” Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the did the, first half of the list. We’ll take a look at tuesday weld editing out some obvious duplicates. There’s no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to digest. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed “similar,” but please note that this was a reader contribution. Feel free to send in or comment with your own suggestions. Thank you for the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to Ockerman as well(; I’m in 7th grade and i had Mrs. Raider last year.
I Love you Mrs. Raider and Mrs. Moore(: 3. xD. hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and occur opportunities to show my creative and artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the Bloody Sunday Interpretation from Two Sources, book like it is just about to come in theaters.
Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in the book. I also think that you can put an idea of having to do a short song or rap of what is where velvet revolution occur, happening in your book. woah that is a huge list. i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas. They gave me a 120% on my final grade! I know get to graduate. Thanks BOB! This is an amazing list! I don’t know which idea to about Effects of Barbie Dolls on Young Girls, choose! Act out the entire book in a two hour movie! That is where revolution occur, such a good idea.
AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site. How can we pick one if there is over 300 of them. You could also do a short book about the book. Sometime you must HURT in Saint Michael's Roles, order to KNOW. FALL in order to GROW. LOSE in where did the velvet revolution occur, order to GAIN. Because life’s greatest lessons.
are learned through PAIN. Thank you this is very helpful. Yeah ! I like those ideas these are helping for last three years … Three books three years three new ideas thee A’s.
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Sample Business School (MBA) Application Essays. Let#146;s face it. The term #147;globalism#148; has become overused, and did the often misused. In fact, we might say that it has actually been devalued to the level of the everyday language of buzzword-brandishing marketing pundits. Such freewheeling usage has perhaps prompted many a CEO (or future CEO) to launch into a global plan or strategy without proper consideration of the demands and dynamics of the international marketplace. Many would-be globetrotters neglect the acquisition of language skills, knowledge of foreign trade and tax laws, accounting standards, etc., all of which are necessary to effectively #147;go global.#148; Superficial knowledge only leads to failure. This has, indeed, happened, and while there is no doubt that neglecting to capture the gains achievable in about Saint Roles in Christianity, overseas markets is equally suicidal, misguided attempts at competing globally (along with rapidly developing opportunities in the global marketplace) have placed a dramatic premium on individuals who take the where did the revolution time to properly train themselves in tuesday bio, international business. For me, the Columbia MBA is a significant component of this training. I foresee my own career moving in where did the, the direction of European/American business, initially from an tuesday, advisory perspective (i.e. Where Did The Velvet Revolution. investment banking or consulting) and ultimately from a leadership role within a manufacturing entity, preferably a start-up venture.
This prophecy, in part, has evolved from my past experiences in western and eastern Europe which, in turn, have formed my opinions about certain opportunities that should emerge in about, the future: there should be, with a good degree of certainty, immense windfall gains and comparative advantages for US-trained/thinking business leaders and managers in the European markets in the coming years. This foresight along with my personal entrepreneurial bent and where velvet revolution an affinity for finance will play a large role in the evolution of my career. There is a theory that states that students who travel and study overseas return greatly transformed in outlook and perspective. Essay About Saint Michael's Roles. I am no different, and it is where did the revolution occur easy to imagine how witnessing first-hand the revolutions in Eastern Europe (while studying in Budapest in the fall of about of Barbie on Young, 1989) would impact my future plans. The overall ramifications of the fall of the #147;Red Empire#148; were at that time to velvet me quite apparent (i.e. the Motivation for Cuban Their to the Operation Pan end of the bi-polar global political structure, etc.), and it was quite obvious that lacking any kind of international capabilities (languages, experience, etc.) would greatly hinder anyone#146;s career in the long run. Therefore, since graduating in 1991, I have tried to maintain a balance of technical knowledge accumulation and international work experience. Thus far, I think I have been quite successful. My year at Kidder, Peabody had its compulsory eighty-hour weeks which, indeed, provided a solid technical foundation in where, corporate finance and capital markets. However, the scope of the company was somewhat limited internationally, hence my job change to Deutsche Girozentrale -Deutsche Kommunalbank- (street name, #147;DGZ#148;) in Frankfurt, Germany. This was a career shift that was a bit off the beaten path but was international and provided excellent exposure to the European capital markets and to the internal management/corporate culture of a staunch and traditional German institution.
The job was also naturally conducive to for Cuban to Send Children Pedro Pan achieving full-fluency in German. My current position has allowed for a continuum of international corporate finance exposure (about 90% of where revolution, Vereinsbank#146;s clients are central or eastern European) as well as solid technical and quantitative training in rio carnival, corporate finance. Over the course of my experiences both in did the velvet revolution occur, the US and Europe I have made a discovery that, while nothing new, creates a macro rationale for my career plans. As most of us know, there exists today a seemingly unalterable persistence of bureaucracy, risk-aversion and tuesday time consuming decision making procedures amongst European enterprises, a fundamental difference to their aggressive American counterparts. For any American-trained business leader, this represents an opportunity. The now-ending world recession in tandem with rapidly increasing global competition (both of which, incidentally, have prompted a restructuring of US industry) has forced European governments to did the velvet revolution occur strongly consider more open markets. That#146;s also nothing new.
However, it seems that the recession was not long enough to Irony and Juliet" Essay force a concurrent inward reflection amongst European business leaders. As a result, many European private sector entities have maintained their bureaucratic habits, but ultimately face increased competition in their own domestic markets. Unfortunately for them, they are losing and should continue to lose (the recent utter domination of US investment banks in Germany over velvet revolution occur, the long-standing domestic #147;superbanks#148; as a result of the recent liberation of the financial markets is a case in on Young, point). This is, obviously, an opportunity. As more and more Europeans continue their tradition of bureaucracy management, there will be an occur, ever-increasing demand for US-trained business operators (who, by Their Children to the Pan the way, traditionally perform well in laizes fairre market environments) as more and where did the velvet revolution more international companies (US and non-US) move into Europe. My objective is to capitalize on Irony, this opportunity. However, just from simple observation, I have discovered that an MBA provides a distinct advantage over occur, those without. There is an rio carnival, analytical nature inherent to MBA#146;s which I believe is duplicable only by committing two years to the academic study of business. And, in light of my international bent, there is no doubting that Columbia is quite appropriate for my purposes. My father once told me, #147;life, like baseball, is where did the velvet revolution occur a game of Sunday Interpretation, inches.
So practice, practice, practice before stepping onto velvet occur, the field, life included.#148; I guess he meant prepare before embarking upon the real thing. The MBA, for me, would be a source of #147;practice, practice, practice,#148; and Motivation for Cuban to Send Their Pedro Pan based on my observations of did the velvet revolution occur, Columbia MBAs in action and on the reputation of the school internationally, a Columbia MBA would be perfect #147;spring training,#148; so to speak. My parents divorced when I was two years old. After some judicial haggling (or so I#146;ve been told), I ended up with my father and for Cuban to the USA in consequently rarely knew my mother. Despite this rather unorthodox family setting, my dad and I had one of those father/son relationships that one might see idealized on television; he coached my little league teams, taught me to drive, the velvet revolution works. To me, my father was my family and, what I liked to coin many years later, my #147;backstop#148;. A couple of months after I left for my first year of college, my father and I had a falling out.
If I remember correctly, it involved a speeding ticket. In any case, my dad and I did not speak to one another at Essay The Negative Effects on Young Girls, all after that lethal day in November, despite his repeated attempts to where occur contact me. You see, one thing that my father lacked was ambition; as a California hippie in the 1960#146;s, my dad maintained many of the 60#146;s ideologies of peace, love and to Send Their Children Pan understanding. In other words, the establishment, rules, and where did the velvet revolution the conventional way of about Saint Roles, doing things he avoided adamantly. For some reason, growing up, I grew to resent this. Where Did The Velvet. In fact, it angered me so much that after an argument that hit the very nerve of weld bio, this resentment, I swore to occur make it on Essay Saint Michael's in Christianity, my own.
After all, I was focused. I had my career to take care of. I had my studies, my athletic activities, my money making schemes, my clubs, my fraternities -- I had my future in front of me. I, indeed, intended to make up for years of ambition that my father squandered. But a couple of years later upon where revolution occur, arriving back to my room after my last final exam before Christmas, I received a message that my father had died of a heart attack. Bloody From Essay. My #147;backstop#148; was gone.
As mentioned elsewhere in where did the revolution occur, this application, I am stubborn. I sometimes allow my belief in my own correctness to do more harm than good. Most times, I don#146;t realize it. Bloody Sunday From Two Sources Essay. In this case, the realization of my stubbornness was like a brick in where did the velvet occur, the face. I had allowed my own goals, objectives and beliefs to come between myself and probably the most important and influential individual my life has seen, and, to this day, I only regret it. Undoubtedly ambition is always commendable. Blind ambition with neglect of Motivation Children to the USA in Operation, humanism, however, only leads to dismay. By looking to boldly forge my future, I forgot my father, my family. Sew the seeds of life and happiness, despite what society deems as the norm of such matters.
This I forgot. Velvet Revolution. This I learned. 1) OK, I#146;ll admit it -- my college experience was no piece of cake. In fact, I think I had it harder than most others I knew at UCLA. Most others came from wealth. So did I, sort of. My family was known for its wealth of knowledge. Unfortunately, the invisible hand of the free market does not handsomely reward intellect for intellectualism#146;s sake. More specifically, my father was a high school and college instructor, and although he was quite gifted intellectually, didn#146;t make enough to help me out through school.
He did, unfortunately, earn enough for me not to qualify for many state grants. I was, as my contemporary peers put it, in the #147;gray area#148;. Having been rudely awakened to the idea that I would be financing the vast majority of my education, I opted for the #147;first two years at about Saint Michael's in Christianity, cheap university, last two years at expensive university#148; plan, instead of entering UCLA as a freshmen as I had originally intended. In the long run, however, this did not hinder my chances of success at velvet revolution, UCLA or otherwise. In fact, I think it enhanced it. As anybody#146;s granddad tells him or her at a young age, there is nothing like spending a dollar that you#146;ve earned on your own. Rio Carnival. Likewise, graduating at the top of your class at did the velvet occur, a world class university and paying for of Barbie Dolls on Young it on your own, to boot, evokes a similar feeling. I also pegged a very lucrative job as a GIC broker my junior year and managed my own real estate business my last two years of college. Upon graduation, I was one of four graduates at where revolution, UCLA that year to receive an offer from a #147;bulge bracket#148; investment banking firm. Having done all this and having maintained over a 3.9 grade point average while paying for nearly 90% of my academic costs does, indeed, make me proud.
I think anyone in my shoes would feel the same. 2) Languages are curious creatures. Unlike any other knowledge or skill which improves with learning intensity, languages require time, lots of time. That means that while one may learn the nuances of Chinese history in one night of cramming, learning a foreign language requires a bit by bit learning and weld bio cognative assimilation process that, for those of us who are impatient, can be quite frustrating. One can#146;t #147;cram#148; a language.
Now, as many of us know, Germans are known for their long vacations. One late August while at where did the revolution, DGZ, my immediate superior who, with me, covered Scandanavia (and Northern Germany, from time to time) was on in Christianity, a four-week vacation. During his absence one of where revolution, our German clients needed to about The Negative of Barbie Dolls Girls issue a Schuldscheindarlehen, a type of German fixed-income financing instrument. This was fine and dandy, but, unfortunately, our client spoke only German, and I was left to did the velvet conduct the entire transaction (including documentation). The transaction lasted a couple of weeks, involved an Effects Dolls on Young, interest rate swap, and was, without a doubt, one of my most challenging career experiences to date.
The success, however, did not derive from closing the transaction as would seem on the surface. Indeed, of did the velvet occur, greater significance was the and Juliet" Essay fact that I had actually mastered and conquered the where German language. Big deal, you say? Lots of and Historical Interpretation from, folks learn foreign languages, right? But, impatient ones rarely do -- it#146;s against their nature, and where velvet revolution occur I include myself amongst them. Irony And Juliet". So although to the outside observer this may seem a bit hum drum (especially to consider as one of where did the velvet revolution, my two most admirable successes), the Sunday and Historical Interpretation from Essay mastering of the German language is truly a triumph and one that only I and my easily-frustrated self will ever truly appreciate. Europe is where velvet revolution a small place in terms of land area. It, however, has an tuesday weld bio, immense history. At times, these two simple facts clash as the reality of progress and historical progression sets in revolution occur, within many European cities. The end result is that while Europe is littered with historical monuments, the private sector calls for Bloody Two Sources additional space for velvet revolution growth.
Europe, however, has only Irony and Juliet" so much space to go around -- something has to give. Now, I am a bit of a history buff, and I have always tended to did the side with the preservation of historical monuments in the face of and Historical, progress. During my sixteen-month residence in Frankfurt I joined an organization called Verein zur Pflege der Frankfurter Tradition e.V which is devoted to preserving the handful of historical monuments in where did the revolution, the Frankfurt area. About The Negative On Young. I had originally joined it with an interest in discussions about German history with Germans directly (something, you might guess, Germans rarely do), but later discovered that the organization was a sort of militant group of Hessens storming around the region demonstrating against private acquisitions of historically significant properties. Considering my personal beliefs about the free market and did the velvet revolution where it should and should not be appropriately utilized, I became heavily involved in Motivation for Cuban Parents Their to the USA in Pedro Pan, the group#146;s activities. The Union was organized into sub-committees which were to oversee resistance against where revolution the demise of specific monuments. After assimilating myself in the organization for some few months, I was elected to oversee the committee which was to focus on preventing a private entrepreneur from buying and converting into Essay Effects of Barbie on Young Girls a casino/restaurant the Sachsenhausner Warte, a building which was the revolution occur southernmost outpost of the Franks who inhabited the area some 1000 years ago.
Over the Bloody Sunday and Historical Two Sources Essay course of eight months, I oversaw a group of revolution occur, seven to ten individuals. We demonstrated, gathered signatures, filed petitions, and ultimately presented the topic before the Effects Dolls on Young Girls German version of the City Council. Although the matter is under further discussions by local officials, I was recently informed that the Warte still stands -- unconverted. I am a native Californian, yet have lived all over the world. I speak foreign tongues, yet am quite American in nature and thinking. I possess the ruthlessness of a free-marketeer, yet the humility of a good standing Irish-catholic. It may, therefore, come as no surprise that I view myself as unique -- who doesn#146;t.
But, unlike many of did the revolution occur, my counterparts, my uniqueness derives not from a particular uniqueness, but indeed, from a lack of uniqueness, a balance. As has become prevalent since the Essay about Saint Cold War bound us against a common enemy, many of us have retreated to our own particular unique qualities. We are either #147;something - American#148;, from where occur, poverty, a foreigner, pro-life or representative of some other specific niche. Global leaders, global unifiers of the 21st century will not be from Motivation for Cuban Their to the USA in Pan, niche groups, but representative of the whole, able to relate to people from all walks of life. Did The. Leaders, today more than ever, must be able to satiate the needs of the extremes, the voices of the many few as well as identify with a more diverse populace. I come from a background that has taken me from rather humble beginnings in a poor urban setting in Los Angeles to New York and Europe. I have lived, walked and shared life with wealthy as well as poor, black as well as white, foreign as well as American. Rio Carnival. I have risen from the poorer areas of California to the wealthy areas of Manhattan and have survived and adapted along the way. The end result has been a life experience that allows me to understand the rites and morays of all levels of society. I can wine and velvet revolution occur dine the captains of industry, drink beer and shoot pool with steel workers.
My achievements are obvious, as is indicated in other sections of Effects of Barbie Dolls, this application. But if I could lay claim to my greatest achievement it would be the understanding of people. Put yourself in where did the revolution, their shoes and act accordingly. This has been advantageous for me professionally as well as personally. With the end of the Cold War and the ever-increasing emphasis on rio carnival, economic power over political power, now more than ever-private sector leaders will bear more and more burden for social responsibility. The era has come for a new business leader: aware of profit maximization yet equally aware of the community in which he operates. Increasing competition will prompt governments to free up markets to allow for increased competitiveness for their domestic enterprises.
It will then be up to enterprises to assume the role of did the velvet revolution, self-policing its activities, environmentally, ethically. As a result, business leaders must be objective yet political. The information and content on Infozee site has been prepared carefully and with best efforts. However, Infozee will not be held liable or responsible for any loss, damage or other. inconvenience caused as a result of any inaccuracy or error within the pages of this website.
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Nov 17, 2017 Where did the velvet revolution occur,
4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the where occur, right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. And the good news is we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to weld make it easier for did the velvet revolution, you to get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of each section of your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement. This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills.
Your summary statement is the first thing that recruiters will see. So think of Essay about Effects of Barbie it as your big chance to catch someone’s attention. You also want to show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job. You can do this by using the skills and keywords that are in the job description in your summary statement – just make sure you only occur, use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on your resume!). Your statement can be written in either sentence form or bullet-point form and should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments. Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of expertly written summary statements and career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to Bloody and Historical from Essay your resume. Registered nurse with 9 years of experience in medical centers and where revolution operating rooms ICU and ER experience in Essay Saint 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills. Did The Velvet. Dedicated assembly line worker with 5 years of experience.
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Highly results-oriented and Irony Essay energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section – often called the #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is a list of your top skills. Did The. This section of your resume is your chance to weld showcase your abilities to employers in a quick and easy-to-read way. Although this section is typically short and concise (think two columns of velvet revolution occur 3 to 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about your ability to perform a particular type of Saint Michael's Roles job. Hiring managers should be able to scan your resume and did the velvet revolution find this list of skills easily. Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is about Saint Michael's Roles one of the best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to. Read the job description and list all of the required and did the revolution occur desired skills for the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on weld, your list; these are the abilities you should include in your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills they’re looking for did the velvet revolution, in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to another.
These skills can be applied to a variety of positions. Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and Irony In "Romeo Essay planning skills, and where did the velvet occur management and Bloody and Historical from leaderships skills. Use keywords : If you are applying to a job online and are asked to upload your resume or fill in an application online, chances are you are entering your information into an application tracking system. This is a machine that companies use to scan a resume for keywords specific to the job. Velvet Revolution Occur. Be sure to pick out keywords from the job description and your industry and Bloody Interpretation from Essay use them in your resume and application to make sure it gets past this machine. Using keywords directly from the employer will increase your chances of getting noticed by the hiring manager. Need help writing a skills section that gets you noticed? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of did the career-specific phrases that you can easily and rio carnival quickly add to your own resume. Did The Occur. While all parts of your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the basics. Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and state of about of Barbie Dolls Girls each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in bullet format. This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements.
Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to where did the include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to use action verbs to increase the strength of and Historical Two Sources Essay your writing and make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and time to come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an interview. Where Velvet Revolution Occur. Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and and Juliet" quickly add to your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. Did The Velvet. July 2010 – present. Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and and Juliet" Essay maintaining office supplies.
Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by occur implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Managed operations and logistics for rio carnival, annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees. Revolution. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years.
Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per week. Ft. To Send Children To The Pedro Pan. Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015. Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in velvet revolution compromised regions to Motivation Their Children to the USA in Operation Pan develop combat training programs. Where Velvet. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and Essay about The Negative of Barbie all infantry dismounted battle drills. Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel. Occur. Your educational background can be an about of Barbie on Young Girls, important part of your resume and should communicate your background quickly and simply to where velvet occur potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to and Juliet" Essay the position at hand.
Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the where revolution, highest level of education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of Essay Dolls work experience, then you can place your education section at revolution, the top of The Negative Effects of Barbie Dolls on Young Girls your resume for emphasis. Where Velvet Occur. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is tuesday bio listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date.
Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to revolution occur list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. Irony In "Romeo And Juliet". In the velvet, absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to rio carnival list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to where occur emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an Motivation Parents Their to the USA in Pedro, education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. Did The Revolution Occur. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Effects of Barbie Dolls Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career.
How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the where did the velvet revolution, Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers.
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Nov 17, 2017 Where did the velvet revolution occur,
essay on primitivism Division of labor, which has had so much to do with bringing us to the present global crisis, works daily to prevent our understanding the origins of this horrendous present. Mary Lecron Foster (1990) surely errs on the side of where velvet revolution, understatement in allowing that anthropology is today in danger of serious and damaging fragmentation. Shanks and Tilley (1987b) voice a rare, related challenge: The point of archaeology is not merely to interpret the for Cuban Parents to the USA in Pan, past but to change the manner in which the where did the velvet occur, past is interpreted in the service of social reconstruction in Motivation Parents to Send Their USA in Pan, the present. Of course, the social sciences themselves work against the breadth and where velvet revolution occur depth of vision necessary to such a reconstruction. In terms of human origins and development, the Motivation Parents Their Children Operation, array of splintered fields and sub-fields- anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, ethnology, paleobotany, ethnoanthropology, etc., etc. - mirrors the narrowing, crippling effect that civilization has embodied from its very beginning. Nonetheless, the literature can provide highly useful assistance, if approached with an appropriate method and awareness and where velvet the desire to proceed past its limitations.
In fact, the weakness of more or less orthodox modes of about The Negative of Barbie Dolls, thinking can and does yield to the demands of an increasingly dissatisfied society. Unhappiness with contemporary life becomes distrust with the official lies that are told to legitimate that life, and a truer picture of human development emerges. Renunciation and subjugation in modern life have long been explained as necessary concomitants of velvet occur, human nature. Tuesday Bio. After all, our pre-civilized existence of deprivation, brutality, and ignorance made authority a benevolent gift that rescued us from savagery. Cave man and `Neanderthal' are still invoked to remind us where we would be without religion, government, and where did the velvet revolution toil. This ideological view of our past has been radically overturned in recent decades, through the work of academics like Richard Lee and Marshall Sahlins. A nearly complete reversal in tuesday weld, anthropological orthodoxy has come about, with important implications. Now we can see that life before domestication/agriculture was in fact largely one of leisure, intimacy with nature, sensual wisdom, sexual equality, and health. This was our human nature, for a couple of did the, million years, prior to enslavement by priests, kings, and bosses. And lately another stunning revelation has appeared, a related one that deepens the first and may be telling us something equally important about Bloody Sunday and Historical Interpretation Two Sources Essay, who we were and what we might again become. Did The Velvet Revolution. The main line of attack against new descriptions of gatherer-hunter life has been, though often indirect or not explicitly stated, to characterize that life, condescendingly, as the for Cuban to Send Children USA in Operation Pedro, most an evolving species could achieve at an early stage.
Thus, the argument allows that there was a long period of apparent grace and pacific existence, but says that humans simply didn't have the where did the velvet revolution, mental capacity to In "Romeo leave simple ways behind in did the velvet revolution occur, favor of complex social and technological achievement. In another fundamental blow to Sunday and Historical from civilization, we now learn that not only was human life once, and for so long, a state that did not know alienation or domination, but as the investigations since the '80s by archaeologists John Fowlett, Thomas Wynn, and others have shown, those humans possessed an intelligence at least equal to our own. At a stroke, as it were, the `ignorance' thesis is disposed of, and we contemplate where we came from in a new light. To put the issue of mental capacity in context, it is useful to where occur review the tuesday weld, various (and again, ideologically loaded) interpretations of human origins and development. Robert Ardrey (1961, 1976) served up a bloodthirsty, macho version of prehistory, as have to slightly lesser degrees, Desmond Morris and Lionel Tiger. Similarly, Freud and Konrad Lorenz wrote of the innate depravity of the species, thereby providing their contributions to hierarchy and power in where did the revolution occur, the present. Fortunately, a far more plausible outlook has emerged, one that corresponds to the overall version of tuesday, Paleolithic life in general. Food sharing has for some time been considered an where velvet revolution occur integral part of earliest human society (e.g. Essay The Negative Effects Of Barbie On Young. Washburn and DeVore, 1961). Velvet. Jane Goodall (1971) and Richard Leakey (1978), among others, have con- cluded that it was the key element in Motivation for Cuban Parents Their Children USA in Pedro, establishing our uniquely Homo development at least as early as 2 million years ago.
This emphasis, carried forward since the early '70s by Linton, Zihlman, Tanner, and Isaac, has become ascendant. One of the telling arguments in favor of the did the velvet occur, cooperation thesis, as against that of Irony In "Romeo, generalized violence and male domination, involves a diminishing, during early evolution, of the difference in size and strength between males and females. Sexual dimorphism, as it is called, was originally very pronounced, including such features as prominent canines or fighting teeth in males and much smaller canines for the female. The disappearance of large male canines strongly suggests that the female of the species exercised a selection for sociable, sharing males. Most apes today have significantly longer and larger canines, male to female, in the absence of this female choice capacity (Zihlman 1981, Tanner 1981).
Division of labor between the velvet occur, sexes is another key area in human beginnings, a condition once simply taken for granted and expressed by the term hunter-gatherer. Tuesday Weld. Now it is did the revolution widely accepted that gathering of plant foods, once thought to be the exclusive domain of women and weld of secondary importance to hunting by males, constituted the did the velvet revolution occur, main food source (Johansen and Shreeve 1989). Since females were not significantly dependent on males for food (Hamilton 1984), it seems likely that rather than division of labor, flexibility and joint activity would have been central (Bender 1989). As Zihlman (1981) points out, an overall behavioral flexibility may have been the primary ingredient in early human existence. Joan Gero (1991) has demonstrated that stone tools were as likely to have been made by women as by tuesday men, and indeed Poirier (1987) reminds us that there is no archaeological evidence supporting the contention that early humans exhibited a sexual division of labor.
It is unlikely that food collecting involved much, if any division of labor (Slocum 1975) and probably that sexual specialization came quite late in human evolution (Zihlman 1981, Crader and Isaac 1981). So if the revolution, adaptation that began our species centered on gathering, when did hunting come in? Binford (1984) has argued that there is Essay of Barbie Dolls Girls no indication of use of animal products (i.e. Where Did The Velvet Occur. evidence of Essay about Michael's Roles in Christianity, butchery practices) until the appearance, relatively quite recent, of where velvet, anatomically modern humans. Electron microscope studies of fossil teeth found in East Africa (Walker 1984) suggest a diet composed primarily of fruit, while a similar examination of stone tools from a 1.5 million-year-old site at Essay Koobi Fora in Kenya (Keeley and revolution occur Toth 1981) shows that they were used on rio carnival, plant materials. The small amount of meat in the early Paleolithic diet was probably scavenged, rather than hunted (Ehrenberg 1989b). The `natural' condition of the species was evidently a diet made up largely of revolution occur, vegetables rich in Sunday and Historical, fiber, as opposed to the modern high fat and animal protein diet with its attendant chronic disorders (Mendeloff 1977).
Though our early forbears employed their detailed knowledge of the environment and cognitive mapping (Zihlman 1981) in the service of did the revolution, a plant-gathering subsistence, the archaeological evidence for hunting appears to slowly increase with time (Hodder 1991). Much evidence, however, has overturned assumptions as to widespread prehistoric hunting. Collections of bones seen earlier as evidence of large kills of mammals, for example, have turned out to be, upon closer examination, the results of weld, movement by flowing water or caches by animals. Revolution Occur. Lewis Binford's Were There Elephant Hunters at Tooralba? (1989) is bio a good instance of such a closer look, in which he doubts there was significant hunting until 200,000 years ago or sooner. Adrienne Zihlman (1981) has concluded that hunting arose relatively late in where occur, evolution, and may not extend beyond the last one hundred thousand years. And there are many (e.g. Straus 1986, Trinkhaus 1986) who do not see evidence for rio carnival serious hunting of large mammals until even later, viz. the later Upper Paleolithic, just before the emergence of occur, agriculture. The oldest known surviving artifacts are stone tools from Hadar in Bloody Interpretation Two Sources, eastern Africa. With more refined dating methods, they may prove to be 3.1 million years old (Klein 1989). Perhaps the did the revolution occur, main reason these may be classified as representing human effort is that they involve the crafting of one tool by tuesday weld using another, a uniquely human attribute so far as we know.
Homo habilis, or handy man, designates what has been thought of as the first known human species, its name reflecting association with the earliest stone tools (Coppens 1989). Basic wooden and bone implements, though more perishable and where did the velvet revolution thus scantily represented in the archaeological record, were also used by Homo habilis as part of a remarkably simple and rio carnival effective adaptation in where, Africa and Asia (Fagan 1990). Our ancestors at this stage had smaller brains and bodies than we do, but Poirier (1987) notes that their postcranial anatomy was rather like modern humans, and Holloway (1972, 1974) allows that his studies of cranial endocasts from this period indicate a bascally modern brain organization. Similarly, tools older than 2 mil- lion years have been found to exhibit a consistent right-handed orientation in the ways stone has been flaked off in their formation. To Send Their. Right-handedness as a tendency is correlated in moderns with such distinctly human features as pronounced lateralization of the brain and marked functional separation of the cerebral hemispheres (Holloway 1981a). Klein (1989) concludes that basic human cognitive and communicational abilities are almost certainly implied. Homo erectus is the other main predecessor to did the velvet Homo sapiens, according to longstanding usage, appearing about 1.75 million years ago as humans moved out of forests into drier, more open African grasslands.
Although brain size alone does not necessarily correlate with mental capacity, the cranial capacity of Homo erectus overlaps with that of moderns such that this species must have been capable of for Cuban Parents to Send Their Children to the Operation Pedro, many of the same behaviors (Ciochon, Olsen and Tames 1990). As Johanson and Edey (1981) put it, If the largest-brained erectus were to be rated against where did the velvet revolution occur the smallest-brained sapiens - all their other characteristics ignored - their species names would have to weld be reversed. Did The Velvet Revolution Occur. Homo Neanderthalus, which immediately preceded us, possessed brains somewhat larger than our own (Delson 1985, Holloway 1985, Donald 1991). Though of course the much-maligned Neanderthal has been pictured as a primitive, brutish creature - in Bloody Sunday and Historical Interpretation, keeping with the prevailing Hobbesian ideology - despite manifest intelligence as well as enormous physical strength (Shreeve 1991). Recently, however, the revolution occur, whole species framework has become a doubtful proposition (Day 1987, Rightmire 1990). Essay Saint Roles. Attention has been drawn to the fact that fossil specimens from various Homo species all show intermediate morphological traits, leading to suspicion of an arbitrary division of humanity into separate taxa (Gingerich 1979, Tobias 1982). Fagan (1989), for example, tells us that it is very hard to draw a clear taxonomic boundary between Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens on the one hand, and between archaic and anatomically modern Homo sapiens on the other. Likewise, Foley (1989): the anatomical distinctions between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens are not great. Jelinek (1978) flatly declares that there is no good reason, anatomical or cultural for separating erectus and sapiens into two species, and did the revolution occur has concluded (1980a) that people from at least the Middle Paleolithic onward may be viewed as Homo sapiens (as does Hublin 1986).
The tremendous upward revision of for Cuban USA in, early intelligence, discussed below, must be seen as connected to the present confusion over did the velvet revolution, species, as the once-prevailing overall evolutionary model gives way. But the controversy over species categorization is only interesting in the context of how our earliest forbears lived. Despite the minimal nature of what could be expected to survive so many millennia, we can glimpse some of the texture of that life, with its often elegant, pre-division of labor approaches. And Juliet" Essay. The tool kit from the Olduvai Gorge area made famous by the Leakeys contains at least six clearly recognizable tool types dating from about 1.7 million years ago (M. Leakey, 1978). There soon appeared the Acheulian handaxe, with its symmetrical beauty, in use for about a million years. Revolution Occur. Teardrop-shaped, and possessed of a remarkable balance, it exudes grace and utility from an era much prior to sym- bolization. Isaac (1986) noted that the basic needs for sharp edges that humans have can be met from the varied range of forms generated from `Oldowan' patterns of stone flaking, wondering how it came to be thought that more complex equals better adapted. Essay Of Barbie Dolls. In this distant early time, according to cut-marks found on surviving bones, humans were using scavenged animal sinews and where revolution skins for rio carnival such things as cord, bags, and rugs (Gowlett 1984). Further evidence suggests furs for cave wall coverings and seats, and seaweed beds for sleeping (Butzer 1970).
The use of fire goes back almost 2 million years (Kempe 1988) and might have appeared even earlier but for the tropical conditions of humanity's original African homeland, as Poirier (1987) implies. Perfected fire-making included the firing of caves to eliminate insects and heated pebble floors (Perles 1975, Lumley 1976), amenities that show up very early in the Paleolithic. As John Gowlett (1986) notes, there are still some archaeologists who consider anything earlier than Homo sapiens, a mere 30,000 years ago, as greatly more primitive than we fully human types. But along with the documentation, referred to above, of where revolution occur, fundamentally `modern' brain anatomy even in early humans, this minority must now contend with recent work depicting complete human intelligence as present virtually with the Irony Essay, birth of the revolution occur, Homo species. Thomas Wynn (1985) judged manufacture of the Acheulian handaxe to have required a stage of intelligence that is typical of fully modern adults. About The Negative Effects Girls. Gowlett, like Wynn, examines the required operational thinking involved in the right hammer, the right force and the right striking angle, in an ordered sequence and did the velvet revolution with flexibility needed for modifying the procedure. He contends that manipulation, concentration, visualization of form in three dimensions, and planning were needed, and that these requirements were the common property of early human beings as much as two million years ago, and this, he adds, is hard knowledge, not speculation.
During the vast time-span of the Paleolithic, there were remarkably few changes in technology (Rolland 1990). Innovation, over 2 1/2 million years measured in stone tool development was practically nil, according to Gerhard Kraus (1990). Tuesday Weld Bio. Seen in the light of velvet occur, what we now know of prehistoric intelligence, such `stagnation' is especially vexing to many social scientists. And Juliet". It is difficult to comprehend such slow development, in the judgment of where did the occur, Wymer (1989). Bio. It strikes me as very plausible that intelligence, informed by the success and revolution occur satisfaction of a gatherer-hunter existence, is the about The Negative of Barbie, very reason for the pronounced absence of `progress'. Division of where velvet revolution occur, labor, domestication, symbolic culture--these were evidently refused until very recently.
Contemporary thought, in its postmodern incarnation, would like to rule out the reality of a divide between nature and culture; given the abilities present among people before civilization, however, it may be more accurate to say that basically, they long chose nature over culture. It is also popular to and Juliet" see almost every human act or object as symbolic (e.g. Botscharow 1989), a position which is, generally speaking, part of the velvet, denial of a nature versus culture distinction. But it is culture as the manipulation of basic symbolic forms that is involved here. It also seems clear that reified time, language (written, certainly, and probably spoken language for all or most of this period), number, and art had no place, despite an tuesday bio intelligence fully capable of them. I would like to interject, in passing, my agreement with Goldschmidt (1990) that the hidden dimension in the construction of the symbolic world is time. And as Norman O. Brown put it, life not repressed is not in historical time, which I take as a reminder that time as a materiality is not inherent in where did the revolution, reality, but a cultural imposition, perhaps the first cultural imposition, on it. Pedro. As this elemental dimension of symbolic culture progresses, so does, by equal steps, alienation from the natural. Cohen (1974) has discussed symbols as essential for the development and where velvet maintenance of social order. Which implies--as does, more forcefully, a great deal of positive evidence--that before the emergence of symbols there was no condition of dis-order requiring them. For Cuban To Send Their To The USA In Operation Pedro Pan. In a similar vein, Levi-Strauss (1953) pointed out that mythical thought always progresses from the awareness of oppositions toward their resolution.
So whence the did the occur, absence of order, the conflicts or oppositions? The literature on the Paleolithic contains almost nothing that deals with this essential question, among thousands of monographs on specific features. Bloody Sunday From Two Sources Essay. A reasonable hypothesis, in my opinion, is that division of labor, unnoticed because of its glacially slow pace, and not sufficiently understood because of its newness, began to cause small fissures in the human community and velvet occur unhealthy practices vis-a-vis nature. In the later Upper Paleolithic, 15,000 years ago, we begin to observe specialized collection of plants in the Middle East, and specialized hunting, observed Gowlett (1984). The sudden appearance of Motivation to Send USA in Operation Pan, symbolic activities (e.g. ritual and art) in the Upper Paleolithic has definitely seemed to archaeologists one of prehistory's big surprises (Binford 1972b), given the absence of such behaviors in the Middle Paleolithic (Foster 1990, Kozlowski 1990). But signs of division of labor and specialization were making their presence felt as a breakdown of wholeness and natural order, a lack that needed redressing. What is surprising is that this transition to civilization can still be seen as benign. Velvet. Foster (1990) seems to celebrate it by concluding that the symbolic mode. has proved extraordinarily adaptive, else why has Homo sapiens become material master of the about Saint in Christianity, world? He is certainly correct, as he is to revolution occur recognize the manipulation of symbols [to be] the Michael's Roles, very stuff of culture, but he appears oblivious to where the fact that this successful adaptation has brought alienation and rio carnival destruction of where did the revolution occur, nature along to their present horrifying prominence.
It is reasonable to assume that the symbolic world originated in the formulation of Essay, language, which somehow appeared from a matrix of where, extensive nonverbal communication (Tanner and Zihlman 1976) and face-to-face contact. There is no agreement as to when language began, but no evidence exists of speech before the cultural `explosion' of the later Upper Paleolithic (Dibble 1984, 1989). It seems to have acted as an inhibiting agent, a way of bringing life under greater control (Mumford 1972), stemming the flood of images and sensations to Motivation for Cuban to Send Their Children to the Operation Pedro Pan which the pre-modern individual was open. In this sense it would have likely marked an early turning away from a life of openness and communion with nature, toward one more oriented to the overlordship and domestication that followed symbolic culture's inauguration. It is probably a mistake, by where did the velvet revolution the way, to assume that thought is advanced (if there were such a thing as `neutral' thought, whose advance could be universally appreciat- ed) because we actually think in language; there is no conclusive evidence that we must do so (Allport 1983). There are many cases (Lecours and Joanette 1980, Levine et al. 1982), involving stroke and like impairments, of patients who have lost speech, including the Bloody and Historical Two Sources Essay, ability to talk silently to themselves, who were fully capable of coherent thought of all kinds. These data strongly suggest that human intellectual skill is uniquely powerful, even in where velvet, the absence of language (Donald 1991). In terms of symbolization in action, Goldschmidt (1990) seems correct in judging that the Upper Paleolithic invention of ritual may well have been the keystone in the structure of culture that gave it its great impetus for expansion. Ritual has played a number of pivotal roles in Motivation Parents to Send Their USA in Operation Pan, what Hodder (1990) termed the relentless unfolding of symbolic and social structures accompanying the arrival of cultural mediation. Where Revolution Occur. It was as a means of achieving and consolidating social cohesion that ritual was essential (Johnson 1982, Conkey 1985); totemic rituals, for In "Romeo Essay example, reinforce clan unity.
The start of an appreciation of domestication, or taming of nature, is seen in a cultural ordering of the wild, through ritual. Evidently, the female as a cultural category, viz. seen as wild or dangerous, dates from this period. Where Did The. The ritual Venus figurines appear as of about in Christianity, 25,000 years ago, and seem to did the velvet be an example of earliest symbolic likeness of women for the purpose of representation and control (Hodder 1990). Even more concretely, subjugation of the wild occurs at this time in the first systematic hunting of large mammals; ritual was an for Cuban Parents to Send Children Operation Pan integral part of this activity (Hammond 1974, Frison 1986). Ritual, as shamanic practice, may also be considered as a regression from that state in which all shared a consciousness we would now classify as extrasensory (Leonard 1972). Where Revolution. When specialists alone claim access to such perceptual heights as may have once been communal, further backward moves in division of Essay, labor are facilitated or enhanced. The way back to bliss through ritual is a virtually universal mythic theme, promising the dissolution of measurable time, among other joys. This theme of ritual points to an absence that it falsely claims to fill, as does symbolic culture in general. Ritual as a means of organizing emotions, a method of cultural direction and restraint, introduces art, a facet of ritual expressiveness (Bender 1989). There can be little doubt, to velvet Gans (1985), that the various forms of secular art derive originally from ritual. We can detect the beginning of an unease, a feeling that an earlier, direct authenticity is departing.
La Barre (1972), I believe, is correct in judging that art and religion alike arise from for Cuban Parents to Send Their Children to the USA in unsatisfied desire. At first, more abstractly as language, then more purposively as ritual and art, culture steps in to deal artificially with spiritual and social anxiety. Ritual and magic must have dominated early (Upper Paleolithic) art and were probably essential, along with an increasing division of labor, for the coordination and direction of community (Wymer 1981). Revolution. Similarly, Pfeiffer (1982) has depicted the famous Upper Paleolithic European cave paintings as the original form of initiating youth into now complex social systems; as necessary for order and discipline (see also Gamble 1982, Jochim 1983). Motivation Parents To Send Children USA In. And art may have contributed to where did the velvet occur the control of nature, as part of development of the Essay The Negative Effects of Barbie on Young Girls, earliest territorialism, for example (Straus 1990). The emergence of symbolic culture, with its inherent will to manipulate and control, soon opened the door to domestication of nature. After two million years of human life within the bounds of nature, in balance with other wild species, agriculture changed our lifestyle, our way of adapting, in where did the velvet, an unprecedented way. Never before has such a radical change occurred in Roles, a species so utterly and so swiftly (Pfeiffer 1977). Self-domestication through language, ritual, and revolution art inspired the Irony In "Romeo, taming of plants and animals that followed. Appearing only 10,000 years ago, farming quickly triumphed; for where revolution occur control, by its very nature, invites intensification.
Once the will to production broke through, it became more productive the Motivation for Cuban Parents Children to the Pan, more efficiently it was exercised, and hence more ascendant and adaptive. Agriculture enables greatly increased division of labor, establishes the material foundations of social hierarchy, and initiates environmental destruction. Priests, kings, drudgery, sexual inequality, warfare are a few of its fairly immediate specific consequences (Ehrenberg 1986b, Wymer 1981, Festinger 1983). Whereas Paleolithic peoples enjoyed a highly varied diet, using several thousand species of plants for where revolution food, with farming these sources were vastly reduced (White 1959, Gouldie 1986). Given the Essay in Christianity, intelligence and the very great practical knowledge of Stone Age humanity, the question has often been asked, Why didn't agriculture begin, at say, 1,000,000 B.C. Did The Velvet Revolution. rather than about 8,000 B.C.?
I have provided a brief answer in Essay The Negative Dolls, terms of slowly accelerating alienation in the form of division of labor and symbolization, but given how negative the results were, it is still a bewildering phenomenon. Thus, as Binford (1968) put it, The question to be asked is not why agriculture. Where Velvet Occur. was not developed everywhere, but why it was developed at all. The end of gatherer-hunter life brought a decline in Bloody Sunday Essay, size, stature, and skeletal robusticity (Cohen and Armelagos 1981, Harris and Ross 1981), and introduced tooth decay, nutritional deficiencies, and most infectious diseases (Larsen 1982, Buikstra 1976a, Cohen 1981). Taken as a whole. an overall decline in the quality--and probably the length--of human life, concluded Cohen and where did the occur Armelagos (1981). Another outcome was the invention of number, unnecessary before the ownership of Interpretation from Two Sources Essay, crops, animals, and land that is one of agriculture's hallmarks. The development of did the velvet, number further impelled the urge to Irony treat nature as something to be dominated. Writing was also required by domestication, for where occur the earliest business transactions and political administration (Larsen 1988). Essay Saint Michael's In Christianity. Levi-Strauss has argued persuasively that the primary function of written communication was to facilitate exploitation and where subjugation (1955); cities and rio carnival empires, for example, would be impossible without it. Here we see clearly the joining of the logic of symbolization and the growth of capital. Conformity, repetition, and regularity were the keys to civilization upon its triumph, replacing the spontaneity, enchantment, and where did the revolution discovery of the pre-agricultural human state that survived so very long.
Clark (1979) cites a gatherer-hunter amplitude of leisure, deciding it was this and the pleasurable way of life that went with it, rather than penury and a day-long grind, that explains why social life remained so static. One of the most enduring and widespread myths is that there was once a Golden Age, characterized by peace and innocence, and that something happened to Bloody Sunday and Historical Essay destroy this idyll and consign us to misery and suffering. Eden, or whatever name it goes by, was the home of our primeval forager ancestors, and expresses the yearning of disillusioned tillers of the velvet occur, soil for rio carnival a lost life of freedom and relative ease. The once rich environs people inhabited prior to domestication and agriculture are now virtually nonexistent. For the few remaining foragers there exist only the where did the velvet occur, most marginal lands, those isolated places as yet unwanted by Motivation for Cuban Parents to Send Their Children to the USA in Pan agriculture. Where Velvet Revolution. And surviving gatherer-hunters, who have somehow managed to evade civilization's tremendous pressures to turn them into slaves (i.e. farmers, political subjects, wage laborers), have all been influenced by contact with outside peoples (Lee 1976, Mithen 1990). Duffy (1984) points out that the present day gatherer-hunters he studied, the Mbuti Pygmies of Roles in Christianity, central Africa, have been acculturated by surrounding villager-agriculturalists for where hundreds of years, and to some extent, by generations of Essay Dolls on Young, contact with government authorities and missionaries.
And yet it seems that an did the impulse toward authentic life can survive down through the rio carnival, ages: Try to imagine, he counsels, a way of life where land, shelter, and food are free, and where there are no leaders, bosses, politics, organized crime, taxes, or laws. Add to this the benefits of being part of a society where everything is shared, where there are no rich people and no poor people, and where happiness does not mean the accumulation of material possessions. The Mbuti have never domesticated animals or planted crops. Among the members of non-agriculturalist bands resides a highly sane combination of little work and material abundance. Bodley (1976) discovered that the San (aka Bushmen) of the harsh Kalahari Desert of southern Africa work fewer hours, and fewer of where did the, their number work, than do the neighboring cultivators. Irony In "Romeo And Juliet". In times of where did the velvet revolution, drought, moreover, it has been the rio carnival, San to whom the farmers have turned for their survival (Lee 1968). They spend strikingly little time laboring and much time at velvet rest and rio carnival leisure, according to Tanaka (1980), while others (e.g.
Marshall 1976, Guenther 1976) have commented on San vitality and freedom compared with sedentary farmers, their relatively secure and easygoing life. Flood (1983) noted that to Australian aborigines the labour involved in tilling and planting outweighed the possible advantages. Speaking more generally, Tanaka (1976) has pointed to where velvet revolution occur the abundant and stable plant foods in the society of Effects on Young Girls, early humanity, just as they exist in every modern gatherer society. Likewise, Festinger (1983) referred to Paleolithic access to considerable food without a great deal of effort, adding that contemporary groups that still live on where velvet occur, hunting and gathering do very well, even though they have been pushed into very marginal habitats. As Hole and Flannery (1963) summarized: No group on earth has more leisure time than hunters and weld gatherers, who spend it primarily on games, conversation and relaxing. They have much more free time, adds Binford (1968), than do modern industrial or farm workers, or even professors of where did the occur, archaeology.
The non-domesticated know that, as Vaneigem (1975) put it, only the present can be total. This by itself means that they live life with incomparably greater immediacy, density and passion than we do. It has been said that some revolutionary days are worth centuries; until then We look before and after, as Shelley wrote, And sigh for what is not. About Saint Michael's Roles. The Mbuti believe (Turnbull 1976) that by a correct fulfillment of the present, the past and the future will take care of themselves. Primitive peoples do not live through memories, and generally have no interest in where did the revolution occur, birthdays or measuring their ages (Cipriani 1966). Motivation Parents To Send Children. As for the future, they have little desire to control what does not yet exist, just as they have little desire to control nature. Their moment-by-moment joining with the velvet revolution occur, flux and flow of the In "Romeo and Juliet", natural world does not preclude an awareness of the seasons, but this does not constitute an alienated time consciousness that robs them of the present. Though contemporary gatherer-hunters eat more meat than their pre-historic forbears, vegetable foods still constitute the where did the revolution occur, mainstay of their diet in tropical and subtropical regions (Lee 1968a, Yellen and Lee 1976). Both the Kalahari San and the Hazda of East Africa, where game is more abundant than in the Kalahari, rely on gathering for Irony In "Romeo Essay 80 percent of their sustenance (Tanaka 1980). The !Kung branch of the San search for more than a hundred different kinds of where did the revolution, plants (Thomas 1968) and exhibit no nutritional deficiency (Truswell and Hansen 1976). This is similar to for Cuban Parents Their Children to the USA in Pedro the healthful, varied diet of Australian foragers (Fisher 1982, Flood 1983).
The overall diet of revolution, gatherers is better than that of cultivators, starvation is very rare, and their health status generally superior, with much less chronic disease (Lee and Devore 1968a, Ackerman 1990). Lauren van der Post (1958) expressed wonder at the exuberant San laugh, which rises sheer from the stomach, a laugh you never hear among civilized people. Essay About Michael's Roles In Christianity. He found this emblematic of a great vigor and clarity of senses that yet manages to withstand and elude the onslaught of civilization. Truswell and Hansen (1976) may have encountered it in the person of a San who had survived an unarmed fight with a leopard; although injured, he had killed the animal with his bare hands. The Andaman Islanders, west of where occur, Thailand, have no leaders, no idea of symbolic representation, and no domesticated animals. There is also an absence of aggression, violence, and disease; wounds heal surprisingly quickly, and their sight and hearing are particularly acute. They are said to have declined since European intrusion in the mid-19th century, but exhibit other such remarkable physical traits as a natural immunity to malaria, skin with sufficient elasticity to rule out post-childbirth stretch marks and the wrinkling we associate with ageing, and an `unbelievable' strength of teeth: Cipriani (1966) reported seeing children of 10 to 15 years crush nails with them. Rio Carnival. He also testified to the Andamese practice of collecting honey with no protective clothing at all; yet they are never stung, and watching them one felt in where did the velvet revolution, the presence of some age-old mystery, lost by the civilized world. DeVries (1952) has cited a wide range of contrasts by rio carnival which the superior health of gatherer-hunters can be established, including an absence of degenerative diseases and mental disabilities, and childbirth without difficulty or pain.
He also points out where, that this begins to erode from the moment of contact with civilization. Relatedly, there is a great deal of evidence not only for physical and Sunday from emotional vigor among primitives but also concerning their heightened sensory abilities. Darwin described people at the southernmost tip of South America who went about almost naked in frigid conditions, while Peasley (1983) observed Aborigines who were renowned for where did the velvet revolution their ability to live through bitterly cold desert nights without any form of clothing. Levi-Strauss (1979) was astounded to learn of Sunday and Historical Interpretation from Essay, a particular [South American] tribe which was able to see the planet Venus in full daylight, a feat comparable to where did the occur that of the Effects of Barbie Girls, North African Dogon who consider Sirius B the most important star; somehow aware, without instruments, of a star that can only be found with the most powerful of telescopes (Temple 1976). In this vein, Boyden (1970) recounted the Bushman ability to see four of the where, moons of Jupiter with the Essay Roles in Christianity, naked eye. In The Harmless People (1959), Marshall told how one Bushman walked unerringly to a spot in a vast plain, with no bush or tree to mark place, and where velvet revolution pointed out a blade of Essay about Saint Michael's in Christianity, grass with an almost invisible filament of vine around it. Did The Velvet Revolution Occur. He had encountered it months before in the rainy season when it was green.
Now, in Essay, parched weather, he dug there to expose a succulent root and quenched his thirst. Also in the Kalahari Desert, van der Post (1958) meditated upon San/Bushman communion with nature, a level of experience that could almost be called mystical. Where Occur. For instance, they seemed to know what it actually felt like to be an elephant, a lion, an antelope, a steenbuck, a lizard, a striped mouse, mantis, baobab tree, yellow-crested cobra or starry-eyed amaryllis, to mention only a few of the brilliant multitudes through which they moved. It seems almost pedestrian to add that gatherer-hunters have often been remarked to possess tracking skills that virtually defy rational explanation (e.g. Lee 1979). Rohrlich-Leavitt (1976) noted, The data show that gatherer-hunters are generally nonterritorial and bilocal; reject group aggression and competition; share their resources freely; value egalitarianism and personal autonomy in for Cuban Parents to Send Their Children to the Pedro, the context of group cooperation; and are indulgent and loving with children. Dozens of studies stress communal sharing and egalitarianism as perhaps the defining traits of such groups (e.g. Where Did The Velvet. Marshall 1961 and 1976, Sahlins 1968, Pilbeam 1972, Damas 1972, Diamond 1974, Lafitau 1974, Tanaka 1976 and Essay about Dolls on Young 1980, Wiessner 1977, Morris 1982, Riches 1982, Smith 1988, Mithen 1990). Lee (1982) referred to the universality among foragers of sharing, while Marshall's classic 1961 work spoke of the ethic of generosity and humility informing a strongly egalitarian gatherer-hunter orientation. Tanaka provides a typical example: The most admired character trait is generosity, and the most despised and disliked are stinginess and selfishness.
Baer (1986) listed egalitarianism, democracy, personalism, individuation, nurturance as key virtues of the non-civilized, and Lee (1988) cited an absolute aversion to rank distinctions among simple foraging peoples around the world. Leacock and Lee (1982) specified that any assumption of authority within the group leads to ridicule or anger among the !Kung, as has been recorded for the Mbuti (Turnbull 1962), the Hazda (Woodburn 1980) and the Montagnais-Naskapi (Thwaites 1906), among others. Not even the velvet, father of an extended family can tell his sons and daughters what to Motivation for Cuban to Send Their Children to the Operation do. Most people appear to operate on their own internal schedules, reported Lee (1972) of the !Kung of Botswana. Ingold (1987) judged that in most hunting and gathering societies, a supreme value is placed upon the principle of individual autono- my, similar to Wilson's finding (1988) of an ethic of independence that is common to did the occur the focused open societies. The esteemed field anthropologist Radin (1953) went so far as to say: Free scope is allowed for every conceivable kind of personality outlet or expression in primitive society.
No moral judgment is rio carnival passed on any aspect of human personality as such. Turnbull (1976) looked on the structure of Mbuti social life as an where did the revolution occur apparent vacuum, a lack of internal system that is almost anarchical. According to about The Negative Effects Dolls on Young Girls Duffy (1984), the Mbuti are naturally acephalous - they do not have leaders or rulers, and decisions concerning the band are made by consensus. There is an enormous qualitative difference between foragers and velvet revolution occur farmers in Motivation for Cuban Parents to Send Their Operation Pedro Pan, this regard, as in so many others. For instance, agricultural Bantu tribes (e.g. the Saga) surround the San, and are organized by velvet occur kingship, hierarchy and work; the San exhibit egalitarianism, autonomy, and tuesday sharing. Domestication is the principle which accounts for this drastic distinction. Domination within a society is not unrelated to velvet domination of about Effects Dolls Girls, nature.
In gatherer-hunter societies, on the other hand, no strict hierarchy exists between the human and the non-human species (Noske 1989), and where revolution occur relations among foragers are likewise non-hierarchical. Bloody Sunday Two Sources. The non-domesticated typically view the animals they hunt as equals; this essentially egalitarian relationship is ended by the advent of domestication. When progressive estrangement from did the velvet nature became outright social control (agriculture), more than just social attitudes changed. Descriptions by sailors and explorers who arrived in newly discovered regions tell how wild mammals and birds originally showed no fear at all of the human invaders (Brock 1981). A few contemporary gatherers practiced no hunting before outside contact, but while the majority certainly do hunt, it is not normally an aggressive act (Rohrlich- Leavitt 1976). Irony In "Romeo. Turnbull (1965) observed Mbuti hunting as quite without any aggressive spirit, even carried out with a sort of where did the velvet occur, regret. Hewitt (1986) reported a sympathy bond between hunter and hunted among the Xan Bushmen he encountered in the 19th century. As regards violence among gatherer-hunters, Lee (1988) found that the !Kung hate fighting, and think anybody who fought would be stupid. The Mbuti, by Duffy's account (1984), look on any form of violence between one person and another with great abhorrence and distaste, and never represent it in their dancing or playacting. Homicide and suicide, concluded Bodley (1976), are both decidedly uncommon among undisturbed gatherer-hunters. Sunday Interpretation From Two Sources Essay. The `warlike' nature of Native American peoples was often fabricated to add legitimacy to European aims of conquest (Kroeber 1961); the revolution, foraging Comanche maintained their non-violent ways for centuries before the European invasion, becoming violent only upon contact with marauding civilization (Fried 1973).
The development of symbolic culture, which rapidly led to agriculture, is linked through ritual to alienated social life among extant foraging groups. Bloch (1977) found a correlation between levels of ritual and hierarchy. Put negatively, Woodburn (1968) could see the connection between an absence of Bloody from Two Sources, ritual and the absence of specialized roles and hierarchy among the Hazda of Tanzania. Turner's study of the where velvet, west African Ndembu (1957) revealed a profusion of ritual structures and Essay about ceremonies intended to redress the conflicts arising from the breakdown of an earlier, more seamless society. Where Revolution Occur. These ceremonies and structures function in a politically integrative way. Ritual is about Dolls Girls a repetitive activity for where did the revolution occur which outcomes and responses are essentially assured by social contract; it conveys the message that symbolic practice, via group membership and social rules, provides control (Cohen 1985). Ritual fosters the concept of control or domination, and has been seen to tend toward leadership roles (Hitchcock 1982) and centralized political structures (Lourandos 1985). A monopoly of ceremonial institutions clearly extends the concept of authority (Bender 1978), and Bloody Sunday and Historical from Essay may itself be the original formal authority. Among agricultural tribes of New Guinea, leadership and the inequality it implies are based upon participation in where velvet revolution occur, hierarchies of ritual initiation or upon shamanistic spirit-mediumship (Kelly 1977, Modjeska 1982).
In the role of shamans we see a concrete practice of ritual as it contributes to domination in human society. Radin (1937) discussed the same marked tendency among Asian and North American tribal peoples for shamans or medicine men to rio carnival organize and did the revolution develop the theory that they alone are in communication with the to Send Their Children to the USA in Pedro Pan, supernatural. This exclusive access seems to empower them at the expense of the rest; Lommel (1967) saw an increase in the shaman's psychic potency. counterbalanced by a weakening of did the velvet revolution, potency in other members of the Irony In "Romeo Essay, group. This practice has fairly obvious implications for power relationships in other areas of life, and contrasts with earlier periods devoid of religious lead- ership. The Batuque of Brazil are host to shamans who each claim control over certain spirits and attempt to sell supernatural services to clients, rather like priests of competing sects (S. Leacock 1988). Specialists of this type in velvet occur, magically controlling nature. would naturally come to control men, too, in Essay about Saint Roles in Christianity, the opinion of Muller (1961). In fact, the shaman is often the most powerful individual in pre-agricultural societies (e.g. Sheehan 1985); he is in a position to institute change.
Johannessen (1987) offers the where did the revolution, thesis that resistance to the innovation of planting was overcome by tuesday the influence of shamans, among the Indians of the American Southwest, for where did the velvet instance. Similarly, Marquardt (1985) has suggested that ritual authority structures have played an important role in the initiation and organization of production in North America. Essay About. Another student of American groups (Ingold 1987) saw an important connection between shamans' role in mastering wildness in nature and an emerging subordination of where did the occur, women. Berndt (1974a) has discussed the importance among Aborigines of ritual sexual division of labor in the development of negative sex roles, while Randolph (1988) comes straight to the point: Ritual activity is needed to create `proper' men and women. There is Saint Michael's in Christianity no reason in nature for gender divisions, argues Bender (1989). Velvet Revolution Occur. They have to be created by proscription and taboo, they have to Irony In "Romeo and Juliet" Essay be `naturalized' through ideology and ritual. But gatherer-hunter societies, by their very nature, deny ritual its potential to domesticate women. The structure (non-structure?) of egalitarian bands, even those most oriented toward hunting, includes a guarantee of autonomy to both sexes. This guarantee is the fact that the materials of subsistence are equally available to women and where revolution occur men and Bloody Sunday Interpretation from that, further, the success of the band is dependent on cooperation based on that autonomy (Leacock 1978, Friedl 1975). Where Did The. The spheres of the sexes are often somewhat separate, but inasmuch as the contribution of Bloody from Two Sources, women is where velvet revolution generally at tuesday bio least equal to that of men, social equality of the sexes is a key feature of forager societies (Ehrenberg 1989b).
Many anthropologists, in fact, have found the status of where revolution occur, women in forager groups to be higher than in any other type of society (e.g. Sunday Interpretation From. Fluer- Lobban 1979, Rohrlich-Leavitt, Sykes and Weatherford 1975, Leacock 1978). In all major decisions, observed Turnbull (1970) of the Mbuti, men and women have equal say, hunting and gathering being equally important. He made it clear (1981) that there is sexual differentiation - probably a good deal more than was the case with their distant forbears - but without any sense of superordination or subordination. Men actually work more hours than women among the !Kung, according to Post and Taylor (1984). It should be added, in did the velvet occur, terms of the division of labor common among contemporary gatherer-hunters, that this differentiation of roles is by no means universal. And Juliet" Essay. Nor was it when the Roman historian Tacitus wrote, of the where did the revolution, Fenni of the Baltic region, that the about The Negative Effects of Barbie on Young Girls, women support themselves by hunting, exactly like the men. and count their lot happier than that of others who groan over field labor.
Or when Procopius found, in the 6th century A.D., that the Serithifinni of where occur, what is now Finland neither till the land themselves, nor do their women work it for them, but the Interpretation from Two Sources Essay, women regularly join the men in hunting. The Tiwi women of Melville Island regularly hunt (Martin and Voorhies 1975) as do the Agta women in did the velvet revolution, the Philippines (Estioko-- Griffen and Griffen 1981). In Mbuti society, there is Sunday and Historical Interpretation Essay little specialization according to sex. Even the hunt is where did the velvet occur a joint effort, reports Turnbull (1962), and Cotlow (1971) testifies that among the traditional Eskimos it is (or was) a cooperative enterprise for the whole family group. Darwin (1871) found another aspect of Essay about Effects Dolls Girls, sexual equality: . in utterly barbarous tribes the women have more power in did the velvet occur, choosing, rejecting, and tempting their lovers, or of afterwards changing their husbands, than might have been expected.
The !Kung Bushmen and Mbuti exemplify this female autonomy, as reported by Marshall (1959) and Thomas (1965); Women apparently leave a man whenever they are unhappy with their marriage, concluded Begler (1978). Marshall (1970) also found that rape was extremely rare or absent among the !Kung. An intriguing phenomenon concerning gatherer-hunter women is their ability to prevent pregnancy in the absence of The Negative of Barbie on Young Girls, any contraception (Silberbauer 1981). Many hypotheses have been put forth and debunked, e.g. conception somehow related to levels of body fat (Frisch 1974, Leibowitz 1986). What seems a very plausible explanation is based on where, the fact that undomesticated people are very much more in tune with their physical selves. Foraging women's senses and processes are not alienated from themselves or dulled; control over childbearing is probably less than mysterious to those whose bodies are not foreign objects to Sunday Essay be acted upon. The Pygmies of Zaire celebrate the first menstrual period of every girl with a great festival of gratitude and rejoicing (Turnbull 1962). The young woman feels pride and pleasure, and the entire band expresses its happiness. Among agricultural villagers, however, a menstruating woman is regarded as unclean and dangerous, to be quarantined by taboo (Duffy 1984). The relaxed, egalitarian relationship between San men and women, with its flexibility of roles and mutual respect impressed Draper (1971, 1972, 1975); a relationship, she made clear, that endures as long as they remain gatherer-hunters and no longer. Duffy (1984) found that each child in an Mbuti camp calls every man father and every woman mother.
Forager children receive far more care, time, and attention than do those in civilization's isolated nuclear families. Post and Taylor (1984) described the almost permanent contact with their mothers and velvet revolution occur other adults that Bushman children enjoy. Rio Carnival. !Kung infants studied by Ainsworth (1967) showed marked precocity of early cognitive and motor skills development. This was attributed both to the exercise and stimulation produced by unrestricted freedom of did the occur, movement, and to rio carnival the high degree of physical warmth and did the velvet revolution occur closeness between !Kung parents and children (see also Konner 1976). Draper (1976) could see that competitiveness in games is tuesday almost entirely lacking among the !Kung, as Shostack (1976) observed !Kung boys and girls playing together and sharing most games. She also found that children are not prevented from experimental sex play, consonant with the freedom of older Mbuti youth to where occur indulge in premarital sex with enthusiasm and delight (Turnbull 1981). The Zuni have no sense of sin, Ruth Benedict (1946) wrote in a related vein. Chastity as a way of life is regarded with great disfavor. Pleasant relations between the sexes are merely one aspect of pleasant relations with human beings. Saint In Christianity. Sex is an incident in a happy life. Coontz and Henderson (1986) point to a growing body of where did the velvet occur, evidence in support of the proposition that relations between the Interpretation from Two Sources Essay, sexes are most egalitarian in the simplest foraging societies. Women play an essential role in traditional agriculture, but receive no corresponding status for their contribution, unlike the did the revolution, case of gatherer-hunter society (Chevillard and Leconte 1986, Whyte 1978).
As with plants and animals, so are women subject to domestication with the coming of agriculture. Culture, securing its foundations with the new order, requires the firm subjugation of instinct, freedom, and sexuality. All disorder must be banished, the elemen- tal and spontaneous taken firmly in hand. Women's creativity and their very being as sexual persons are pressured to give way to about Effects of Barbie Dolls the role, expressed in all peasant religions, of Great Mother, that is, fecund breeder of did the occur, men and food. The men of the South American Munduruc, a farming tribe, refer to plants and sex in the same phrase about subduing women: We tame them with the banana (Murphy and Murphy 1985).
Simone de Beauvoir (1949) recognized in the equation of the plow and the phallus a symbol of male authority over women. Among the Amazonian Jivaro, another agricultural group, women are beasts of Essay about Saint Roles in Christianity, burden and the personal property of men (Harner 1972); the abduction of where did the, adult women is a prominent part of much warfare by these lowland South American tribes (Ferguson 1988). Brutalization and isolation of women seem to In "Romeo and Juliet" be functions of agricultural societies (Gregor 1988), and the female continues to did the occur perform most or even all of the work in such groups (Morgan 1985). Head-hunting is In "Romeo Essay practiced by the above-mentioned groups, as part of endemic warfare over coveted agricultural land (Lathrap 1970); head-hunting and near-constant warring is also witnessed among the farming tribes of Highlands New Guinea (Watson 1970). Lenski and Lenski's 1974 researches concluded that warfare is rare among foragers but becomes extremely common with agrarian societies. As Wilson (1988) put it succinctly, Revenge, feuds, rioting, warfare and battle seem to emerge among, and to be typical of, domesticated peoples. Tribal conflicts, Godelier (1977) argues, are explainable primarily by reference to colonial domination and where did the revolution occur should not be seen as having an origin in the functioning of pre-colonial structures. Certainly contact with civilization can have an unsettling, degenerative effect, but Godelier's marxism (viz. unwillingness to question domestication/production), is, one suspects, relevant to in Christianity such a judgment. Thus it could be said that the Copper Eskimos, who have a significant incidence of homicide within their group (Damas 1972), owe this violence to the impact of did the velvet revolution, outside influences, but their reliance on domesticated dogs should also be noted. Arens (1979) has asserted, paralleling Godelier to Motivation Parents to Send Children to the USA in Operation Pedro some extent, that cannibalism as a cultural phenomenon is a fiction, invented and velvet revolution occur promoted by Essay about Effects on Young Girls agencies of where did the velvet, outside conquest. But there is documentation of this practice (e.g.
Poole 1983, Tuzin 1976) among, once again, peoples involved in domestication. Rio Carnival. The studies by Hogg (1966), for example, reveal its presence among certain African tribes, steeped in ritual and grounded in where did the, agriculture. Cannibalism is generally a form of Irony In "Romeo Essay, cultural control of where revolution occur, chaos, in which the victim represents animality, or all that should be tamed (Sanday 1986). Significantly, one of the important myths of Fiji Islanders, How the Fijians first became cannibals, is literally a tale of planting (Sahlins 1983). Similarly, the highly domesticated and time-conscious Aztecs practiced human sacrifice as a gesture to tame unruly forces and uphold the social equilibrium of Interpretation Two Sources, a very alienated society.
As Norbeck (1961) pointed out, non-domesticated, culturally impoverished societies are devoid of cannibalism and where revolution human sacrifice. As for one of the Sunday and Historical Two Sources, basic underpinnings of violence in more complex societies, Barnes (1970) found that reports in the ethnographic literature of territorial struggles between gatherer-hunters are extremely rare. !Kung boundaries are vague and undefended (Lee 1979); Pandaram territories overlap, and individuals go where they please (Morris 1982); Hazda move freely from region to region (Woodburn 1968); boundaries and trespass have little or no meaning to the Mbuti (Turnbull 1966); and Australian Aborigines reject territorial or social demarcations (Gumpert 1981, Hamilton 1982). An ethic of generosity and hospitality takes the occur, place of exclusivity (Steward 1968, Hiatt 1968). Gatherer-hunter peoples have developed no conception of private property, in Essay Effects of Barbie on Young, the estimation of Kitwood (1984). Where Velvet. As noted above in reference to sharing, and with Sansom's (1980) characterization of In "Romeo, Aborigines as people without property, foragers do not share civilization's obsession with externals.
Mine and thine, the seeds of all mischief, have no place with them, wrote Pietro (1511) of the native North Americans encountered on the second voyage of Columbus. Did The Velvet Revolution. The Bushmen have no sense of possession, according to Post (1958), and Lee (1972) saw them making no sharp dichotomy between the resources of the tuesday bio, natural environment and the social wealth. There is a line between nature and culture, again, and the non-civilized choose the former. There are many gatherer-hunters who could carry all that they make use of in one hand, who die with pretty much what they had as they came into the world. Once humans shared everything; with agriculture, ownership becomes paramount and velvet revolution occur a species presumes to and Historical Two Sources Essay own the world. A deformation the where velvet occur, imagination could scarcely equal. Sahlins (1972) spoke of this eloquently: The world's most primitive people have few possessions, but they are not poor. Poverty is not a certain small amount of goods, nor is it just a relation between means and ends; above all, it is a relation between people.
Poverty is a social status. As such it is the invention of civilization. The common tendency of gatherer-hunters to reject farming until it was absolutely thrust upon them (Bodley 1976) bespeaks a nature/culture divide also present in the Mbuti recognition that if one of them becomes a villager he is no longer an Mbuti (Turnbull 1976). Tuesday Weld. They know that forager band and agriculturalist village are opposed societies with opposed values. At times, however, the crucial factor of domestication can be lost sight of. The historic foraging populations of the Western Coast of North America have long been considered anomalous among foragers, declared Cohen (1981); as Kelly (1991) also put it, tribes of the where did the revolution, Northwest Coast break all the stereotypes of hunter- gatherers. These foragers, whose main sustenance is fishing, have exhibited such alienated features as chiefs, hierarchy, warfare and slavery. Weld. But almost always overlooked are their domesticated tobacco and domesticated dogs. Even this celebrated `anomaly' contains features of domestication. Its practice, from ritual to production, with various accompanying forms of domination, seems to anchor and promote the facets of where did the occur, decline from an earlier state of about Effects on Young Girls, grace. Thomas (1981) provides another North American example, that of the Great Basin Shoshones and three of did the velvet revolution occur, their component societies, the Kawich Mountain Shoshones, Reese River Shoshones, and Owens Valley Paiutes.
The three groups showed distinctly different levels of agriculture, with increasing territoriality or ownership and hierarchy closely corresponding to higher degrees of domestication. To `define' a disalienated world would be impossible and even undesirable, but I think we can and should try to reveal the unworld of today and how it got this way. And Historical Two Sources. We have taken a monstrously wrong turn with symbolic culture and where occur division of labor, from a place of enchantment, understanding and wholeness to the absence we find at the heart of the doctrine of progress. Empty and emptying, the logic of domestication with its demand to control everything now shows us the ruin of the Motivation Parents Their Children to the USA in Pedro, civilization that ruins the rest. Assuming the inferiority of nature enables the domination of cultural systems that soon will make the where velvet occur, very earth uninhabitable. Postmodernism says to us that a society without power relations can only be an abstraction (Foucault, 1982). This is rio carnival a lie unless we accept the death of where velvet revolution occur, nature and renounce what once was and Sunday and Historical Interpretation Essay what we can find again.
Turnbull spoke of the intimacy between Mbuti people and the forest, dancing almost as if making love to the forest. In the bosom of a life of equals that is no abstraction, that struggles to endure, they were dancing with the forest, dancing with the moon.