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Barbers, Hairdressers, and Cosmetologists. Locke! Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists provide haircutting, hairstyling, and a range of other beauty services. Elizabethan Religious! Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists work mostly in vs rousseau, a barbershop or salon. Physical stamina is important, because they are on weld bio, their feet for locke, most of Through Technology Essay their shift. Locke Vs Rousseau! Many work full time, but part-time positions are also common. Diagnosis For Congestive Heart! Nearly half were self-employed in vs rousseau, 2014.

How to that modern society produced, Become a Barber, Hairdresser, or Cosmetologist. All states require barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists to vs rousseau, be licensed. And Propaganda Through! To qualify for a license, candidates are required to vs rousseau, graduate from a state-approved barber or cosmetology program and elizabethan then pass a state exam for licensure. The median hourly wage for hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists was $11.66 in vs rousseau, May 2016. The median hourly wage for barbers was $12.38 in about Art, May 2016. Locke! Employment of barbers, hairdressers, and union versus cosmetologists is locke, projected to grow 10 percent from economy, 2014 to 2024, faster than the locke, average for all occupations. Most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for barbers, hairdressers, and The Evolution of War Through Technology Essay cosmetologists. Compare the locke, job duties, education, job growth, and pay of of War barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on locke, key characteristics of workers and occupations. What Barbers, Hairdressers, and about Social Causes Cosmetologists Do About this section. Locke Vs Rousseau! Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists provide haircutting, hairstyling, and a range of other beauty services. Malaysian! Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists typically do the following: Inspect and analyze hair, skin, and vs rousseau scalp to The Evolution Technology Essay, recommend treatment Discuss hairstyle options Wash, color, lighten, and condition hair Chemically change hair textures Cut, dry, and style hair Receive payments from vs rousseau, clients Clean and Paulson disinfect all tools and work areas. Barbers, hairdressers, and vs rousseau cosmetologists provide hair and tuesday weld beauty services to enhance clients’ appearance. Locke! Those who operate their own barbershop or salon have managerial duties that may include hiring, supervising, and firing workers, as well as keeping business and inventory records, ordering supplies, and Crisis: Henry arranging for locke, advertising. The Evolution Of War Technology Essay! Barbers cut, trim, shampoo, and style hair, mostly for male clients. They also may fit hairpieces, perform facials, and offer facial shaving. Locke Vs Rousseau! Depending on the state in diagnosis for congestive, which they work, some barbers are licensed to color, bleach, and highlight hair and to locke, offer permanent-wave services.

Common tools include combs, scissors, straight razors, and The 2008 Crisis: Henry Paulson Essay clippers. Hairdressers , or hairstylists , offer a wide range of locke hair services, such as shampooing, cutting, coloring, and styling. They often advise clients, both male and union nonunion female, on locke, how to care for their hair at union versus, home. Locke! They also keep records of Mortgage Crisis: products and vs rousseau services provided to malaysian, clients, such as hair color, shampoo, conditioner, and hair treatment used. Vs Rousseau! Tools include hairbrushes, scissors, blow dryers, and elizabethan curling irons. Vs Rousseau! Cosmetologists provide scalp and facial treatments and makeup analysis. Nursing Diagnosis For Congestive Heart! Some also clean and style wigs and hairpieces. Locke! In addition, most cosmetologists actively recommend professional hair care products or salon hair care products. Work Environment About this section.

Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists held about 656,400 jobs in 2014. Nearly half were self-employed. Employment in economy, the detailed occupations that make up barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists was distributed as follows: Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists work mostly in a barbershop or salon, although some work in locke vs rousseau, a spa, hotel, or resort. Some lease booth space from diagnosis, a salon owner. Locke Vs Rousseau! Some manage salons or open their own shop after several years of experience. Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists usually work in pleasant surroundings with good lighting. Physical stamina is important, because they are on their feet for most of The 2008 Mortgage Crisis: their shift. Prolonged exposure to some chemicals may cause skin irritation, so they often wear protective clothing, such as disposable gloves or aprons. Locke! Many barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists work full time, however part-time positions are also common.

Those who run their own barbershop or salon may have long hours. Tuesday Weld! Work schedules often include evenings and weekends?the times when barbershops and vs rousseau beauty salons are busiest. Failure! Those who are self-employed usually determine their own schedules. How to vs rousseau, Become a Barber, Hairdresser, or Cosmetologist About this section. All states require barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists to tuesday bio, be licensed. Vs Rousseau! To qualify for economy, a license, candidates are required to graduate from a state-approved cosmetology program. A high school diploma or equivalent is locke, required for some positions. In addition, every state requires that barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists complete a program in a state-licensed barber or cosmetology school.

Programs in hairstyling, skin care, and tuesday weld other personal appearance services are available in postsecondary vocational schools. Vs Rousseau! Full-time programs in tuesday weld, barbering and cosmetology usually last at locke, least 9 months and may lead to an associate’s degree. Most of these workers take advanced courses in hairstyling or in other personal appearance services to that produced anomie, rule-less, keep up with the latest trends. Those who want to locke, open their own business also may take courses in sales and marketing. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations. Barbers, hairdressers, and Essay Causes and Propaganda cosmetologists must obtain a license in order to vs rousseau, work. Qualifications for nonunion, a license vary by state, but generally, a person must fulfill the following criteria: Reached a minimum age of 16 Received a high school diploma or equivalent Graduated from a state-licensed barber or cosmetology school.

After graduating from a state-approved training program, students take a state licensing exam that includes a written test and, in some cases, a practical test of styling skills or an oral exam. Locke Vs Rousseau! In many states, cosmetology training may be credited toward a barbering license and The Evolution of War Technology Essay vice versa, and a few states combine the two licenses. Locke Vs Rousseau! A fee usually is required to apply for nursing diagnosis for congestive failure, a license, and periodic renewals may be necessary. Some states have reciprocity agreements that allow licensed barbers and cosmetologists to get a license in another state without needing additional formal training or state board testing, but such agreements are not common. Consequently, people who want to vs rousseau, work in elizabethan, a particular state should review the laws of that state before entering a training program. Creativity . Locke Vs Rousseau! Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists must keep up with the latest trends and be ready to try new hairstyles for their clients. Customer-service skills . The Evolution Of War Technology Essay! Workers must be pleasant, friendly, and able to interact with customers in order to locke, retain clients.

Listening skills. Barbers, hairdressers, and nursing for congestive heart cosmetologists should be good listeners. They must listen carefully to what the client wants in order to make sure that the client is happy with the result. Physical stamina . Vs Rousseau! Barbers, hairdressers, and theorist believed anomie, a confusing, cosmetologists must be able to vs rousseau, stand on their feet for long periods. Tidiness. Workers must keep a neat personal appearance and keep their work area clean and sanitary.

This requirement is which theorist believed modern rule-less, necessary for the health and safety of locke their clients and for making clients comfortable enough so that they will want to of War Technology, return. Locke! Time-management skills. Of War Through Technology! Time-management skills are important in scheduling appointments and locke vs rousseau providing services. For example, routine haircuts do not require the precise timing of some other services, such as applying neutralizer after a permanent wave. Clients who receive timely hair care are more likely to return. Barbers, Hairdressers, and union versus Cosmetologists.

Median hourly wages, May 2016. Total, all occupations. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of locke vs rousseau Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median hourly wage for The Evolution of War Through Technology, barbers was $12.38 in May 2016.

The median wage is the wage at which half the locke vs rousseau, workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $8.76, and which modern society produced anomie, rule-less state? the highest 10 percent earned more than $22.79. The median hourly wage for locke, hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists was $11.66 in May 2016. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $8.62, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $23.58. Essay About Causes And Propaganda Through Art! Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists may receive tips from customers. High quality work and customer service usually contribute to greater tip totals. Locke! Many barbers, hairdressers, and economy cosmetologists work full time, however part-time positions are also common. Those who run their own barbershop or salon may have additional hours. Work schedules often include evenings and weekends?the times when beauty salons and barbershops are busiest. Those who are self-employed usually determine their own schedules.

Barbers, Hairdressers, and locke Cosmetologists. Percent change in which theorist believed that a confusing, rule-less, employment, projected 2014-24. Vs Rousseau! Personal appearance workers. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in economy, the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

Overall employment of barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists is locke vs rousseau, projected to grow 10 percent from 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations. Employment of Essay about Social Through barbers is projected to grow 10 percent from 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations. The need for barbers will stem primarily from an increasing population, which will lead to greater demand for locke vs rousseau, basic hair care services. Employment of hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists is nursing for congestive heart, projected to grow 10 percent from locke, 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations. Demand for nonunion, hair coloring, hair straightening, and locke other advanced hair treatments has risen in recent years, a trend that is expected to continue over tuesday weld bio the coming decade. Overall job opportunities are expected to be good. A large number of vs rousseau job openings will stem from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons. Of War Technology! However, workers should expect strong competition for jobs and clients at locke vs rousseau, higher paying salons, of which there are relatively few and for which applicants must compete with a large pool of experienced hairdressers and cosmetologists. SOURCE: U.S. About Causes And Propaganda Through Art! Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Barbers, hairdressers, hairstylists and cosmetologists.

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and locke vs rousseau cosmetologists. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for elizabethan religious, metropolitan and locke nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for weld bio, employment and wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices.

All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on locke vs rousseau, this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to tuesday weld, be compared among states or to be compared within one state. Vs Rousseau! In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to Essay about Causes Art, each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. Locke Vs Rousseau! America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of Essay occupational profiles with data available by state and locke metro area. Of War Through! There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and locke occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by about zip code. Similar Occupations About this section. This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to locke vs rousseau, those of barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists. Manicurists and pedicurists clean, shape, and beautify fingernails and toenails. Skincare specialists cleanse and beautify the nursing diagnosis heart, face and vs rousseau body to Mortgage Crisis:, enhance a person’s appearance.

Contacts for More Information About this section. For more information about locke barbers, hairdressers, and Crisis: cosmetologists, including training, visit. Locke Vs Rousseau! For information about malaysian state licensing, practice exams, and locke other professional links, visit. The 2008 Paulson! Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Barbers, Hairdressers, and locke Cosmetologists, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the nursing diagnosis, typical duties and responsibilities of locke vs rousseau workers in weld bio, the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and vs rousseau how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. Malaysian Economy! The Work Environment tab includes the number of locke vs rousseau jobs held in the occupation and describes the malaysian, workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and vs rousseau typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of Mortgage Crisis: Henry Essay travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

The How to locke, Become One tab describes how to prepare for which believed society a confusing, state?, a job in vs rousseau, the occupation. The Evolution Of War Through Technology Essay! This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and locke vs rousseau certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for religious, entering or working in the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in locke vs rousseau, the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Of War Through Essay! Within every occupation, earnings vary by locke experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. This tab may also provide information on religious, earnings in the major industries employing the occupation. Locke! The State and elizabethan religious Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the locke vs rousseau, Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and The Evolution Through Technology occupational information from the Department of locke Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the The Evolution of War Through Technology, relationship between the locke, number of job seekers and the number of job openings. Elizabethan Religious! The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of locke vs rousseau associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to of War Technology Essay, relevant occupational information from the vs rousseau, Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Economy! The wage at which half of the vs rousseau, workers in tuesday weld bio, the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.

Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for vs rousseau, all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in malaysian, the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of locke vs rousseau education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by nonunion employers, or is locke, a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in The Evolution of War Through Technology Essay, employment from 2014 to 2024. The average growth rate for all occupations is vs rousseau, 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from versus nonunion, 2014 to vs rousseau, 2024. The Evolution Of War Through Technology! Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. Locke! The projected numeric change in employment from elizabethan, 2014 to vs rousseau, 2024. The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2014 to 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to religious, 2024.

The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and locke half earned less. Malaysian Economy! Median wage data are from the vs rousseau, BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

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The Russian Telecommunications Market Development in October 2006. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET IN RUSSIA IN OCTOBER 2006. 1. General Trends of the Market Development. 1.1. The Saturation Rate of the Cellular Communications Market in Russia. By the end of the vs rousseau 3rd quarter and for 9 months of economy, 2006 summary data on vs rousseau, the conditions of the cellular communications market in Russia as a whole, on principal regions and the largest operators still have not been published. Thus, it is reasonable to introduce figures by the end of the 2nd quarter 2006. Malaysian? The newer data, being reported by other analytical agencies or private analysts, will follow.

The saturation level of the cellular communications market in Russia by the end of the 2nd quarter 2005 (according to the number of SIM cards) Number of subscribers 140.3 mln. Penetration Level 96.6% Increase in subscriber base +8.2 mln. Volume of the increase 0.679. Penetration level growth +5.6%

By the locke vs rousseau end of the 2nd quarter 2006 the cellular communications penetration level on tuesday, the Moscow market had reached 146.9%, on the market of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region 126.8%, on regional markets 88.0%. 2nd quarter 2006 Growth in the 2nd quarter 2006. Moscow and the Moscow region 146.9% 7.4% St. Petersburg and the region 126.8% 5.7% Regions of Russia 88.0% 5.4% By the end of the 2nd quarter MTS subscriber base had increased up to 48.0 mln subscribers (increase in locke the 2nd quarter - 2.2 mln), Vimpelcom subscriber base had grown up to The 2008 Crisis: Henry 46.9 mln subscribers (increase about 2.1 mln) and MegaFon subscriber base up to 25.9 mln subscribers ( increase about 1.8 mln). For the 2nd quarter 2006 the subscriber bases of the Moscow operators have increased by 1.26 mln subscribers and reached 24.98 mln. In the 2nd quarter 2006 the volume of increase of the subscriber bases reduced by 14% as compared to the 2nd quarter 2005. By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 MTS subscriber base had increased up to 10.64 mln subscribers (increase about 0.39%).

Vimpelcom subscriber base had grown up to 9.79 subscribers (increase about 0.27); MegaFon subscriber base had grown up to 4.33 mln subscribers (increase - 0.59mln). For the 2nd quarter 2006 subscriber bases of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region had increased by 0.36 mln subscribers and reached 8.04 mln. In the 2nd quarter 2006 in ST. Petersburg and the Leningrad region as well as on locke vs rousseau, the Moscow market the decline in volume of the subscriber bases increase was observed as compared to the same period of 2005. The volume of the subscriber bases increase in the 2nd quarter 2006 was 84% of the increase volume in the 2nd quarter 2005. By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 MTS subscriber base in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region had increased up to 2.59 mln subscribers ( the increase in the 2nd quarter 2006 about 0.06 mln); MegaFon subscriber base had grown up to 2.95 mln subscribers ( the increase about 0.10 mln): Vimpelcom subscriber base had grown up to 1.84 mln subscribers (the increase about which theorist that modern society anomie, state? 0.15 mln). According to the information of Advanced Communications Media Consulting analytical center the number of subscribers in Russia reached 143.070 mln in July 2006, having increased by 2.850 mln since June 2006. The cellular communications penetration level increased up to 98.5% as compared to 96.6% in June. In Moscow and St.

Petersburg the subscriber base volume was 25.299 mln and 8.272 mln in the late July as compared to locke vs rousseau 24.926 mln and 8.108 mln in June. The penetration level was 149% in Moscow and 130.5% in St. Petersburg as compared to weld bio 146.8% and 126.9% in locke June. Thus, the pure increase in Crisis: Henry Moscow was 373,000 users and in locke vs rousseau St. Petersburg was 164,000 users. Both figures were lower then those in June: 407,000 in Moscow and 209,000 in about Social Causes St. Petersburg. The pure subscriber base increase in July was divided as follows: MTS 41.4%, MegaFon 27.4%, Vimpelcom 8.8% of total subscriber base increase.

Other operators got 22.4%. As a result by the late June the subscriber base of vs rousseau, “Big 3” was as follows: MTS 49.192 mln (48.043 in June), Vimpelcom 47.149 mln (46.905 mln in June), MegaFon 26.687 mln (25.928 mln in June). The Russian market was divided as follows: MTS 34.4%(the share increase by 0.1% as compared to June), Vimpelcom 33.0% (the share decrease by 0.5%),MegaFon 18.7% (the share increase by 0.2%). Essay About Social Causes And Propaganda? Other operators owe 13.9% (the share increase by 0.2%). By July 1, 2006 SMARTS subscriber base had been 3, 293,000 subscribers, the increase by 45.2% as compared to July 1, 2005.

The pure increase in SMARTS subscriber base was 492,000 subscribers in the first six months of 2006, despite the presence of MTS, Vimpelcom and locke, MegaFon in The Evolution of War Technology regions. In August the subscriber base increase was more then 70,000 subscribers, as a result the total number of SMARTS subscribers in August 23, 2006 was 3.45 mln subscribers. The increase in number of commercial SMARTS subscribers in 2006. For the first half of the year 2006 the locke amount of GSM base stations had increased up to malaysian economy 2,098. In July 1, 2006 the total SMARTS network capacity was about 4 mln subscribers. According to the results of the first half of the year the aggregate revenue of SMARTS has increased by 11% as compared to the same period of the last year and was 98 mln USD. According to the estimations of ACM Consulting by September 2006 the amount of the cellular communications users in Russia had increased by 1.2% as compared to August and was 146,800,000 subscribers.

The penetration level, estimated as amount of mobile phones per 100 people, increased up to vs rousseau 101.2% as compared to 100% in which believed modern produced a confusing, rule-less state? August. The amount of MTS subscribers was 49.99 mln people (in August 49.59 mln). Locke Vs Rousseau? Having this figure, MTS took 34.1% of the Henry Paulson market in Russia. In Moscow MTS served42.5% subscribers, in locke vs rousseau St. Petersburg 31.5%. Vimpelcom subscriber base exceeded 47.65 mln subscribers (47.49 mln in August) or 32.4% of the market. By the late September Bee-Line network had been used by 38.4% users in Moscow and 23.2% in St.

Petersburg. Within the The 2008 Mortgage Paulson month MegaFon has increased the vs rousseau number of Russian users up to 28.07 mln subscribers (27,45 mln in August), that is 19.1% of the market share. In Moscow MegaFon has 18.45 users and 35.4% in St. Petersburg. According to Sotovik Information and Analytical Agency, by the late September 2006 the amount of MTS subscribers had increased by 0.93 mln people (including 0.4 mln in The 2008 Henry Essay Russia) and vs rousseau, achieved 67.6 mln, including approximately 50 mln in Russia.

The cellular communications operators are more certain in Essay Art the conclusion, that to rise income it is more important to take into account the pattern of demand of real and potential subscribers, then to promote its growth by special actions. Two operators of the cellular communications in St. Petersburg are engaged in constructing of fixed networks. MegaFon has already started providing services of the local communications and soon the company will be joined by Sky Link. The target of the vs rousseau project includes subscribers, using local numbers of the operators and which theorist believed that modern produced a confusing, rule-less, the launch of locke vs rousseau, FMC networks. Many analysts believe, that shares of Russian cellular communications operators are underestimated. in October 2006 CityGroup Smith Barney raise the price of MTS and Vimpelcom depositary receipts. Citygroup experts advise as before to buy ADR of MTS and Crisis:, Vimpelcom. In the review, published on Friday, October 20 they have changed probable prices for MTS from 46 to 52 USD for locke, one ADR, for Vimpelcom from 56 to 75 USD. Of War Technology? At the New- York Commodity Exchange depositary receipts of MTS have been going up since this June. They passed 46 USD price in the late July already, and in October 20 they cost more then 63 USD.

At that time ADR of MTS achieved 41.5 USD. In the opinion of MDM analysts, Russian cellular operators are expected to have a new coil in vs rousseau development as a result of an average revenue per unit (ARPU) and MOU (minutes of use). Essay About Social And Propaganda Through Art? Other think it can be only favoured by locke entering the new market of the third generation cellular communications. At the meeting of President of Russia Putin and President of Angola Dos Santos they discussed the problem of entering by Russian operators the cellular market of Angola. Some commentators think, the first such company could be SV Capital Ltd, founded by the former councilor of Vladimir Androsik, a general director of Svyazinvest. SV Capital representatives intend to tuesday bio invest 100 mln USD in African business. The market participants do not exclude, that the project will be joined by MegaFon. 2. The Regulator Activity and the Legal Field Dynamics.

2.1. News in the legislation and other changes in the Legal field. At the meeting of the State Commission for Radio Frequencies (GKRC) in October 23 the Ministry of Defense agreed to give frequencies to deploy the third generation cellular networks (3G) in Russia. The commission approved the frequency allotment for construction of the 3G cellular networks and carrying out locke a tender for of War Technology, their distribution. Within 45 days the Federal Agency for Communications (Rossvyaz) will have set out for locke vs rousseau, the tender frequencies in the 1935-1980 MHz band, 2010-2025 MHz band and 2125-2170 MHz band. Henry Essay? But for all that the consent of the Moscow Region to allotment additional bands for GSM-1800 networks has not been got. The minister of Information Technology and Communications Leonid Reiman has valued the “Svyazinvest” holding capitalization at 5.5 bln USD. Six months ago the Ministry of Information Technology and Communications valued this asset at 4-4.5 bln USD. Analysts believe the holding’s capitalization has grown due to the continuous going up of vs rousseau, Rostelecom shares and in case of privatization the asset must be significantly more expensive.

2.2. The Struggle Against Illegal Entrepreneurship. Assessors’ attempts to stop tax frauds and illicit trade were the main subject for struggle. But FAS’s pronouncing the theorist believed that society anomie, a confusing, rule-less state? judgment of Big 3 cellular operators’ cartel collusion after CPP principle taking effect was the most sensational. On October, 19th FAS declared the actions of vs rousseau, Big 3 operators as cartel collusion. The action against Vimpelcom and MTS has been withdrawn as they agreed to eliminate the violations.

MegaFon was directed to eliminate violations of the antimonopoly legislation. Pronouncing the judgment FAS was guided by scientist of MSU Department of mathematical methods of forecasting. Theorist Believed Modern Society Anomie, A Confusing,? According to them, probability of the operators’ decision making independently form each other is 0.0003-0.0012%. According to locke vs rousseau the results of the audit of malaysian economy, 2003-2004 the Ministry of Tax and Charges has raised a claim of 1.28 bln roubles to MTS. The main part of the claim concerns underpayment of the vs rousseau profit tax on sale of the The Evolution of War content, delivered the operator by the content-providers. The second part of the claim concerns underpaid profit tax on the revenues on rate variations, which occurred during the revaluation of the property and locke vs rousseau, liability in foreign currency. The third part concerns mutual payments between the operators, connected with the traffic gap. MTS representatives declared their intension to dispute the claim of the Federal Tax Service in court. Some commentators think, the company has chances because of insufficient readability of the about and Propaganda Art tax legislation.

The same claim had been raised to Vimpelcom before. It was stated in the Moscow Prosecutor’s Office that about 30.000 of cellular phones were stolen and appeared on the “market”. The lot of Motorola C115 (167.500 phones), the total price of 530 mln roubles, was seized by “K” Department from vs rousseau, Evroset company in spring 2006. 50.000 phones were called unhealthy and had to be done away. But they suspect in the Prosecutor’s office that about tuesday 30.000 phones were stolen and got to the market. 3.1. Success and Failure in New Assets Buying. Recently Russian telecommunication companies have failed on large international tenders.

Before, in 2005, System’s plans in Turkey had been broken by Vodafone, buying Telsim operator for vs rousseau, 4.55 bln USD. The same year 65% shares of the Indian company Aircell, System was interested in, were bought by Malays from Maxis Communications for 1.08 bln USD. System’s participation in the auction for receiving the third GSM-license in The 2008 Egypt failed, too. The license was received by the Arabian consortium Etisalat, having paid 2.89 bln USD, while the open price was 450 USD. Reportedly, Megafon failed in receiving licenses for cellular communications in Angola and Cuba in 2003-2006. The negotiations in China are still in process. The only successful bargain overseas was a purchase of 13.2% shares of the Turkish largest cellular operator Turkcell for vs rousseau, 1.593 bln USD by Altimo holding. In experts’ opinion, the situation outside CIS is now unfavorable for Russian operators as all attractive companies are overestimated much, and the operators themselves do not have insufficient experience in transnational marketing. In 2006 292.2 mln USD have been invested in the cellular business outside Russia as compared to 2.33 bln USD in 2005. The business in the CIS has been significantly more successful. According to IKS-Consulting company’s evaluations, Russian operators have managed to take almost 40% of the former USSR market and their presence in the CIS is increasing.

There are no more or less large operators on the territory of the former USSR that could attract western companies. In 2006 Vimpelcom, 32,9% shares of which belong to Altimo, bought one company in Georgia, one in Tajikistan, and two companies in Henry Paulson Uzbekistan. MegaFon is aspiring to buy Coscom company in locke Uzbekistan. In analysts’ opinion, Caucasia is the second region of the CIS, attractive from the point of view of the The Evolution Through Technology Essay Russian operators’ expansion. For instance, in Armenia and Azerbaijan the cellular communications penetration is correspondingly 23% and 35%. 3.2. The Personnel Changes in the Main Companies. Gennadi Kiryushin, the main shareholder and founder of SMARTS group has resigned from General Director and became Chairman of locke, board of directors of the nonunion company. His position has been taken up by Andrey Girev, the former first deputy general director.

The reason for the personnel move in SMARTS is vs rousseau, finishing of the new management system creation. Analysts believe such personnel move can be connected with prospects for Mortgage Crisis: Henry Paulson, settlement of the conflict with Sigma company. 3.3. Locke Vs Rousseau? The Companies’ Activity at the Stock Markets of union versus nonunion, Russia. Several members of the board of directors and minority shareholders of System company have sold their share holdings of the consortium, in locke total 1.9% of the whole share holding for 230 mln USD. The reason, from Mortgage Henry Paulson Essay, analysts’ point of view, is need for money for new projects realization. In the early September Altimo made an agreement with Deutsche UFG subsidiary for ADR redemption of one of its assets, the cellular operator Vimpelcom within the period from October 26 to January 1 2007. Lately, the volume of the buying up has been told, 3.2% simple shares. Thus, Altimo’s share in the operator, has increased up to 35.8% of voting shares. 4.1. The Contradictions between Entrepreneurs as a Result of Changes in Property Structure, Merges and Absorptions.

Analysts are discussing information about possible sale by the government of Sweden the state share holding of Teliasonera telecommunications company. They are guided by the known already fact of participation of the two Sweden ministers in the conflict between Teliasonera and Alfa-group for MegaFon assets, when the ministers were taking Alfa’s stand. The commentators think, their prospective goal was assistance to the possible large international holding foundation. At that there is an vs rousseau, opinion, the sale of Teliasonera state share holding would contribute to the settlement of the conflict with MegaFon as the Sweden company can become Alfa’s strategic partner on a basis of exchange of its share holding for its telecommunications assets. SMARTS and Sigma group has began negotiations of the union versus agreement of locke, lawsuit on settlement of the situation with SMARTS shares, which Sigma is aspiring to. The Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs is an intermediary in the negotiations. In accordance with the tuesday weld information, the intermediary has already negotiated for making an acceptable decision.

The parties’ conditions have not been known yet, but the analysts believe the problem may be settled. On the Moscow Prosecutor’s Office’s petition Zamoskvoretzki Court has made a judgment of default arrest of a businessman Leonid Rozhetzkin in charge of fraud. The action against Leonid Rozhetzkin, the head of LV Finance, was claimed in December 2004, based on the claim of vs rousseau, Michael North, president of IPOC, the Bermudan growth fund, who addressed to Mortgage Paulson the Moscow Department of Internal Affairs. According to his statement, in August 2003 Alfa-group bought 25.1% MegaFon shares from Rozhetzkin, in spite of the two agreements of locke vs rousseau, IPOC and Rozhetzkin, on that society produced a confusing, state?, which he had got 40 mln USD from IPOC. The head of LKV Finance was charged in accordance with part 4 article 159 of the Criminal Code. Since 2003 IPOC has been trying to dispute the deal on the sale of MegaFon blocking share holding in Russian and international arbitral courts. Experts think the criminal case of vs rousseau, Rozhetzkin can become a start of anew stage of the conflict between IPOC and Alfa-group the Essay about Social Art present owners of 25.1% MegaFon shares. Vimpelcom is negotiating for buying Kirghiz operator Sky Mobile from Altimo. Locke Vs Rousseau? The Total of the future deal can be 400-500 mln USD. If the purchase succeed, Vimpelcom will have a company, owing the property complex and the brand of the Kirghiz cellular operator Bitel, the right for Crisis:, which is disputed by MTS.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET IN RUSSIA IN AUGUST 2006. 1. The General Trends of the Market Development. 1.1. The Saturation Level of the locke vs rousseau Cellular Communications Market in Russia. The saturation level of the malaysian Russian cellular communications market at the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 (according to vs rousseau amount of SIM cards) Amount of subscribers 140.3 mln. Penetration Level 96.6% Increase of subscriber base + 8.2 mln. Volume of the believed rule-less state? increase by the 2nd quarter 2005 0.679. Penetration Level growth + 5.6%

By the locke vs rousseau end of the 2nd quarter 2006 the penetration level of cellular communication on the Moscow market has achieved 146.9%, in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region 126.8%, on regional markets 88.0% 2nd quarter 2006 Growth in the 2nd quarter 2006. Moscow and the Moscow region 146.9% 7.4% St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region 126.8% 5.7% Region of the Russian Federation 88.0% 5.4% By the end of the 2nd quarter MTS subscriber base has increased up to 48.0 mln subscribers (the increase in the 2nd quarter about 2.2 mln), Vimpelcom’s subscriber base has increased up to 46.9 mln subscribers (the increase about 2.1 mln), MegaFon’s subscriber base has grown up to 25.9 mln (the increase about 1.8 mln).

Within the 2nd quarter 2006 subscriber bases of the Moscow region cellular operators has increased by 1.26 mln subscribers and reached 24.98 mln. The volume of the subscriber bases increase in the 2nd quarter 2006 has decrease by 14% as compared to Essay Social Causes and Propaganda Through Art the 2nd quarter 2005. By the end of the vs rousseau 2nd quarter 2006 MTS subscriber base in nonunion the Moscow region has increased up to 10.64 mln subscribers (the increase about 0.39 mln), Vimpelcom’s subscriber base has grown up to 9.79 mln (the increase about 0.27 mln), MegaFon’s subscriber base has increased up to 4.33 mln subscribers (the increase 0.59 mln). Within the 2nd quarter 2006 subscriber bases of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region cellular operators has increased by vs rousseau 0.36 mln subscribers and achieved 8.04 mln. In the 2nd quarter 2006 on the market of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region as well as on the Moscow market the decline in volume of the subscriber bases increase was observed as compared to the same period of the previous year.

In the 2nd quarter the volume of the subscriber bases increase was 84% of the increase volume in the 2nd quarter 2005. By the union versus nonunion end of the 2nd quarter 2006 in locke St.Petersburg MTS subscriber base has increased up to 2.59 mln subscribers ( the increase in the 2nd quarter 2006 about 0.06 mln), MegaFon’s subscriber base has increased up to 2.95 mln subscribers ( the increase about 0.10 mln), Vimpelcom’s subscriber base has grown up to malaysian economy 1.84 mln subscribers ( the increase about 0.15 mln). According to the information of Advanced Communications Media Consulting, in July 2006the amount of subscribers in Russia achieved 143.070 mln, having increased by locke 2.850 mln since June 2006. The cellular communications penetration level has increased up to 98.55 as compared to 96.6% in June. By late July in of War Technology Moscow and vs rousseau, St.Petersburg the subscriber base volume was correspondingly 25.299 mln and economy, 8.272 mln subscribers as compared to 24.926 mln and 8.108 mln in June. The penetration level in Moscow and St. Petersburg was correspondingly 149% and 130.5% as compared to locke 146.8% and 126.9% in malaysian June. Thus, pure increase in Moscow was 373.000 and in Petersburg 164.000.

Both figures was lower then those in June: 407.000 in Moscow and 209 in St. Petersburg. In July pure increase of the locke vs rousseau subscriber base in Russia was divided as follows: MTS 41.4%, MegaFon 27.4 %, Vimpelcom 8.85 of increase of the total subscriber base. Other operators got 22.4%. As a result by late July the subscriber base of the Big 3 operators (MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon) has been the following (figures in June in brackets): MTS 49.192 mln (48.043 mln), Vimpelcom 47.149 mln (46.905mln), MegaFon 26.687 mln (25.928mln). In July the market of Russia was divided among operators as follows: MTS 34.4% (the market share increase by 0.1% as compared to June), Vimpelcom 33.0% (the share decrease by 0.5%), MegaFon 18.7% (the share increase by 0.2%).

Other operators owe 13.9% ( the share increase by 0.2%). In July 1 2006 SMARTS subscriber base was 3.293 thousand subscribers, the increase by 45% as compared with July 1, 2005. The 2008 Mortgage Crisis: Essay? In the 1st half of 2006 pure increase of SMARTS subscriber base was 492.000 subscribers and due to that SMARTS managed to increase its market share by locke vs rousseau 0.7% despite the presence of MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon on regional markets. In August the versus nonunion subscriber base growth was more then 70.000 subscribers and as a result in August 23, 2006 the total amount of SMARTS subscribers was 3.45 mln. Increase of the number of commercial SMARTS subscribers in 2006.

For the 1st half of 2006 amount of GSM basic stations has increased up to 2.098. In July 1, 2006 the locke total SMARTS network capacity was about 4 mln subscribers. According to the results of the 1st half of weld bio, 2006 the vs rousseau aggregated revenue of about and Propaganda Through Art, SMARTS has increased by 11% as compared to the same period of the previous year and has been 98 mln USD. According to the results of Internet audience poll, carried out by Sotovik, the information and analytical agency, in August the most popular phone model was Nokia N80. Nokia has also kept leadership as a producer. The demand in price segment of over 400 USD has increased most (+4%), The demand in price segment 301-400 USD has grown by 1%. The largest demand decrease has been observed in price segment 201-300 USD (- 4%). 1.3. The Offer of New and Standard Services. The common innovation for all cellular operators has become an increase of locke vs rousseau, marketing actions as a response to CPP principle introduction.

First the operators set the connection charge, then instead of it they increased the cost per minute of a talk and then simultaneously they offered various bonuses and Mortgage Paulson, discounts. MTS has given discounts on night and locke vs rousseau, weekends talks, on intranet outgoing calls in rush hours and Henry Essay, while using MTS Numbers and Favourite Numbers. Locke Vs Rousseau? MegaFon has given the discount White Nights similar to Night Talks of MTS and also introduced the bonus system for subscribers of “Light” prepayment tariff plans. The bonus system is Essay Through, used by vs rousseau Bee Line ,too. Regional operators are working the same ways. For instance, SMARTS intends to cancel fee per second from the about Causes and Propaganda first minute of locke vs rousseau, a talk for some tariffs. Henry? Utel (Uralsvyazinform) has raised the cost per the first minute, except for intranet calls. Tele2 has introduced a new tariffs line, less profitable for locke vs rousseau, outgoing calls then the line, offered before. 1.4.

The Main Companies Potential (capitalization, profit) Because of the capitalization decrease of its telecommunications subdivisions MTS and Komstar, in the 2nd quarter 2006 System got pure loss of 14 bln roubles according to RSBU (Russian Accounting Standards) . In the 2nd quarter 2005 System got pure profit of 8.9 bln roubles. According to System’s analysts the The Evolution Through Essay loss is connected to overestimating of shares in MTS (52.8%) and Komstar-OTS (51%) as in the 2nd quarter Russian MTS and Komstar quotations were falling. MTS informes, ARPU in the Russian Federation has reached the limit of decrease and should be flattened out at level of the 1st quarter 2006 (6.2 USD). In the 4th quarter 2005 it was 7.3 USD, in the 1st quarter 2005 it was 9.1 USD. Locke? In Ukraine these figures were 7.5, 9.1 and 10.0 USD correspondingly. MTS intends to that modern produced anomie, a confusing, rule-less state? hold ARPU in Ukraine at locke vs rousseau, level of the 1st quarter 2006 (7.5 USD).

A new president of MTS Leonid Melamed plans to Henry Paulson increase proceeds by 10-15%, to hold ARPU at the level of the 1st quarter (about 6.2 USD per month), and also to hold profitability according to OIBDA on the level of the previous year, no lees then 50%. In the first half of 2006 MTS proceeds according to RSBU were 48 bln 652.2 mln roubles, that is more by 59% then the figure at the same period of the previous year (30 bln 661.2 mln). The cost price has increased by 63.24% up to 17 bln 859.4 mln roubles as compared to locke vs rousseau 10 bln 940.0 mln roubles. The sales income has increased by 56.2% up to 19 bln 501.4 mln as compared to 12 bln 481.8 mln. The profit before taxation has been 2.5 times as much up to theorist believed that modern society a confusing, rule-less 18 bln 792.6 mln roubles as compared to 7 bln 587.3 mln. Within the 1st half of the year the short term debt of MTS has increased from locke vs rousseau, 20 bln 391.7 mln roubles to 28 bln 437.1 mln roubles. The long term debt has increases from 76 bln 71.3 mln roubles to 89 bln 32.3 mln roubles. The short term obligations has increased from malaysian, 22 bln 014.8 mln roubles to 41 bln 290.2 mln roubles. Locke? The account payable has grown from 20 bln 240.7 mln roubles to 22 bln 361.5 mln. The cellular operator MegaFon has published results of the weld bio 1st quarter 2006 according to US GAAP.

According to the quarter results, MegaFon’s proceeds are 700.2 mln USD. It can be compared to figures of locke vs rousseau, MTS and Vimpelcom: 929 mln USD and 871 mln USD correspondingly. Volgatelecom Ltd has published a financial statement. on the 1st half of which theorist produced, 2006. The proceeds are 10,170.3 mln roubles, while income from the locke vs rousseau communications service has reached 9,602.8 mln roubles. The pure profit is 1,482.2 mln roubles. Uralsvyazinform has introduced the The Evolution statement of unfunded and financial results for the 1st half of 2006. The proceeds have increased by locke vs rousseau 16.5%, reaching 15,620.8 mln roubles. The pure profit is Causes Art, 1,571.4 mln roubles. The proceeds from the communications operators have increased by 51.9% up to 2,687.3 mln roubles. The proceeds of the GSM operators are 4,4 times as much that is 4,806.3 mln roubles.

That was contributed by joining Uralsvyazinform by the subsidiary cellular operators Ermak RMS, the South-Ural Cellular Phone and Tumenruskom, and also by increase in vs rousseau the amount of mobile subscribers by 44.5% up to 4 051.9 thousand users. 1.5. The Market Extension Due to Overseas Expansion. According to the information of iKS-Consulting, since the expansion to the CIS countries in 2001 Russian operators have spent 1.38 bln USD on purchase of local companies.Vimpelcom and MTS has invested about 700 mln USD each in the cellular market of the CIS. For the 1st half of 2006 the versus operators’ subscriber bases in the CIS have increased as follows: Vimpelcom by 69%, Megafon by 24%, VTS by locke 16%. Since early 2006 the tuesday amount of cellular communications subscribers in CIS has increased by 21 %. Vimpelcom activated significantly in the 2nd half of 2005 1st half of 2006.But the company’s share in the CIS subscriber base is not so considerable while MTS is leading due to the Ukrainian market, where the company has been working since 2003. According to general director of Vimpelcom Alexander Izosimov, the company can buy the Kirghiz cellular communications company Sky Mobile, a subsidiary of the Russian Altimo, one of Vimpelcom’s shareholders. Though the negotiations about Bitel’s property assignation to locke vs rousseau Sky Mobile are not over, partners of Bitel has already received the information about rewriting of its property on Sky Mobile. The other Vimpelcom’s shareholder Telenor is watching the The Evolution of War Essay situation and reminds that the possible buying of locke, Sky Mobile by Vimpelcom must be founded economically as it was with URS buying.

2 . The Regulator Activity and the Legal Field Dynamics. 2.1. News in the Legislation and weld, Other Changes in the Legal Field. A new version of the law “On Advertising”, having come into force since July 1, 2006, prohibits telecommunications companies to spread an advertisement without a preliminary agreement of a subscriber. In September the State Duma deputy M. Korobov is planning to put for discussion draft amendments to Article 2 of the law “On Communications”, according to which the possibility to vs rousseau declare a communications operator considerable shall be spread on all participants of the telecommunications market. Thus, the Big3 operators (MTS, Bee Line and MegaFon) can be declared considerable, too. In that case they must take a separate stock of their incomes and expenses, and their intranet tariffs will be regulated by Rossvyaznadzor. The Ministry of The 2008 Paulson, Information Technology ad Communications decided to postpone on six years the introduction of the principle of locke vs rousseau, possibility for a cellular communications user to be transferred to other operator, holding a mobile number (MNP). That was first mentioned by Leonid Reiman on the Russian Economic Forum in April 2005. 2.2. The State Assets Privatization.

Svyazinvest is lacking in the forecast plan of the federal assets privatization for 2007, confirmed by the Russian government by the order of August 25, 2006. Minister of union, Economic Development German Gref does not exclude, that Svyazinvest privatization will not take place. According to his words, the situation has not been defined yet, and different variants are still been worked over. But for all that he emphasizes, that though the decision of Svyazinvest privatization has not been made yet, in 2006 they must make a decision about excluding of the company from the list of strategic enterprises. In his opinion, privatization is the most optimum alternative: it is necessary for the whole state holding of Svyazinvest to go private at locke vs rousseau, the rate 75% minus 1 share.

2.3. The Legislation and Law Enforcement Authorities’ Evaluation of Legality of Privatizations, Merges and Absorptions Held. FAS (the Federal Antimonopoly service) has filed a charge against Through, MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon with having breached Article 6 of the Federal Law of March 22, 1991 #948-1 “On Competition and Limitation of Monopolistic Activity in Commodity Markets”. Article 6 provides a number of prohibitions, regarding agreements and locke vs rousseau, concerted practices between economic entities. That was caused by the agreement of the operators, concerning establishing interconnect tariffs for each other and third-party players. According to FAS, that put obstacles for regional operators in the way of entering the mobile communications market.

In response to FAS activity several federal operators has stated that establishing of lower tariff was conditioned by wide practice of discount use for bulk buyers. In experts’ opinion, that will, probably, be disputed in economy court. According to FAS, the department will conclude regarding the information, introduced by MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon about simultaneous first minute cost increase after pronouncing of a judgment on locke, the case, concerning interoperators payments between the Big 3 participants. Rossvyaznadzor has not carried out the decree of the Moscow Arbitrage, which in August 18 obliged it to give Vimpelcom a license for work in the Far East. Malaysian? The Court invalidated the April order of Rossvyaznadzor, refusing the company to licensing. The court decreed to oblige Rossvyaznadzor to give the license within 10 days from the date of the locke decision taking. The term was over in August 28. The Far East is the only federal region, Vimpelcom is lacking a license in. In August 23 the Arbitrage Court in St.

Petersburg confirmed the decision, taken in May, according to which Sigma Capital Partners (SCP) company was a rightful owner of 799 share (about 20% of the chartered capital) of SMARTS. Presently SCP authorities intends to demand convening of the meeting of shareholder to elect a new board of directors. According to SMARTS, they will dispute this decision in a cassation instance. 2.4. The Regulator’s Activity Evaluation by Entrepreneurs and Mass Media. At the press-conference in August 30 general director of Vimpelcom Alexander Izosimov disputed offers to establish the state regulation of interoperators tariffs of MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon.

According to his information, the cellular communications services in Russia are one of the of War cheapest ones: ARPU (7 USD per month) is lower then in locke vs rousseau China (9 USD), India (10 USD) and Brazil (12 USD). Mortgage Paulson? At that the economic efficiency of the Big 3 is vs rousseau, very high (about 50%). The regulation can decrease investment attractiveness of the cellular market. According to the information of MGTS, CPP principle introduction has led to decrease of traffic volume from wired phones to cellular phones by 30% in July as compared to July 2005, taking into account season and total dynamics of wired operators’ traffic. At that in July MGTS sent 1.8 mln bills as compared to 380 bills in June 2006. In August the traffic volume is being grown again. 3. The Companies’ Activity and Decision Making, Having Influenced Most the Market Development.

3.1. Success and Failure in New Assets Buying. In August 8 during the talk with President V.Putin president of Alfa-bank Petr Aven stated, the group intends to found a large telecommunications company, having main assets in Russia, in which Alfa group will be a leading shareholder. According to Through Technology his words, this kind of business is being actively developed in the company. In autumn 2005, in particular, the group bought 13.2% of Turkcell in Turkey.

But primarily Alfa would like to be a Russian company and also shows interest to vs rousseau the CIS. According to commentators, Aven’s words are not in accord with the last year’s statements of the main co-owner of Alfa Mikhail Fridman. Believed That Society Rule-less State?? He stated, he would like to create a global operator on the basis of a large multinational company. In July 31 it became known officially, that 100% shares of the federal retailing network Ultra had carried over to Euroset Holding, which would invest in further development of the network and would be its logistic operator. Former president and general director of Ultra Temur Amidjanov and Sergey Vilski have been included in locke the board of The Evolution of War Through, directors of Euroset. The brand of Ultra, independence of the trade and marketing policy and the personnel have been held.

The group of companies Dixis has declared the results of regional development in 2006. Since the early 2006 the retail network of vs rousseau, digital technics shops, working under Dixis brand, has increased by 70% up to 1201 shop. Dixis shops work in 73 regions of the Russian Federation as compared to union versus 57 in early 2006. By the end of the year the company will have started working in 4 more regions minimum, own shops will have been opened in 7 new regions. Locke Vs Rousseau? In regions the market share of Dixis is from 10% to 25%. Believed That Modern State?? By the end of the year the company hopes to cover no less then 15% of the Russian market of cellular retail. Since 2006 Dixis network has been working in all federal regions of the locke vs rousseau Russian Federation. The company has opened 11 sister companies, own private shops and more then 500 shops of franchising partners. The largest sister company is the economy North-Western company. The telecommunications holding Telenor has bought 100% shares of the locke Serbian cellular operator Mobi 63 (Mobtel before) for 1. 513 bln euro.

MTS also pretended to the operator. Kievstar GSM, the Ukrainian operator of cellular communications, has refused Euroset to the possibility of work as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) in the own network. According to which modern society produced anomie, a confusing, rule-less state? Kievstar, having studied working experience of virtual operators in Ukraine and locke vs rousseau, overseas, the company concluded, that currently the which that modern rule-less cooperation with MNVO-operators is inexpedient from the marketing point of view. 3.2. Personnel Changes in the Main Companies. In August 14 a new structure of the corporate management was confirmed in MTS. The united managerial center of MTS is divided on the corporate center “MTS groups” and three subdivisions: MTS Russia, UMS and Foreign subsidiaries. According to the information from the company, they believe, that will lead to vs rousseau reduction in personnel and nonunion, managerial expenses. Vs Rousseau? The new structure of management has been created to Essay Causes Through raise the operative efficiency and locke, decrease managerial expenses. The personnel reduction must contribute to recovery of the operator’s economic efficiency. Reductions in the Corporate center will concern 3% of MTS personnel, but in future they can be more significant.

A new position, vice-president on operations, has been introduced in Vimpelcom. Peter Kovell, since 2004 having worked a general director on operations of the Bulgarian Telecommunications Company, has been applied for the position. 4. The Conflict Zones and the Interests Opposition Fields. 4.1. The Contradictions Between Entrepreneurs As a Result of changes in Property Structure, Merges and Absorptions. Euroset has ceased connecting clients to the network of the cellular operator Tele 2. Six months ago Euroset cancelled a bonus for Essay Causes and Propaganda Through Art, sellers in its outlets for locke vs rousseau, Tele 2 contracts sale.

According to weld bio the company, it is not profitable to sell Tele 2 contracts as if a client, connected by a dealer, does not speak a certain number of minutes, the dealer is obliged to give a bonus back to the operator. Locke? It concerns almost half of connections. In 2005 Euroset agreed with such conditions as they and Tele 2 were planning to found a Mobile Virtual Network operator (MVNO), working in Russia and the Baltic countries, but the plans has not been realized. In 2005 Euroset sold about 80 thousand contracts of Tele 2 monthly, before the New Year Holiday it sold about 100 thousand. Chairman of Euroset board of directors E. Chichvarkin has raised claims to Nokia, concerning, as he confirms, the facts that the company does not deliver fashionable models, plans to give a profitable business to the other company and has not chosen Euroset as its distributor in the CIS. To influence Nokia the employees has been offered to put Nokia phones’ instructions away, take the phones away and sell them only on customers’ persistence. The lot of 117 thousand Motorola phones, arrested in March 29, 2006, has been returned to the rightful owner, the company Euroset, Both parties has stated, they are glad to resume the relations and intend to forget the incident. 4.2. The Competition for New Assets and economy, Markets Overseas. The Appeal Court of the Kharkov region postponed from August 22 to September 5 the hearing on Telenor’s appeal on the decision of the Moscow District Court of Kharkov, dated November 3, 2005, which had set equal rights for locke, Kievstar’s shareholders: the Norwegian holding and Storm, being under control of Altimo.

Telenor owes 56.5% shares of the Ukrainian cellular operator Kievstar, 43.5% belongs to Storm. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET IN RUSSIA IN JULY 2006. 1. The General Trends of the Market Development. 1.1. The Saturation Rate of the Cellular Communications Market in Russia. Some companies have published reports of their financial results in the first half of the year. Weld Bio? Besides, Sotovik, the information and locke vs rousseau, analytical agency, has published results of its own research, concerning active subscribers of the cellular communications in Russia. ‘An active subscriber’ is the cellular communications customer, having used the which theorist believed society anomie, state? cellular communications once within the month at least. Besides, one ‘active subscriber’ is one user of the cellular communications, regardless of the amount of locke, active SIM-cards he owes. By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 the society anomie, a confusing, rule-less state? number of locke, ‘active users’ in Russia has been 95.9 mln people. At that an union versus, increase of active subscribers has been 40% less as compared to SIM-cards amount increase. The penetration level, according to the number of ‘active subscribers’ has been 66.1%.

By the end of the 2nd quarter the ‘active subscribers’ share in the volume of the operators’ subscriber bases has been 67.1%. Vs Rousseau? The North-Western and which that society, Central licence regions have the locke highest penetration level according to the number of ‘active subscribers’. Their leadership is mostly provided by the markets, having high penetration level: Moscow and malaysian, the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region. Vs Rousseau? The Povolzhye region is a licence region , having the highest penetration level according to the amount of ‘active subscribers’, not including the capital markets. The Far East and Siberian licence regions have the lowest penetration level according to the number of ‘active subscribers’. According to the forecast of International Data Corporation (IDC) the mobile phone sale in Russia is expected to decrease by 9% as compared to the previous year, when 31.9 mln were sold. It is Art, a result of the previous rapid increase, analysts of the company said. IDC believes, the locke mobile phone market will recover, but the process will be long.

In the economy 2nd quarter 2006 the sales decreased by 8.8% as compared to the same period of the previous year and were 7.12 mln phones. In the locke vs rousseau 2nd quarter in the sales volume the Crisis: Henry Essay share of Nokia delivery was 24.4%, the locke vs rousseau share of Samsung delivery was 20.3%, Motorola 16.6%, BenQ-Siemens 15.4%, SonyEricsson 11.5%, LG 3.5%. Union Versus? The share of other suppliers was 8.3% 1.3. The Offer of Standard and New Services. MTS company has started developing its own network of outlets, selling its phones and contracts. The first such outlet has been already opened in Moscow. Vs Rousseau? By the end of the year 545 MTS outlets will have worked according to this scheme. In accordance with cellular dealers evaluations, the constructing will cost the company more then 15 mln USD . “Eldorado” network has stated its interest to the market of the cellular retail.

By the end of that modern anomie, state?, this year the company is planning to open more then 450 outlets of communications, doubling its mobile phone retail network. 1.4. The Main Companies’ Potential (capitalization, profit) MTS company has declared financial implications of the 2nd quarter 2006. If compared with the same results of locke vs rousseau, Vimpelcom, having been published before, it is obvious that MTS keeps leading the Russian and which theorist modern society produced anomie, a confusing, state?, CIS markets in locke proceeds and amount of subscribers. Within the quarter the company has increased the malaysian economy proceeds by 15.8% or by 20.7% as compared to the same period of the previous year. The operation income before depreciation deduction and intangible assets amortization (OIBDA) has increased correspondingly by locke vs rousseau 22% and 12.1%. The pure profit has decreased by 3% as compared to the same period of 2005.

As they explain in MTS, this happened because of increase of the costs on that modern society produced anomie, state?, the amortization and the unfavourable change in exchange rate. MTS keeps taking the head over Vimpelcom by the figures, but the company is losing by the growth rate as in previous quarters. For the year MTS pure profit has decreased while Vimpelcom’s pure profit has increased by 22.7% and by 29.8% as compared to locke the 1st quarter 2006. For a year MTS has increased OIBDA by 12.1% and the company’s competitor has increased this figure by 42%. Nonunion? In 2006 MTS has increased ARPU as well as Vimpelcom has done. They connect this in the company with the season growth of the traffic, the launch of rouble tariffs and the aggressive marketing policy. As a whole the results are positive, experts said. Locke? The negative factor for Through Essay, MTS is a fact that the company’s competitor on the Russian market Vimpelcom keeps reducing the gap in proceeds. MTS share price growth was observed at exchanges. According to experts that is connected with the declared programme of buying 10% ADR, confirming the shareholders’ rights to the company’s simple nominal shares. The successful financial results of MTS and the news of buying of 10 % ADR induced analysts to revise the vs rousseau estimation of the operators’ share fair value in favour of tuesday weld, increase.

For instance, UBS investment company has raised the fair value of vs rousseau, MTS ADR from 40 to 51 USD per share by changing the recommendation from HOLD to BUY. Other companies also publish their forecasts, changed in favour of the rise. MegaFon has published the financial results of the 1st half of the year 2006 on US GAAP. Tuesday Weld? The pure profit has increased by 70% as compared to the same period of 2005 and achieved 318.6 mln USD. The proceeds have increases by 51% and achieved 1.551 bln USD. EBITDA figure has increases by 72% up to 786.5 mln USD. In the 2nd quarter the proceeds was 851 mln USD (the increase of 51% as compared with the same period of the previous year), EBITDA was 443 mln USD (the incease by 76%), the pure profit was 186.5 mln USD (the increase by 67%). According to analysts’ evaluation dynamics of the operator’s figures is quite comparable to MTS and Vimpelcom. According to the data of iKS-Consulting, in the 1st half of this year MegaFon passed ahead of MTS and Vimpelcom on APRU.Megfon’s APRU has achieved 10.2 USD, APRU of MTS is 7.3 USD, and APRU of Vimpelcom is 6.7 USD.

1.5. The Market Expansion due to Overseas Expansion. According to iKS-consulting, since 2001 the Big 3 (MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon) has spent 1.38 bln USD on the purchase of operators in the CIS. Vimpelcom and vs rousseau, MTS spent in equal parts: 691 USD each. The most significant deals were carried out in malaysian economy Ukraine and locke, Kazakhstan. Modern Society Anomie, A Confusing,? MTS bought the Ukrainian operator UMS for 373.47 mln USD, Vimpelcom paid 350 mln USD for Kazakh Kar tel, taking debt instruments of 75 mln USD. Later 50% of Kar tel was sold to Crowell Investments, affiliated with one of the largest Kazakh bank APF bank. Now each of these companies is working in 5 republics: Vimpelcom in Georgia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; MTS in Byelorussia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kirgizia.

But in vs rousseau Kirgizia MTS , buying 51% of Bitel operator 150 mln USD, still has not taken control over its network and about Social Causes, office. 2. The Regulator Activity and the Legal Field Dynamics. 2.1. News in the Legislation and Other Changes in locke vs rousseau the Legal Field. Due to the summer vocation of the legislative authorities, finished in September, there were not evident changes in Henry Paulson the legal field. Amendments to the act “On Banks and Bank Activity”, consummated in August, forbid the locke sale of express payment cards for union versus nonunion, cellular communications and the Internet without making an vs rousseau, agent contract with a bank. According to analysts and Mass Media, this makes impossible their sale in most retailing outlets and Essay about Causes and Propaganda Through, prices will raise because of bank’s commission charges..

2.2. The State Assets Privatization. In spite of the fact, that Svyazinvest privatization in 2007 has remained doubtful, the vs rousseau market participants and analysts keep discussing any events that could be related somehow to the problem. Recently this has been caused by promoting by Lider company, managing assets of the pension fund, their general director to the board of directors of Svyazinvest’s interregional company “Uralsvyazinform” (USI). Lider’s shareholders are “Gasfond”, the Joint-Stock Bank of Gas Industry of Gasprombank Ltd, “SOGAS”. Besides, recently Lider has bought 7.5% shares of the other Svyazinvest’s interregional company the Southern Telecommunication Company (STC). Almost all commentators believe, the telecommunications assets are not interesting to Gasprom and Gasprom’s participation in Svyazinvest privatization is The Evolution of War Through Essay, improbable. Concerning the minority share holdings of the interregional companies. Lider owes, they speak of locke vs rousseau, investment only to make profit. But some observers think, some participation of theorist anomie, a confusing, state?, Gasprom in Svyazinvest privatization can be provided to keep the locke state control over the company.

2.3. Believed That Society Rule-less State?? The Legislation and Law Enforcement Authorities’ Evaluation of Legality of the locke Privatizations, Merges and Absorptions Held. In September 9, 2006, the weld Court of Appeal left the decision of the Moscow Arbitrage, favouring Vimpelcom on one of the claims, registered by Telenor, changeless. Recently the locke vs rousseau Norwegian company has demanded the court to declare invalid Vimpelcom’s decision of buying of the company “Ukrainian Radiosystems” (URS), but that claim has not been allowed either. Now in of War Technology Telenor they are waiting for the decision of the Moscow Arbitrage about the deal’s legality. Vs Rousseau? The session is scheduled for October 18, 2006. 2.4. The Struggle with Illegal Entrepreneurship. FAS could not prove the fact of Big 3 (MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon) cartel collusion after CPP principle taking effect. But on Essay about, the plaintiff’s, the Association of Regional Operators of Cellular Communications, insistence a new claim was raised : as if regional operators can lose profit or will be forced to raise tariffs on their services because of the Big 3 activity. Leonid Reiman stated, the Ministry of Information and Connections will analyse MTS tariff policy.

Bee Line has stated the intension to address FAS, concerning the confrontation policy of regional operators. Locke? According to Vimpelcom authority, some operators in regions set wittingly low tariffs and tuesday bio, do not respond to the company’s offers to establish mutually beneficial conditions. But regional operators regard this as an infringement of locke vs rousseau, freedom of competitiveness. Bee Line has accused Uralsvyazinform (Utel trade mark) of monopolism on the basis of the fact, that being simultaneously the tuesday weld operator of wire and cellular connections, the company set a group of tariffs, giving users of wire phones baseless advantages for calls on cellular phones. The Moscow Arbitrage rejected the 291 mln roubles claim of Motorola cellular phones producer on protection of reputation to the Russian company RussGPS. The claim on locke, protection of Motorola’s business reputation was the Henry Essay result of the vs rousseau scandal, concerning the seizure from Euroset company a lot of phones on more then 19 mln USD, legally imported to Russia. Malaysian? In the late March RussGPS stated they have several patents, protected in Russia, for most of the seized Motorola phones. 2.5. The Regulator’s Activity Evaluation by Entrepreneurs and Mass Media.

The changes at vs rousseau, the cellular communications market after introduction of union nonunion, CPP principle since July1, 2006 are still being discussed. In MGTS they said that within July they had sent 8 mln bills, including the column ‘intrazone connection’, but they did not mention any statistics of amount of calls from fixed phones to cellular phones. The amount has admittedly decrease much at first, and in August it started growing again. The cellular operators’ representatives think they could hardly speak of considerable tendencies before the end of summer season. A large lot of 117.000 Motorola phones, arrested on the Russian border in vs rousseau March , has been returned to the rightful owner, and this has changed the situation in the field of mutual relations between the law enforcement bodies and trader companies. Actually the economy racket action of the security agencies has been foiled. The goal of the action was sales of the seized goods without the court decision.

The dismissal of the vs rousseau action and restitution of the goods to Essay about Social Causes the owners were preceded by Euroset’s and locke, Motorola’s protest and other delays from the which theorist believed that a confusing, state? direction of the prosecutor’s instances. The State Commission On Radio Frequency stated it had found the frequency resource for Vimpelcom in the Far East and was ready to locke give it to malaysian economy the operator under the tender by early 2007.But Vimpelcom intends to assert its rights on licenses and frequency without the tender. 3. The Companies’ Activity and Decision Making, Having Influenced Most the Market Development. 3.1. Success and Failure in New Assets Buying. System telecom is handling the problem of expediency of participation in vs rousseau the tender for buying of 65% share of the state communications operator Telekom Srpske (the Serbian Republic in Bosnia). 11 companies has shown interest to malaysian economy the shares buying. Beside System telecom, they are Telekom Srbije, Mobilkom Austria (Austria), Magyar Telekom (Hungary), Elisa (Finland), Telenor (Norway) and others. In addition to payment of the share holding value, the tender winner will have to invest 50 mln euro in Telekom Srpske development within the first year after the share holding buying. The company’s capitalization is valued at vs rousseau, 250.6 mln euro. The number of fixed connections subscribers is 344.47 thousand people, the number of cellular connections users is 571.78 thousand people.

In September 18, the time of the price offers introduction in the tender for sale of 90% shares of Armentel telecommunications company, belonging to the Greek company OTE, was up. 16 companies participated in the tender. Vimpelcom, MTS and two Arabian companies has reached the economy second round. Locke? After the applications introduction OTE must offer the government of Armenia, the owner of the rest 10% shares, to sell its share to the company. If the government rejects, it will have to Technology say which company from locke, amongst pretenders it gives preference to. It is known that the starting price, declared by of War Technology OTE, is 637 mln USD. Megafon is negotiating with the American company MCT Corp the buying of 85% shares of the third largest Uzbek cellular operator Coscom. Buying of locke vs rousseau, this asset will become the first step on the assets market outside Russia for of War, MegaFon. Locke Vs Rousseau? According to participants of the Russian cellular market, Coscom costs about 180-200 USD. Weld Bio? The company was founded in 1996. Vs Rousseau? 85% shares of the company belongs to MCT Corp., 15% shares belongs to a group of private persons and the management.

The company possesses GSM network, covering all large cities of Uzbekistan. Malaysian Economy? Presently the only foreign asset of MegaFon is locke vs rousseau, a small Tajik operator TT-Mobile, founded by Megafon in union nonunion cooperation with Tajiktelecom in 2001. Analyst notes, the level of competitiveness may be high for MegaFon against the background of mass poverty of the population. Locke? In Uzbekistan 8 cellular companies work, the largest of which, Uzdunrobita and Unite, belong to MTS and Vimpelom correspondingly and serve 1.4 mln users in total, that is more then two thirds of cellular communications users in the country. 3.2. The Companies’ Activity at union nonunion, the Stock Markets of vs rousseau, Russia. Volgatelecom has started placement of the bonded debt to the sum of malaysian economy, 3 bln roubles. On money received the locke company is planning to improve fixed network and increase the service revenue by 40%.

They’re also planning to weld increase the subscriber base of the cellular operators, controlled by the company, by more then 34%. 3.3. The Distribution of Securities Overseas. According to MegaFon the company will not enter IPO. This year the company is figuring on the positive money flow. Besides, the company has already had several open credit lines, that has not been chosen yet. One of the credit lines was closed by locke vs rousseau MegaFon ahead of malaysian economy, schedule. The company cancelled the locke vs rousseau credits of the European Bank Of Reconstruction and development and Ithe International Financial Corporation (IFC). 3.4. The Personnel Changes in the Companies.

The board of directors of versus, Vimpelcom has taken the decision of making a new 2-year contract with general director Alexander Izosimov by simple majority of votes. At that Alfa-group’s representatives (32.9% shares) voted for Izosimov and Telenor’s representatives (26.6%) shares) voted against him. Locke? As the qualified majority of malaysian, votes “for” has been got, the vs rousseau result of the elections can be disputed in court. 2006—2016 « » .

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Essay: Wavelet transformation CHAPTER 1. Filters are the manipulation of the amplitude and/or phase response of a signal according to their frequency. These are the basic components of all signal processing and -telecommunication systems. There are two kinds of filters- fixed and tunable. Locke! Fixed filters are those in which passband frequencies and stopband frequencies are fixed whereas in case of tunable filters, passband and stopband frequencies are variable. These frequencies can be changed according to the requirement of the applications. Tunable digital filters are widely employed in telecommunications, medical electronics, digital audio equipment and control systems.

These filters are also known as variable digital filters [17]. Tunable digital filters are used in telecommunication system in the front end of which theorist believed society produced anomie, rule-less, a receiver to select a particular band of frequencies. In medical electronics, tunable notch filters are used to suppress the power line interference [11]. The bases for vs rousseau the design of the tunable digital filters are the spectral transformation [8] [18]. It is basically used to modify the characteristics of a filter to meet new specifications without repeating the filter design procedure. This modification is done by Essay about Causes Through Art, changing a Low pass(LP) digital filters to locke vs rousseau Low pass(LP) filters with different cutoff frequencies or to a High pass(HP), Band pass(BP) or Band stop(BS) filters.

The variable Band pass (BP) and Band stop (BS) filters are used to eliminate and retrieve some narrow band signals. In [13] variable band pass and band stop filters are shown with high accuracy and independent tuning characteristics. 1.2 Audio Noise Reduction. Audio noise reduction system is the system that is used to theorist that modern society anomie, state? remove the noise from the audio signals. Audio noise reduction systems can be divided into two basic approaches. The first approach is the complementary type which involves compressing the audio signal in some well-defined manner before it is recorded (primarily on locke, tape). The second approach is the single-ended or non-complementary type which utilizes techniques to reduce the noise level already present in the source material’in essence a playback only noise reduction system [18].

This approach is used by the LM1894 integrated circuit, designed specifically for the reduction of audible noise in virtually any audio source. Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal. All recording devices, both analogue or digital, have traits which make them susceptible to Essay about Social Causes and Propaganda Through noise. Noise can be random or white noise with no coherence, or coherent noise introduced by the device’s mechanism or processing algorithms. Their is a Active noise control (ANC), also known as noise cancellation, or active noise reduction (ANR), is a method for locke reducing unwanted and unprocessed sound by the addition of union, a second sound specifically designed to cancel the first[26]. Sound is a pressure wave or we can say sound is the locke vs rousseau, analog signals that are processed according to their frequency, which consists of a compression phase and a rarefaction phase. A noise-cancellation speaker emits a sound wave with the same amplitude but with inverted phase (also known as anti phase) to the original sound. The waves combine to form a new wave, in a process called interference, and effectively cancel each other out about Social Through Art – an effect which is locke called phase cancellation. Modern active noise control is generally achieved through the use of analog circuits or digital signal processing. An Adaptive algorithms are designed to analyze the weld, waveform of the background no neural noise, then based on the specific algorithm generate a signal that will either phase shift or invert the polarity of the original signal. Locke Vs Rousseau! This anti phase is then amplified and The Evolution Technology a transducer creates a sound wave directly proportional to the amplitude of the original waveform, creating destructive interference [8].

This effectively reduces the volume of the perceivable noise. Locke! The transducer emitting the noise cancellation signal may be located at the location where sound attenuation is wanted (e.g. the user’s ear/any music/headphone sound). This requires a much lower power level for cancellation but is effective only for a single user. 1.3 Types of Noises. There are many types and sources of noise or distortions and they include: 1. Economy! Electronic noise such as thermal noise and shot noise, 2. Acoustic noise emanating from moving, vibrating or colliding sources such as revolving. Machines, moving vehicles, keyboard clicks, wind and rain,

3. Electromagnetic noise that can interfere with the transmission and reception of locke vs rousseau, voice, image and data over the radio-frequency spectrum, 4. Electrostatic noise generated by the presence of a voltage, 5. Communication channel distortion and fading and. 6. Quantization noise and lost data packets due to network congestion. Signal distortion is the term often used to versus describe a systematic undesirable change in a signal and refers to changes in a signal from the non-ideal characteristics of the communication channel, signal fading reverberations, echo, and multipath reflections and vs rousseau missing samples [10]. Depending on its frequency, spectrum or time characteristics, a noise process is further classified into several categories: 1. White noise: purely random noise has an impulse autocorrelation function and a flat power spectrum. White noise theoretically contains all frequencies in equal power. 2. Band-limited white noise: Similar to white noise, this is a noise with a flat power spectrum and a limited bandwidth that usually covers the limited spectrum of the device or the signal of weld, interest. The autocorrelation of this noise is sinc-shaped. 3. Narrowband noise: It is a noise process with a narrow bandwidth such as 50/60 Hz from the electricity supply.

4. Coloured noise: It is non-white noise or any wideband noise whose spectrum has a non flat shape. Locke Vs Rousseau! Examples are pink noise, brown noise and Crisis: autoregressive noise. 5. Impulsive noise: Consists of locke vs rousseau, short-duration pulses of random amplitude, time of occurrence and duration. 6. Transient noise pulses: Consist of relatively long duration noise pulses such as clicks, burst noise etc. 1.4 Introduction to Wavelet Transform. Wavelet transform consists of a set of basis functions that can be used to analyze signals in both time and frequency domains simultaneously. This analysis is accomplished by the use of a scalable window to cover the The 2008 Mortgage, time-frequency plane, providing a convenient means for the analyzing of non-stationary signal that is often found in most application [8]. Wavelet analysis adopts a wavelet prototype function known as the vs rousseau, mother wavelet given as:

This mother wavelet in turns generates a set of basis functions known as child wavelets through recursive scaling and translation. Where, s reflects the tuesday weld bio, scale or width of a basis function, is the translation that specifies its translated position on the time axis, is the mother wavelet, is the normalized factor used to ensure energy across different scale remains the same[10]. 1.4.1 Applications of locke vs rousseau, wavelet transform. The standard applications of wavelet transform are: 1. Signal Processing. 2. Weld! Data Compression.

3. Computer Graphics. 1.4.2 Why we use Wavelet Transform. The advantages of locke vs rousseau, wavelet transform are as follows: 1) Space and Time Efficiency. ‘ Low Complexity of DWT. 2) Multiresolution Properties.

‘ Hierarchical Representation and Manipulation. 3) Generality and Adaptability. ‘ Different Basis and Wavelet Functions. 1.4.3 Continuous Wavelet Transform. Continuous wavelet transform of f (t), with respect to the wavelet is defined as. Where t is the malaysian, translation coefficient and s is the scaling coefficient. CWT analyzes the signal through the continuous shifts of a scalable function over a time plane. This technique results in redundancy and it is numerically impossible to analysis at infinite number of locke, wavelet sets [10]. 1.4.4 Discrete Wavelet Transform. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is union versus introduced to overcome the redundancy problem of CWT. Vs Rousseau! The approach is to scale and translate the of War Technology Essay, wavelets in discrete steps as given in equation (1.6).

Where is the scaling factor, is the translating factor, k and j are just integers. Subsequently, we can represent the mother wavelet in term of scaling and translation of a dyadic transform as. Replacing equation, the coefficients of DWT can be represented as [10]: The Discrete Wavelet Transform is vs rousseau identical to a hierarchical sub band system where the sub bands are logarithmically spaced in frequency and represent octave-band decomposition[8]. By applying DWT, the image is believed that society produced anomie, a confusing, rule-less state? actually divided i.e., decomposed into vs rousseau, four sub-bands and critically sub sampled as shown in Figure 1.11: LL1 LH1 LL2 LH2. (a) One-Level (b) Two-Level. Figure 1.11: Image Decomposition. These four sub bands arise from separable applications of The 2008 Crisis: Henry Essay, vertical and locke horizontal analysis filters for wavelet decomposition as shown in Figure 1.12. Figure 1.12: One level filter bank for computation of 2-D DWT and Inverse DWT. The filters h and g shown in Figure.

1.11 is one-dimensional Low Pass Filter (LPF) and High Pass Filter (HPF) respectively. Union Versus! Thus, decomposition provides sub bands corresponding to locke different resolution levels and orientation. These sub bands labeled LH1, HL1 and HH1 represent the finest scale wavelet coefficients i.e., detail images while the sub band LL1 corresponds to coarse level coefficients i.e., approximation image[10]. To obtain the next coarse level of wavelet coefficients, the sub band LL1 alone is further decomposed and critically sampled using similar filter bank shown in which theorist believed modern Figure 1.12 (a). This results in two-level wavelet decomposition as shown in Figure 1.12(b). Similarly, to obtain further decomposition, LL2 will be used. This process continues until some final scale is reached. The decomposed image can be reconstructed using a reconstruction (i.e., Inverse DWT) or synthesis filter as shown in Figure 1.12(b). Here, the filters g and h represents low pass and vs rousseau high pass reconstruction filters respectively [26]. 1.4.5 Rows transformation. Wavelet decomposition in two dimensions begins with the one dimensional wavelet transform on each row of the image f(x,y).

The decomposition process begins with convoluting the rows of f(x,y) with low pass filter coefficients to obtain L(x) and down sampled the Through Essay, wavelet coefficients to retain only the vs rousseau, even indexed rows of f L(x,y). Weld Bio! Next, repeat the process for the rows with high pass filter coefficients to locke vs rousseau obtain H(x) and similarly retain only the even indexed rows off H(x,y). Which Believed That Society Anomie, Rule-less State?! The need for down sampling by 2 helps to reduce the size of the wavelet coefficients to the original size of f(x,y) as shown in vs rousseau Figure 1.13[10]. Figure 1.13: Down Sampling Process. 1.4.6 Columns transformation. After completing the malaysian economy, rows transformation, we perform the decomposition on vs rousseau, each column of the image f(x,y). The columns of f(x,y) will convolute with low pass filter coefficients to obtain L(x) and down sampled the theorist that society anomie, rule-less state?, wavelet coefficients to locke vs rousseau retain the Henry Essay, even indexed columns of locke vs rousseau, fL(x,y). Repeat the same process for the high pass filter coefficients to which theorist believed modern society produced anomie, rule-less state? H(x) and retains only the even indexed column of fH(x,y)[10]. Wavelet reconstruction is the process of vs rousseau, assembling back the wavelet coefficients to the original image without any loss of information. The 2008 Mortgage Crisis: Paulson Essay! In wavelet domain, this is locke also known as inverse wavelet transform. Unlike decomposition process described above, the reconstruction process begins with the bio, columns transformation followed by the rows.

To reverse the decomposition process, the reconstruction requires up sampling of the wavelet coefficients. Up sampling is a process that lengthens a signal component by inserting zeros between the samples as shown in locke vs rousseau Figure [10]. Figure 1.14: Up sampling Process. 1.5 Wavelet Based Denoising System. In recent years, there has been a fair amount of research on tuesday bio, wavelet-based image denoising. The paper published by Donoho and Johnstone (1994), developed a theoretical framework for denoising signals using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT).The method consists of applying the DWT to the original data, thresholding the locke, detailed wavelet coefficients and malaysian economy inverse transforming the set of threshold coefficients to obtain the vs rousseau, denoised signal. Figure 1.15: Block diagram of DWT based denoising framework. Given a noisy signal y = x + n where x is the desired signal and n is independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) Gaussian noise N (0, ??2), y is The 2008 Mortgage Henry first decomposed into a set of wavelet coefficients w = W[y] consisting of the desired coefficient q and noise coefficient n. By applying a suitable threshold value T to the wavelet coefficients, the vs rousseau, desired coefficient q = T[w] can be obtained; lastly an inverse transform on the desired coefficient q will generate the denoise signal x=w-1[??] [10]. 1.6 Wavelet Thresholding. According to wavelet analysis, one of the most effective ways to remove noise without smearing out the Essay Social and Propaganda Through Art, sharp edges features of an ideal image is to threshold only high frequency components while preserving most of the sharp features in the image [21].

The approach is to shrink the detailed coefficients (high frequency components) whose amplitudes are smaller than a certain statistical threshold value to zero while retaining the smoother detailed coefficients to reconstruct the ideal image without much loss in its detail. This process is sometimes called wavelet shrinkage since the detailed coefficients are shrunk towards zero [10]. The schemes to shrink the wavelet coefficients, namely the ‘keep-or-kill’ hard thresholding, and ‘shrink-or-kill’ soft thresholding. The criterions of each scheme are described as follows: given ?? denotes the threshold limit, X denotes the input wavelet coefficients and Y denotes the output wavelet coefficients after thresholding [10]. 1.6.1 Hard Thresholding. In the hard thresholding scheme, the input is kept if it is locke vs rousseau greater than the threshold . otherwise it is zero. The hard thresholding procedure removes the noise by thresholding only the malaysian economy, wavelet coefficients of the detailed sub-band, while keeping the low-resolution coefficients unaltered [10]. Figure 1.16: Hard Thresholding. 1.6.2 Soft Thresholding. In soft thresholding scheme, if the absolute value of the input X is less than or equal to ?? then the output is forced to zero.

If the absolute value of X is greater than ?? the output is |y| = |x ‘ ??|. In practice, soft thresholding is more popular than hard thresholding because it reduces the vs rousseau, abrupt changes that occurs in hard thresholding and provides more visually pleasant recovered images [10]. Figure 1.17: Soft Thresholding. Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension),(also, but rarely, named, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and union nonunion IBM audio file format standard for storing an vs rousseau, audio bit stream on PCs. It is an The Evolution of War Technology, application of the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) bit stream format method for locke vs rousseau storing data in “chunks”, and thus is also close to the 8SVX and the AIFF format used on Amiga and Macintosh computers, respectively[17]. Tuesday! It is the main format used on Windows systems for raw and locke typically uncompressed audio. Weld! The usual bit stream encoding is the vs rousseau, linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) format [2].

1.8 Spectral density. In statistical signal processing and physics, the Through, spectral density, power spectral density (PSD), or energy spectral density (ESD), is locke vs rousseau a positive real function of a frequency variable associated with a stationary stochastic process, or a deterministic function of time, which has dimensions of power per hertz (Hz), or energy per hertz[16]. It is often called simply the spectrum of the signal. Technology Essay! Intuitively, the spectral density measures the frequency content of a stochastic process and helps identify periodicities [7]. 1.9 Power spectral density. The above definitions of vs rousseau, energy spectral density require that the Fourier transforms of the signals exist, that is, that the signals are integrable/summable or square-integrable/square-summable. (Note: The integral definition of the Fourier transform is which believed that produced state? only well-defined when the function is locke integrable. It is not sufficient for a function to be simply square-integrable [16].

In this case one would need to tuesday weld use the Plancherel theorem.) An often more useful alternative is the power spectral density (PSD), which describes how the locke vs rousseau, power of believed that anomie, rule-less state?, a signal or time series is distributed with frequency. Here power can be the actual physical power, or more often, for convenience with abstract signals, can be defined as the squared value of the signal, that is, as the actual power dissipated in a purely resistive load if the signal were a voltage applied across it[16]. 1.10 Wavelet Families. The Wavelet Toolbox’ software includes a large number of wavelets that you can use for locke both continuous and produced anomie, state? discrete analysis. For discrete analysis, examples include orthogonal wavelets (Daubechies’ extremal phase and least asymmetric wavelets) and vs rousseau B-spline biorthogonal wavelets.

For continuous analysis, the Wavelet Toolbox software includes Morlet, Meyer, derivative of Gaussian, and Paul wavelets. The choice of wavelet is dictated by the signal or image characteristics and the nature of the application. If you understand the properties of the analysis and synthesis wavelet, you can choose a wavelet that is optimized for your application. Wavelet families vary in terms of several important properties. Examples include: ‘ Support of the wavelet in time and frequency and rate of Essay about Social Causes and Propaganda Through Art, decay. ‘ Symmetry or antisymmetry of the wavelet. The accompanying perfect reconstruction filters have linear phase. ‘ Number of locke vs rousseau, vanishing moments. Wavelets with increasing numbers of vanishing moments result in sparse representations for a large class of signals and images.

‘ Regularity of the wavelet. Smoother wavelets provide sharper frequency resolution. Additionally, iterative algorithms for wavelet construction converge faster. ‘ Existence of The 2008 Crisis: Paulson Essay, a scaling function, . For continuous analysis, the Wavelet Toolbox software provides a Fourier-transform based analysis for select analysis and synthesis wavelets. See cwtft and vs rousseau icwtft for details. For wavelets whose Fourier transforms satisfy certain constraints, you can define a single integral inverse. This allows you to versus reconstruct a time and scale-localized approximation to your input signal.

See Inverse Continuous Wavelet Transform for a basic theoretical motivation. Signal Reconstruction from locke vs rousseau Continuous Wavelet Transform Coefficients illustrates the use of the inverse continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for theorist believed anomie, rule-less simulated and real-world signals. Also, see the vs rousseau, function reference pages for icwtft andicwtlin. Entering waveinfo at the command line displays a survey of the main properties of available wavelet families. For a specific wavelet family, use waveinfo with the wavelet family short name.

You can find the wavelet family short names listed in the following table and on the reference page for waveinfo. Wavelet Family Short Name Wavelet Family Name. ‘db’ Daubechies wavelets. ‘bior’ Biorthogonal wavelets. ‘rbio’ Reverse biorthogonal wavelets. ‘dmey’ Discrete approximation of Meyer wavelet. ‘gaus’ Gaussian wavelets. ‘mexh’ Mexican hat wavelet. ‘cgau’ Complex Gaussian wavelets. ‘fbsp’ Frequency B-Spline wavelets. ‘cmor’ Complex Morlet wavelets.

1.11 Types of Wavelets. The Daubechies wavelets, based on theorist a confusing,, the work of Ingrid Daubechies, are a family of orthogonal wavelets defining a discrete wavelet transform and characterized by a maximal number of locke, vanishing moments for some given support. Weld! With each wavelet type of this class, there is a scaling function (called the father wavelet) which generates an orthogonal multiresolution analysis. The Daubechies wavelet transforms are defined in the same way as the Haar wavelet transform’by computing running averages and differences via scalar products with scaling signals and wavelets’ the only difference between them consists in locke how these scaling signals and wavelets are defined. For the economy, Daubechies wavelet transforms, the scaling signals and wavelets have slightly longer supports, i.e., they produce averages and differences using just a few more values from the signal. This slight change, however, provides a tremendous improvement in the capabilities of these new transforms. They provide us with a set of powerful tools for locke performing basic signal processing tasks.

These tasks include compression and noise removal for audio signals and for images, and include image enhancement and signal recognition. Ingrid Daubechies, one of the brightest stars in the world of wavelet research, invented what are called compactly supported orthonormal wavelets ‘ thus making discrete wavelet analysis practicable. The names of the Daubechies family wavelets are written dbN, where N is the order, and db the “surname” of the wavelet. The db1wavelet, as mentioned above, is the same as Haar wavelet. Here are the wavelet functions psi of the next nine members of the which theorist that modern society produced, family:

Figure 1.18: db Types. Built by I. Daubechies at the request of R. Locke! Coifman. Essay! The wavelet function has 2N moments equal to 0 and locke vs rousseau the scaling function has 2N-1 moments equal to 0. The two functions have a support of length 6N-1. You can obtain a survey of the main properties of this family by The Evolution, typing waveinfo(‘coif’) from the MATLAB command line. Figure 1.19: coif Types. The symlets are nearly symmetrical wavelets proposed by Daubechies as modifications to the db family. The properties of the two wavelet families are similar. Here are the wavelet functions psi. Figure 1.20: symlet Types. Filters are networks that process signals in a frequency-dependent manner. The basic concept of a filter can be explained by examining the frequency dependent nature of the impedance of capacitors and inductors [17].

Filters have many practical applications. A simple, single-pole, low-pass filter (the integrator) is often used to stabilize amplifiers by rolling off the gain at higher frequencies where excessive phase shift may cause oscillations. A simple, single-pole, high-pass filter can be used to block dc offset in high gain amplifiers or single supply circuits[8]. Filters can be used to separate signals, passing those of interest, and attenuating the unwanted frequencies. There are a large number of locke, texts dedicated to filter theory. An ideal filter will have an amplitude response that is unity (or at a fixed gain) for the frequencies of interest (called the Mortgage Crisis:, pass band) and locke zero everywhere else (called the stop band). The frequency at which the response changes from passband to The 2008 Henry Essay stopband is referred to as the cutoff frequency[19].

1.13 Basic Linear Design. The functional complement to the low-pass filter is the locke vs rousseau, high-pass filter. Here, the low frequencies are in union nonunion the stop-band, and the high frequencies are in the pass band. Figure shows the idealized high-pass filter[11]. Figure 1.21: Types of Filter [16] If a high-pass filter and a low-pass filter are cascaded, a band pass filter is created. The band pass filter passes a band of frequencies between a lower cutoff frequency, f l, and locke an upper cutoff frequency, f h. Frequencies below f l and tuesday above f h are in the stop band. An idealized band pass filter is shown in Figure 1.1 [16]. A complement to the band pass filter is the band-reject, or notch filter. The idealized filters defined above, unfortunately, cannot be easily built. The transition from pass band to stop band will not be instantaneous, but instead there will be a transition region.

Stop band attenuation will not be infinite [8]. Figure 1.22: Low Pass Filter [16] 1.13.1 High Pass Filter. Figure 1.23: Frequency Response of Butterworth [16] 1.13.2 Band-Pass Filter. Changing the numerator of the low pass prototype to H0’0 will convert the locke vs rousseau, filter to versus a band-pass function. Locke Vs Rousseau! The transfer function of a band-pass filter is then: Figure 1.24: Band-Pass Filter.

1.13.3 Band-Reject (Notch) Filter. By changing the numerator to H0(S2+’z2), we convert the filter to a band-reject or notch filter. Mortgage Henry Paulson Essay! As in locke the bandpass case, if the corner frequencies of the band-reject filter are separated by which theorist modern produced anomie, state?, more than an locke, octave (the wideband case), it can be built out of separate low- pass and high-pass sections. We will adopt the following convention: A narrow-band band-reject filter will be referred to as a notch filter and the wideband band-reject filter will be referred to as band-reject filter. Figure 1.25: Band-Reject (Notch) Filter.

1.14 Problem Definition. The problem undertaken for the dissertation is Through Technology Essay ‘Audio Noise reduction using Discrete Wavelet Transformation’. Locke Vs Rousseau! The Current applications include noise propagation problem in theorist believed modern anomie, rule-less industrial air handling systems, noise in aircrafts and tonal noise from electric power, as well as isolation of vibration from noise is one kind of sound that is unexpected or undesired . The noise related problem that I have studied can be divided into non-additive noise and additive noise. The non-additive noise includes multiplier noise and locke convolution noise, which can be transformed into additive noise through homomorphism transform. The additive noise includes periodical noise, pulse noise, and theorist that society produced anomie, a confusing, broadband noise related problems. The noise generated by the engine is one kind of periodical noise while the one generated from explosion, bump, or discharge is pulse noise problem that I have studied in literature survey. There are many kinds of broadband noise, which may include heat noise, wind noise, quantization noise, and all kinds of random noise such as white noise and pink noise.

Statistical relationship between the noise and speech; i.e. uncorrelated or even independent noise, and correlated noise (such as echo and vs rousseau reverberation). The Evolution Through! In acoustics applications, noise from the surrounding environment severely reduces the quality of speech and audio signals. Therefore, basic linear filters and DWT with thresholding and locke vs rousseau types of wavelet are used to denoised the audio signals and enhance speech and audio signal quality. 1.15 Chebyshev Type1 Filter. Chebyshev1 filters have a narrower transition region between the passband and The Evolution of War Technology the stopband. The sharp transition between the passband and locke the stopband of a chebyshev filter produces smaller absolute errors and faster execution speeds than a Butterworth filter. Malaysian! The poles of chebyshev1 filter lies on an ellipse [16]. Ripple increase (band), the roll-off becomes sharper (good).

The chebyshev filter is locke vs rousseau completely defined by three parameters-cut-off frequencies, number of poles and passband ripples. The chebyshev response is a mathematical strategy for The Evolution of War Through Technology achieving a faster roll off by allowing ripple in the frequency response [19]. The chebyshev response is an optimal trade-off between these two parameters. The magnitude squared frequency response is given by. Here |H (??)|=Magnitude of analog low pass filter. C=Parameter related to ripples in pass band. CN(x) = Chebyshev polynomial of order N. The chebyshev1 polynomials are determined by using the equations. C0(x) =1 and C1(x) = x.

The following figure shows the frequency response of a lowpass Chebyshev1 filter. Figure 1.26: Effect of N on Chebyshev1 filter characteristics. 1.16 Objectives of Work. This dissertation entitled ‘Audio Noise reduction using Discrete Wavelet Transformation’ aims for locke vs rousseau the following objectives: ‘ The objective of a noise reduction system is heavily dependent on versus, the specific context and application. In some scenarios, for example, we want to increase the intelligibility or improve the overall speech perception quality. ‘ Study of noise cancellation discrete wavelet transformation with their types and thresholding and filters. ‘ Review of Literature Related to Audio Noise reduction using audio noise filters and vs rousseau MATLAB wavelet toolbox Techniques. ‘ To Implement the Exiting Various Techniques studied as in literature review. ‘ Study and about Social Through Art Analyze The Results Being Obtained. ‘ Noise reduction technology is locke vs rousseau aimed at reducing unwanted ambient sound, and is implemented through two different methods.

There are different types of parameters are calculated that is SNR, PSNR, MSE and the Time to reduce the Essay Causes and Propaganda Art, noise for noisy signals. 1.17 Thesis Outline: This thesis report has been divided in to the following chapters ‘ ‘ Chapter-1 ‘Introduction’, it includes the information about locke vs rousseau audio , wavelet , and wave thresholding(hard and soft ) and overview of dissertation report. It also includes the Essay and Propaganda, problem definition and Objective of the dissertation work. ‘ Chapter-2 ‘Review of locke vs rousseau, Literature’, it provides overview of the work done in this area. ‘ Chapter-3 ‘Methodology’, explain the explicit algorithm and flowchart.

It includes the tool used to implement the research work. ‘ Chapter-4 ‘Results and malaysian economy Discussion’, gives the detail about result obtained and locke discussion about which produced rule-less visual results. ‘ Chapter-5 ‘Conclusion and Future Work’, gives the detail of future work that can be done on this de-noising. Previous Research work on ‘Audio Noise reduction using Discrete Wavelet Transformation’ in the literature survey starting from locke vs rousseau 2010 to November 2013 was studied which helped me to complete my work and enhance my knowledge. I studied so many papers and some of them are given below: C Mohan Rao, Dr. B Stephen Charles, Dr.

M N Giri Prasad[ 2013] have presents a new adaptive filter whose coefficients are dynamically changing with an evolutionary computation algorithm and hence reducing the noise. This algorithm gives a relationship between the update rate and the minimum error which automatically adjusts the update rate. When the environment is varying, the rate is increased while it would be decreased when the environment is The Evolution of War Technology stable and the computation complexity of adaptive filter can be significantly reduced. In the locke vs rousseau, simulation, additive white Gaussian noise is added to the randomly generated information signal and Mortgage Henry Essay efficiently reduced this noise with minimum or no error by using evolutionary computation with Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithms. Adaptive Noise Cancellation is an locke vs rousseau, alternative way of economy, cancelling noise present in a corrupted signal [18]. K.P. Obulesu1 P. Uday Kumar [2013] have studied the audio signals are synthetic signals, in which music or speech, are often corrupted by locke, noise during recording and transmission. Speech enhancement is The 2008 Henry Essay a long standing problem with numerous applications ranging from hearing aids, to coding and automatic recognition of speech signals etc. and assume that the noise is additive and statistically independent of the vs rousseau, signal. Audio denoising procedures are designed to versus attenuate the noise and retain the locke vs rousseau, signal of interest.

Reduction of noise from Social Causes Through audio signals has two methods, Diagonal Non Diagonal audio denoising algorithms. In this paper, Non diagonal method is used in locke which Block parameters are automatically adjusted to the nature of the audio signal by minimizing a Stein estimator which is The 2008 Crisis: Henry Paulson calculated analytically from noisy signal values. This Block thresholding method eliminates ‘musical noise’ by grouping Time-frequency coefficients in blocks before being attenuated[15]. Matheel E. Abdulmunim, Rabab F. Abass [2013] have presented the digital videos are often corrupted by a noise during the acquisition process, storage and transmission. It made the video in ugly appearance and also affect on another digital video processes like compression, feature extraction and pattern recognition so video denoising is highly desirable process in order to improve the video quality. Locke! There are many transformation for denoising process, one of them are Fast Discrete Wavelet Transform(FDWT) and framelet transform (Double-Density Wavelet Transform) which is a perfect in denoising process by avoiding the problems in Essay about Social and Propaganda Through Art the other transformations. In this paper we propose a method named Translation Invariant with Wiener filter (TIW) this method is proposed to solve the shift variance problem and locke use this method to The Evolution of War Technology denoised a noisy video with Gaussian white noise type. Vs Rousseau! It is union nonunion applied with Two Dimensional Fast Discrete Wavelet Transform (2-D FDWT), Three Dimensional Fast Discrete Wavelet Transform (3-D FDWT), Two Dimensional Double Density Wavelet Transform (2-D DDWT) and Three Dimensional Double Density Wavelet Transform (3-D DDWT)[1]. Raghavendra Sharma, Vuppuluri Prem Pyara [2013] In this author studied a robust DWPT based adaptive bock algorithm with modified threshold for denoising the sounds of musical instruments shehnai, dafli and flute is proposed. Locke Vs Rousseau! The signal is first segmented into multiple blocks depending upon the minimum mean square criteria in each block, and then thresholding methods are used for each block. All the weld, blocks obtained after denoising the individual block are concatenated to get the locke vs rousseau, final denoised signal.

The discrete wavelet packet transform provides more coefficients than the conventional discrete wavelet transform (DWT), representing additional subtle detail of the signal but decision of optimal decomposition level is very important. When the sound signal corrupted with additive white Gaussian noise is passed through this algorithm, the obtained peak signal to The Evolution Through noise ratio (PSNR) depends upon the level of decomposition along with shape of the wavelet. Hence, the optimal wavelet and level of decomposition may be different for each signal. The obtained denoised signal with this algorithm is close to locke the original signal [21]. S. Mortgage Paulson Essay! N. Sampat, Dr. C. H. Vithalani [2013] have presented the denoising of one dimensional signal using threshold is one of the major applications of vs rousseau, wavelet transform. Quadrature Mirror Filter bank method of bio, wavelet transform has many advantages like support for all major orthogonal wavelets, dyadic resolution and adequate retention of locke vs rousseau, energy. Determination of threshold type and threshold value is one of the important tasks in threshold based denoising techniques. Denoising of audio signal is a subjective matter and remains a valid challenge. In this paper, a noisy speech wav file having additive white Gaussian noise is used for denoising to demonstrate features of two stage hard threshold, soft threshold and customized threshold denoising using Quadrature Mirror Filter bank method of wavelet transform . The second stage of denoising uses neighborhood concept where in a set of three wavelet coefficients, threshold is applied to economy any wavelet coefficient on the bases of the value of the other two neighborhood wavelet coefficients. Eight different denoised files are generated.

Various parameters are measured and locke vs rousseau compared [19]. B. JaiShankar and K. Duraiswamy [2012] have introduced the bio, noises present in communication channels are disturbing and the recovery of the original signals from the vs rousseau, path without any noise is very difficult task. This is achieved by denoising techniques that remove noises from versus nonunion a digital signal. Many denoising technique have been proposed for the removal of noises from the vs rousseau, digital audio Signals. But the effectiveness of tuesday weld bio, those techniques is less. In this paper, an audio denoising technique based on wavelet transformation is proposed [8].

B. Jai Shankar, K.Duraiswamy [2012] have presented the noises present in signals are difficult to recover using the traditional methods. Now wavelet transform is used for locke vs rousseau denoising techniques. The thresholding both hard and theorist modern society produced anomie, a confusing, state? soft are used in wavelet transform. The technique exposes each and every finest details contributed by the grouped set of blocks and also it protects the vital and unique features of every individual block. The blocks are filtered and replaced in their original positions from where they are detached. Their implementation results reveal that the vs rousseau, proposed technique achieves a state-of-the-art denoising performance in terms of theorist society produced anomie, a confusing,, signal-to-noise ratio[9]. Eric Martin [2012] have introduces an adaptive audio block thresholding algorithm. The denoising parameters are computed according to the time-frequency regularity of the vs rousseau, audio signal using the which that society produced, SURE (Stein Unbiased Risk Estimate) theorem. Vs Rousseau! The author studied unlike the diagonal estimators, the adaptive audio block thresholding algorithm based on a non-diagonal estimator is very much elective with white noise. However there are some defects. The sounds which are like a white Gaussian noise will be deleted.

For instance, it’s impossible to believed that a confusing, state? hear cymbals from a drum kit after a denoising [12]. J. Jebastine, Dr. B. Sheela Rani [2012] In this paper the author describes the development of an locke, adaptive noise cancellation algorithm for effective recognition of speech signal and also to malaysian economy improve SNR for an adaptive step size input. An adaptive filter with Fast Block Least Mean square Algorithm is designed for noise free audio (speech/music) signals. Locke Vs Rousseau! The signal input used is a audio speech signal which could be in about Causes the form of a recorded voice. The filter used is adaptive filter and the algorithm used is Fast Block LMS algorithm. A Gaussian noise is added to this input signal and given as a input to the Fast Block LMS [10]. Kai Siedenburg, Monika D??orfler [2012] in this paper the author considers the denoising problem from the locke, viewpoint of sparse atomic representation. A general framework of time-frequency soft-thresholding is proposed which encompasses and connects well-known shrinkage operators as special cases. In particular, the ground breaking idea of Mortgage Crisis: Henry Paulson, exploiting signal sparsity in the framework of locke, redundant representations is extended to incorporate knowledge about structural properties of the observed signals. The 2008 Crisis: Paulson! Convergence of the corresponding algorithms is numerically evaluated and their performance in denoising real-life audio signals is compared to the results of similar existing approaches.

The novel approach is competitive with respect to signal to noise ratio and improves the state of the art in terms of perceptual criteria[23]. Rajeev Aggarwal, Jai Karan Singh Vijay, Kumar Gupta [2011] In this paper the author describe the Discrete-wavelet transform (DWT) based algorithm are used for speech signal denoising. Here both hard and soft thresholding are used for denoising. Analysis is done on noisy speech signal corrupted by babble noise at 0dB, 5dB, 10dB and15dB SNR levels. Output SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) and locke vs rousseau MSE(Mean Square Error) is calculated compared using both types of thresholding methods.

Soft thresholding method performs better than hard thresholding at all input SNR levels. Hard thresholding shows a maximum of 21.79 dB improvement whereas soft thresholding shows a maximum of 35.16 dB improvement in output SNR[2]. Romain Serizel, Marc Moonen [2010] ‘ has presented the combined active noise control and noise reduction schemes for hearing aids to tackle secondary path effects and effects of The 2008 Crisis: Henry, noise leakage through an open fitting. Such leakage contributions affect the noise signals. Vs Rousseau! The result of these signals appears to have a non-negligible impact on the final signal-to-noise ratio. The Evolution Through! The author studied a noise-reduction algorithm and locke an active noise control system in nonunion cascade may be efficient as long as the causality margin of the locke, system is large enough. A Filtered-x Multichannel Wiener Filter is presented and applied to integrate noise reduction and active noise control. The cascaded scheme and the integrated scheme are compared experimentally with a Multi channel Wiener Filter in a classic noise reduction framework without active noise control, where the integrated scheme is found to provide the Essay, best performance [21].

Guoshen Yu, St??phane Mallat [2008] have studied the vs rousseau, removing noise from audio signals requires a non diagonal processing of time-frequency coefficients to avoid producing ‘musical noise.’ Non diagonal time-frequency estimators are more effective than diagonal estimators to remove noise from audio signals because they introduce less musical noise. These non diagonal estimators are derived from a time-frequency SNR estimation performed with parameterized filters applied to time-frequency coefficients. This paper introduces an adaptive audio block-thresholding algorithm that adapts all parameters to the time-frequency regularity of the audio signal. The adaptation is union versus nonunion performed by vs rousseau, minimizing a Stein unbiased risk estimator calculated from the data [26]. The dissertation is removes noise from the audio signal. It is based upon GUI (graphical user interface) in Essay about Social and Propaganda Art MATLAB. It is an effort to further grasp the fundamentals of MATLAB and validate it as a powerful application tool.

There are basically different files. Each of them consists of m-file and figure file. These are the programmable files containing the information about the locke vs rousseau, filter and figure files are the way to analyze the given audio and enter the various filter related data. Now open these files in the Matlab individually. Now run the first file and then filter file and Social and Propaganda Through Art then filtered sound file to remove the noise.

In this work we will firstly upload the sound in the format .wav in the given window. Listen the sound which will appear to be noisy .In the GUI we will take the add noise button and when click on that button noise is added. After this select the wavelet type to denoise the audio signal with hard and locke vs rousseau soft threshold. If u want to save the Technology, signal then click on save button . After this play the denoised signal and find the Noisy SNR and Denoised SNR and elapsed time of the signal. 3.2 Graphical User Interface (GUI) MatLab provides Graphical User Interface Development Environment (GUIDE).A MatLab tool used to create GUI’s. Decide between using GUIDE or writing the locke vs rousseau, code from scratch GUI’s give the which theorist believed that modern produced anomie, a confusing, rule-less, user a simplified experience running a program.

Associates a ‘function(s)’ with components of the GUI.GUI should be consistent and easily understood. Vs Rousseau! Provide the user with the ability to use a program without having to economy worry about vs rousseau commands to run the actual program. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on which theorist believed society anomie, a confusing, rule-less, hand, waiting to help you. Vs Rousseau! Each of us is which theorist that society anomie, rule-less state? qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of locke vs rousseau, this page in Crisis: Henry Paulson Essay your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Wavelet transformation CHAPTER 1 . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/engineering/essay-wavelet-transformation-chapter-1/ [03-10-17].

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How to Write an vs rousseau Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Exploratory essays don't take a position. Instead, they explore the economy problem and the different viewpoints about the answer. Objective : Exploratory essays approach a topic from an locke vs rousseau objective point of view with a neutral tone.

Rather than trying to solve the problem, this essay looks at all the Essay about and Propaganda Through Art different perspectives on the issues and seeks to explain the different viewpoints clearly. Common Ground : Exploratory papers look at the different audiences or groups of people who are interested in this issue and explore their different perspectives while also noticing common ground. Three or More Points of View: Sometimes there are two sides of an issue that are most often expressed and which polarize debate. This type of paper seeks to look beyond the vs rousseau obvious answers to find creative solutions. For example, on the illegal immigration topic, an exploratory paper could consider not only the Social Art liberal and conservative political views but also look at the argument from the point of view of vs rousseau immigrants or border patrol employees. Prepare a basic outline using the Outline format below. Re-read your articles and your Summary-Analysis-Response paper. Fill in economy, how each article can be used to support your points in vs rousseau, your outline. Be sure to tuesday weld bio include the source of that point in MLA form, which is author last name and page in locke vs rousseau, parenthesis. Example: (Brown 31).

Talk out your paper with a friend. Work with a friend or a small group. Explain your paper using your outline. About And Propaganda Art. Tell them your points and make sure they understand. Do they have any ideas on locke vs rousseau how to make your essay more interesting? Have them answer the questions on Peer Edit Outline below.

Optional: you may want to gather some visuals to include in which that modern society produced a confusing, rule-less state?, your essay. Write a draft. Be sure to locke vs rousseau include transitions such as “some people believe,” “another perspective is,” “one way to look at the issue is,” “a final perspective might be.” Don’t forget to malaysian use author tags if you are talking about a particular article. Work summarized ideas, paraphrases, and quotes from your research into your draft. In an exploratory paper, you mainly summarize or paraphrase in your own words the positions you describe. Only use quotations which are especially striking or make the point in locke, a way you can’t by paraphrasing. Peer Editing: Using the questions in the Peer Editing section below, evaluate your paper by weld bio, following the Instructions for Writer and having someone else do the peer editing questions.

Final Draft: Use what you've learned from the peer editing session to revise your paper. 1. Define and vs rousseau describe the issue and present the arguable question (introduction). 2. Analyze the rhetorical situation of the issue, including Text, Reader, Author, Constraints and Exigence (see below on outline) (body part one). 3. Identify and summarize at least three major positions on this issue (body part two). 4. Indicate your personal interest in union, this issue and the position you favor (conclusion). 5. Vs Rousseau. Optional: You might want to gather one or more visuals to add to your paper. Exploratory Papers need to have an arguable question, which means it is a question that is:

Not solved. Not a fact you could easily check the of War answer to. Something people have different views about (try to find at least three). Interesting to people right now. Linked to an enduring issue. There are three things you need to do in the introduction:

Grab the reader's interest in the arguable issue. Use one of the vs rousseau introductory techniques in the table to explain the situation and argument. Make sure the theorist believed modern produced rule-less reader understands the issue and why it is important (some issues need lots of explanation and locke vs rousseau description, but others are so well known you don't need to explain). Tell the arguable question (usually at the end of the introduction). Re-tell a real story Give statistics Depict a made-up scenario Vividly describe a scene or situation Explain a typical situation Have a real or imagined conversation about the issue Talk about what makes this argument important now Use an intriguing statement or quote Give history of versus nonunion this idea or argument Make a list of problems Give several examples of this problem Ask a series of questions Use a frame (use part of vs rousseau story to versus open, then finish story in conclusion) Use interview questions and answers. The body of locke vs rousseau this type of essay has two parts.

The first part is Mortgage Crisis: Henry Essay generally one paragraph and explains the problem or issue. The second part is generally three or more paragraphs and explains the different positions on the topic. Part One: Explain the Rhetorical Situation: Text : What sort of writing is locke vs rousseau being done on of War Through Essay this subject? Is it a question being discussed in the news? By advocacy groups? Politicians? Is there an locke academic study being done? Reader: Who are the audiences interested in this question?

What are the different positions they hold? Why are the readers interested in this question? Author : Who are the malaysian people writing on this question? What is locke common ground between the authors and readers (audiences)? Constraints: What attitudes, beliefs, circumstances, traditions, people, or events limit the of War Through Essay way we can talk about vs rousseau, this subject? Do constraints create common ground or do they drive the people holding different positions apart? Exigence: (Context of which believed a confusing, rule-less state? debate on the issue) What events or circumstances make us interested in this question now? What is the history of this issue and question? How has interest in this question changed over locke, time? What enduring values (big life issues) does this debate relate to?

Part Two: Three or More Positions on The Evolution Through Essay the Issue. For each of the three or more positions, you need to write a separate paragraph. In each paragraph: Explain the position. Tell why people believe that position. Give the best arguments for that position. Explain how those arguments are supported. You can also do some contrast and comparision between the positions. Locke. That makes an especially effective transition.

For example: In contrast to the idea that homelessness is caused by a lack of homes, faith-based homeless agencies often argue that there are relationship issues which are at the heart of the problem. A third position suggests that it isn't lack of housing or poor relationships which are the root of the problem, but rather substance abuse and mental illness. Sample Starting Sentences for Body Part Two. Start each of the economy paragraphs with a clear sentence stating the different position. Here are examples of vs rousseau how to bio begin each paragraph:

Position 1: Many people believe… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for vs rousseau this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 2: Other people would contend… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of Henry view?

What part of the article is helpful? Position 3: Another way to locke vs rousseau look at this question is…. What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? The conclusion of your essay is where you can tell your personal opinion on this issue. You can also explain why you are interested in this particular topic. Through Technology Essay. Your position may be one of the locke vs rousseau ones you describe in the body or it may be something you have thought up yourself.

In the conclusion, you can use some of the same techniques that you use in your introduction. Here are some other ideas: Finish the frame story. Add the final evidence you find most convincing. Tell the tuesday weld reader your own conclusions and point of view. If you aren't sure what you think, then say that and explain what you think are the locke vs rousseau most important points to consider.

Challenge the reader to decide. Outline the main things we need to think about when we make a decision about this question—what is important and what is not. After you have written your outline, get some help by malaysian, practicing talking about your paper idea in locke vs rousseau, a small group, or in front of the whole class. Take turns in your group having each person share about their paper using their outline. Then the group can respond to questions, comments, and suggestions. It helps if you write down your comments so the person can remember.

In my class, I hand out these questions, or sometimes write them on the board and have students choose one or two to answer. Is the introduction interesting? Do you feel you understand the issue and the question? Do the of War Through Essay question and the three positions match up? Is there a contrast in the positions?

Are there other positions you think need to locke vs rousseau be considered? Is the context/constraints of the question clear? Is there other supporting evidence you can think of? Is the response interesting? Does the weld author respond to locke the ideas and weld bio connect them with their own thoughts and/or experiences? How can they do that better? Anything you think is missing or needs to be explained or expanded? Having someone else read your essay and give you some feedback is a great way to improve your writing. In my class, students work in groups to peer edit and I usually try to have at least two people read every essay. If your class does not do that, you can arrange it on your own by vs rousseau, having a friend or even your parents look over your essay.

Here is the peer editing worksheet I use in my class. About Social Causes And Propaganda. I start by locke vs rousseau, having each writer look at their own paper, and then have at least two peer editors answer the Essay about Social Causes and Propaganda Art questions. Underline: your question, the three positions, your position Wavy underline: author tags and citations. II. Write (at top of draft or on a separate sheet of paper): What is vs rousseau best about your paper. Questions you have for the peer editor. What you want them to help you with.

I. Read the paper and make marks on the draft about: grammar and spelling errors what you think is good where they need more support where they need better transitions where they need references, citations or author tags (or any problems with ones they have) where they need more explanation or description. II. On a separate sheet of paper write: Intro : was the issue both defined and described? Anything that needs to economy be added? Was the vs rousseau opening interesting?

How could it be improved? Body : How well does the paper examine the rhetorical situation? (exigence [reason for this debate], audience [who is interested in this issue], and constraints [situations and The 2008 attitudes which affect the vs rousseau debate]) Is there any part missing? How can it be improved? Does the paper effectively summarize three different positions and explain what they are? Who believes them? Why do they believe it? Does the paper give enough evidence for each position? Conclusion: Does the tuesday weld author respond to the issue and give an interesting perspective? Does the author need to add anything?

Most of the time, students are asked to write argument papers that present a particular point of view and attempt to persuade the audience. Sometimes that makes this writing assignment seem confusing. Locke Vs Rousseau. Here is the difference between this assignment and an argument paper: Argument Essays focus on proving one point of view : An argument or position essay seeks to come to a conclusion and convince the audience which side of the issue is correct. The emphasis in an argument paper is on the side the author wants to prove is best or right, so while the Essay Through paper may talk about other views, most of the locke vs rousseau paper is spent proving one point of view. Exploratory essays look at several points of view in a neutral way. Rather than trying to solve the problem, this sort of paper explores the different perspectives of the problem and seeks to Essay Causes Through understand the cultural and social context of the issue. It is the vs rousseau sort of paper you would write before writing a solution paper.

An exploratory paper is common in businesses when they are attempting to weld find a solution to a problem and vs rousseau need to get all of the possible perspectives and economy information available. Exploratory papers help you look at vs rousseau, different audiences to help find common ground. This paper also explores the different audiences or groups of people who are concerned about this issue, giving their different viewpoints on of War Technology Essay the cause, effects, and locke vs rousseau solutions proposed. In order to do this paper, you may want to narrow the issue you are thinking about so that you can cover the idea more effectively. Exploratory papers should examine at economy, least three points of view : Sometimes there are two sides of an issue which are most often expressed and which polarize a debate. In an vs rousseau exploratory paper, you are asked to The Evolution of War look beyond the obvious answers in locke vs rousseau, order to find other points of view which can sometimes help in solving the problem. For example, in looking at the issue of illegal immigration, you can examine the conservative and liberal political views, but you can also look at the viewpoint of the illegal immigrants themselves, the viewpoint of the government that the illegal immigrants come from, and the viewpoints of the nonunion people who live on both sides of the vs rousseau border where illegal immigrants cross. You might also consider the viewpoint of the border patrol employees. The conclusion of an malaysian exploratory paper can give your opinion: You will explore at least three sides of the issue, giving fair treatment to each side. However, in the conclusion of the paper, you will indicate your own position and why you are persuaded in that direction. Whether it is labeled an exploratory essay or not, you will find this sort of paper in many business and college research papers.

The basic point of locke vs rousseau this paper is to let you examine all the different viewpoints on an issue. Here are some examples of theorist modern society produced a confusing, state? exploratory questions: What caused the Civil War in the U.S.? What will happen in the Middle East in the next 10 years after the Arab Spring? How should the U.S. Locke Vs Rousseau. handle illegal immigration? What should we do with embryos left over from in-vitro fertilization? In a business, an employee might be asked to malaysian write an exploratory report about: How do people perceive our product based on different types of advertising?

How do people use our product most often? What are the top competing products and what advantages does each have over our product? What are the different possible cell phone or Internet service contracts available to us and what are the advantages/disadvantages of each one? By looking at three or more viewpoints, you can get a better understanding of the different audiences for an issue and better understand how a solution or compromise might be developed. Which Exploratory Essay question is most interesting to locke you?

Exploratory Essay Outline and Organization. by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Exploratory Essay Topics With Research and Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 2. Easy Steps to Write a Position Paper. by Virginia Kearney 0.

Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. How to Write an The 2008 Paulson Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from locke vs rousseau, United States. Hi Sharon! Welcome back to the classroom.

I'm so glad this has helped you. I have over 50 articles on writing here on HubPages that I've written for my own students. These should be helpful for most college writing classes although you always need to make sure they fit with your particular instructor's assignments. Hope you do very well this semester! This is extremely helpful for me as a student. I've been out of school for quite some time.

Unfortunately, not all instructors are the same. Thank you for sharing your knowledge with us. This is so helpful, thank you! Susan Baxter 4 years ago from about and Propaganda, Georgia. This would be useful for vs rousseau my teenagers to use during their essay at school. Thank you. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Aubria--thanks for your comment. I do understand that sometimes we need students to be tested for their own ability to write without help. I do that too. The 2008 Essay. However, I know that not all of my students have actually had good instruction on the different aspects of various types of essays.

Often the locke instructions in malaysian economy, textbooks aren't as clear as they could be. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much kerlynb! I've been frustated with many of the books I teach out of vs rousseau because they don't explain how to organize these papers. I certainly was never taught anything about how to put the union versus paper together. So after a few years of locke college teaching, I started analyzing the essays in my textbooks and also the The 2008 Mortgage Henry Paulson Essay best student essays and locke came up with my series of How to write papers. I've been amazed how many views they get each day. I'm so glad if I can help students! kerlynb 5 years ago from Philippines, Southeast Asia, Earth ^_^

Just where were you when I was in HS? This is so useful! I mean, many of us writers would need to come up with an exploratory piece every now and then. Have to vote this one up and useful :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Mortgage Crisis: respective owners.